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THE TOILER PAGE 7 by a special decree, has now become a law of the country. As soon as the news of the agreement, or concordat, as it has been called, jointly signed by the officials of the Confederation and the Govern ment, was made known to the workers of the oc cupied factories, a chorus of protests arose against the leaders, whom the workers accuse of having betrayed the cause of the proletariat and of re volution. The concordat was submitted for the ratifica tion of tne workers, who after three weeks of struggle and anxious expectation, and finding that the leaders had failed to call, the rest of the working class to aid them, in despair agreed to approve it and to evacuate the factories they had hoped to retain for ever. The Confederation of Labour justifies its action by saying that the struggle has resulted in a great conquest for the working-classes from a Trade Union point of view. It may be so. But once the joint control of the factories by employers and employed be tried in practice, it will be seen that our hopes of solving the social question by col laborating with the capitalist class are in vain. And "Avanti" Apologises. The official organ of the Italian Socialist Party, "Avanti," in an editorial of a few days ago, in answering the critics of the concordat, amongst them the "Umanita Nova," daily organ of the re volutionary Syndicalist and Anarchist movement, was compelled to admit that if the control of the factories established by the concordat is a victory for the workers, it is also a victory for the Govern ment. "This time," says "Avanti," perhaps the grumblers are right, if one considers the problem from the political standpoint. It is indeed self evident that this is not only a victory for the metal workers, but also for Giolitti. It is also quite evident that the factory control that has been won, even should it succeed in working pro perly, will represent either a sham or a corruption. Joint control of the factories is in itself collabora tion with the employers, and, if carried out in earnest, it will inevitably transform the workers into interested partners in the capitalist concerns. The capitalists will have the beef and the proletar ians the smell; this is quite clear. And the re volution as our Government wish will recede further away unless the rank and file will open its eyes and see clearly into the situation. The critical hour of the national life will not pass with an agreement of merely Trade Union character. The Italian bourgeoisie will not save itself by a signat ure put by the employers at the foot of an agree ment imposed by Giolitti. If the grumblers, the dissatisfied, the critics, the mourners, mean this, they are right a thousand times. But they must not dishearten the masses, they must not create discomfort and scepticism." One could not put the position better, but the organ of the Italian Socialist Party is wrong if it thinks that the criticism and dissatisfaction of the Syndicalists and of the Anarchists will create scepticism amongst the masses. On the contrary, their criticism will contribute to maintaining alive amongst the working class the enthusiasm and the revolutionary fire which their lukewarm leaders the D'Aragonas, the Buozzis (who are the Hen derson, the Smillies and the Thomases, of the Ita lian Labour organisations) try to extinguish by changing the class war into a compromise with the enemy. All this the writers of the Socialist organ know and understand perfectly well, but I think they are afraid that criticism might make havoc amongst the rank and file of the Confederation of Labour and of the Socialist Party, and cause de fections in favour of the extremist wing of the economic and political organisations, viz., the Ita lian Syndicalist Unions and the Anarchist Federa tion, so as to make them lose control of the mass es. The Italian proletariat will soon discover the uselessness of the concordat, and will consequent ly, seeing that their leaders have put them once more on the wrong track, follow another path after having pitilessly got rid of them. On the other hand there are already unmis takable signs of a split amongst the Confederation of Labour and the Socialist Party. The latter, especially, contain such heterogeneous elements the anti-parliamentary Bordiga section, the Bom tani Serrati Maximalists and the Turati and Treves reformist wing that a separation is bound to take place one of these days, unless a smashing victory of the Socialist Party in the municipal elections, which are just going on, should recon cile them all and induce them to continue the old policy of "wait and see."