A'PRl 5 1321
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CLEVELAND, OHIO, SATURDAY, APRIL 16, 1921.
PRICE FIVE CENTS.
BRITAIN ON VERGE OF REVDLUTKM
Triple Alliance Takes Up Battle of Miners in Ultimatum
to Government to Accede to Nationalization.
' Incipient revolution hovers over
the British Isles. What the outcome
will be within the next few days or
weeks no 'one can prophesy with any
assurance of certainty. The facts to
day are: The Triple Alliance of
Miners, Transport Workers . and Rail
road Workers are united solidly to
gether in a great combination and
with one common aim against the
government of the British Empire
to force it to nationalize the coal
mines. The government has appealed
to the "public" to volunteer in a
"defense force" for a period of
ninety days to assist the police in
controlling the situation now beyond
the power of the government with
out armed assistant.
miners, learning lessons from pre
vious strikes, have ordered out the
pump men, thus flooding the mines
and entailing a loss to the owners
of millions of pounds sterling. They
have refused to set the pump men
to work as a condition to meeting
in conference with the government
and owners concerning the adjust
ment of their grievances. They are
using every weapon against the gov-,
One reason for the solidity of the
miners and transport workers in that
the same situation facing the miners
will also come before the railroad
workers in August when the roads
are scheduled to be returned by the
The Bolsheviks Believe in Advertising.
By Walter T. Johnson.
For the past two weeks the situa- government control to the private
tion has gradually grown more un
settled. Beginning in a strike of 1,
200,000 miners, the movement now
embraces the entire railway, and
other land transport systems, pro
bably 3,000,000 workers.
The direct causes ares- The viola
tion of the agreements between the
government and the .miners for gov
ernment control of the mines until
August and the setting up of a Wage
Board before March 31. Instead, the
government has turned the mines
back to the private owners and
refused to inaugurate the Wage
Board, thus returning to- the condi
tions prevailing Jbefor the war
The situation is very grave.
owners. The government is thru
with any experiments in "socializa
tion" and fears the nationalization
of the mines as an irrevocable step
toward socialization of basic indus
tries which may lead to the sup
planting of the entire system of
private ownership and capitalistic
In the meantime unemployment
and privation stalk thruout Britain.
To the critical conditions induced by
an army of one and a half million
unemployed is now added an indus
trial and political crisis whish mayr
mean even the crumbling of thex gov
ernment and the power of the British
SOVIETS WOULD TRADE AMERICAN
WAR PRISONER FOR CON
Would Swap Kirkpatrick for Either Larkin or Gitlow.
Coming on the heels of the con
. firm&tion of the .conviction of Ben
E tW-AWlfc di
vision of the State Supreme Court
of New York, on April .'st, is the
information furnished by "Rosta" of
Vienna, that the Soviet government
is willing to trade Captain Kirk
patrick, an American military pri
soner for the pardon by the New
York authorities of either James
Larkin of Benjamin Gitlow.
Gitlow and Larkin were convicted
some months ago on charges of vio
lation of the state criminal dinarchy
law and weqe remanded to Danne-
mora Prison awaiting the appeal of
their cases. Gitlow was recently
transferred to Sing Sing.
The ruling in the case ha3 been
awaited with great interest for
several weeks because of its bearing
upon the cases of Larkin, Chas E.
Ruthenberg, I. E. Ferguson and
Harry D. Winitzky, all convicted on
the same charges.
Judge Read Between Lines.
Justice Frank C. Laughlin, in writ
ing the decision of the Appellate
Court declared, that when people ad-
vocate such doctrines as the "Left
Wing Manifesto," there "must neces
sarily be great latitude for reading
between the lines to determine what
is implied in the doctrine, and they
should be held responsible for ad
vocating what they must know is
involved in the doctrine and .will be
essential to the accomplishment of
. .The charges against Gitlow and
Larkin are that on July 6, 1919, they
"feloniously advocated, advised and
taught the duty, necessity and pro-i
priety of overthrowing and over
turning organized government," in
writing articles printed in the Re
volutionary Age. Whether Gitlow's
case will be carried into higher
courts js not yet determined by his
attorneys. Bail in none of these case
is allowed by the Court.
Louise Bryant Visits Kirkpatrick.
Writing in the Russian Press Re
view, published in English in Mos
cow, Louise Bryant, wife of the late
John Reed, American Communist
who died last November in Russia,
describes a visit to an internment
camp where CIptain Kirkpatrick is
held a prisoner of war. Describing
this .visit ami the conditions he met
with throt she writes:
"We spent about1 six hours in tho
Andronevsky Camp. We were allowed
to walk about the camp and to speak
to the prisoners quite freely, to-
accompanied by the officers of the
administration. We siw nowhere xany
gratings , or Ijsyrs on the Soow of
the cells. The prisoners pay visits-to
each other just as tho they were
in any small town. For instance, an
American, Captain Kirkpatrick, in
vited us to drink coffee with his
Hungarian friends. I got the impres
sion that I was in a Rest Home and
not in a prison at all. -Nobody, of
course, can ever feel happy in a
prison, but the example of the An
dronevsky camp can be of much use
to fnany. of our pjison reformers."
Captain Kirkpatrick was captured
during the Red drive against General
Wrangel. Interned with him in this
camp are numbers of counter-revolutionists
of note. Some members of
the Hungarian nobility such as
Count Szechenyi, brother-in-law of
GUEdys Vanderbilt, have found lod
ging from their labors here.
According to the Rosta .Agency,
Captain Kirkpatrick feels very peev
ed because the United States gov
ernment has not made decisive ef
forts to secure his -release and has
requested political friends here to
intercede in his behalf.
Should such an exchange of pris
oners take place as is inimated" to
be possible by the Soviet government,
it would meet with great enthusiasm
by thousands of radicals here who
are friends of Git low and Larkin.
And, now that the question of am
nesty for all political prisoners is
attaining such momentum, it is with
in the realm of possibilities.
The above halftone is made from
one of the advertising posters ydiich
have become a common sight upon
the walls of Russian cities and vil
lages! We have heard much of the
wide publicity given all public af
fairs under the Bolshevik regime by wall, in a thousand tores of Moscow,
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tising matter is used to sell the
people on recruiting, on education,
on art, on technical instruction, and
evenon sports.. Posters seems to be
a favorite, medrnm. Says this writer:
"Y.ou will find posters on every
the imthod of posvrr advertising, wft oir
the: one from Which this cut Vas Iff
made is the first that we have seen.
It measures 2 feet by 3 feet and is'
printed in bright, reds, greens, and
yellows on a good quality "of tough
It represents the Russian workers,
industrial and peasant, marching in
a united line into the headquarters
of the Communist Party, scorning
the implorations -of the represent
atives of the ok) regime, capitalists,
military, priests and vodka peddlers.
The Russian text reads: Enter the
Communist Party. Proletarians of
the World, Unite. One writer on
Russia, concerning this method of
"Captain Francis McCullagh, - a
British officer who spent some time
in Soviet Russia in disguise, relates
in a 'series of syndicated articles how
the Bolshevik war minister, Tfotzky
called a medical officer upon the
carpet for not makng a better- stand
against a typhus epidemic. The med
ical man protested that it was all
on account of the people's failure to
guard against dirt and lice.
"Then start a war on dirt arid
lice or face a tribunal," ordered
In the next few days a flood "of
posters, circulars and printed matter
appeared, calljng upon, the people to
destroy dirt and lice as they would
Another writer relates how adver-
e .To-s, in rooms, in
es; myre.-tryw-iere. Pic
ture posters for propaganda pur
poses. Perhaps a proletarian rock,
flaunting a red flag, with a capital
ist ship going to pieces at the foot
of it.Or a poster recruiting for the
Communist -Saturdays, with a de
scription of the consequences of la
ziness, and beside' it Hhe results of
industrious work. Or else a picture
poster attacking the old greasy Czar
ist officials and the-aggressive mili
tary officers. Placards with red
stars, recruiting posters of the Com
munist party, showing a procession
of workers passing by some repre
sentatives of the old order with an
airj of refusal, and entering a house
upon whose gable are the initials
of the party.
"But these are not the "most in
teresting posters. More remarkable,
mm i ' i. . A
more significant are posters oi u
ing discussion of questions on art.
"Another poster announces an in
dustrial exhibition, with a platform
where the principles of a technical
education may be discussed.
"One poster asks the public to
attend several lectures given by tech-
differfent order. For frisiitu, SOmelnieal export, deadlng with the inch
wall bears the information that some
where proletarian courses are being
given on world problems, literature,
problems of natural science, with
excursions into the field of bacterio
logy, geology, agriculture, account
ing, finance, etc Entirely gratis, of
"Another poster requests people
with a love for inventing and in
ventors' talent to invent all sorts
"Another poster calls the prole
tariat of a certain district to an even-
rrique of the use of clay as a buHd-
ing material. i
"Another poster announces lec
tures on forestry.
"The Soviet Republic makes a de
termined propaganda in favor of
sports. In every corner, on every
wall and 6ther spaces lending them
selves to the purpose there are sport
ing posters. Whoever has the desire
may become a sportsman. Private
yachts, tennis coifrt rentals and ex
pensive yacht club memberships are
A MAY DAY ALBUM.
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Si working-class papers. Besides just publishing a real workers' miner.
we do, various other things. And we do them for the reason that they
help tremenduously in raising the standard of working-class thinking
AND NOW WB HAVE PUBLISHED A MAY DAT-ALRUM.
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Third International and the Red Labor International, and original
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A TOILER CARTOON BOOK
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We have cut the price Uf our Toiler Cartoon Book exactly in half.
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A MAY DAY ALBUM AND A TOILER CARTOON ROOK FOR 75c.
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3207 CLARK AVENUE CLEVELAND, OHIO.
The "Unemployment Edition" of last week was a big one. Forty-seven
thousand Toilers were printed of this issue. Scores of orders for bundJies
ranging from 50 copies to as high as 5,000 were filled. Scores and scores
of cities were made the distributing centers for that issue.
Yet, big as was this issue, It is but the first big step in a campaign
of work which The Toiler intends to carry on among the unemployed of
America with your co-operation.
You have taken the first step. The next and following ones must also
be taken. 'We must reach the uoemplpyed with more Toilers. Each week
must show an increase in the number, distributed among them. They must
be educated in ways and means of ending unemployment In America.
The Toller will deal in each of its issues with this grave and growing
problem UNEMPLOYMENT FOR MILLIONS. You must help us In this
work. You must help by supplying the funds with which to publish the
paper and by distributing them.
You must organize with others for this work, get their contributions
and help. Be on the job with a bundle of Toilers every week among tlie
The regular price for Toilers for work, among the unemployed will be 1
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Send me copies of the latest Issue.
SUPREME am ORDERS HAYWOOD
AND 7) OTHER 1. 1 1 TO JAIL
of the refusal today of the supreme
court to review their convictions.
Haywood, former secretary of the
L W. W., and fourteen others were
sentenced to twenty years and fined
sums ranging from $30,000 to $35,
000. They and others were sent to the
federal penintentiary at Leavenworth
Kas., but subsequently were released
on bail bonds aggregating $500,000
pending the outcome of their ap
The trials resulted from an ex
tensive raid on the offices and homes
of members of the I. W. W. con
ducted by the department of justice
on Sept. 5, 1917. A total of 166
rrten were brought into court on
charges of violating the selective
service and espionage acts, and
ninety-seven of them were convict
ed. Some of these served their sent
ences. In appealing to the supreme court
from decisions of the circuit court
of appeals sustaining their convic
tions, the men argued that the prin
cipal evidence used against ,them at
their trials was illegally obtained
in that it was seiied by federal
agents during the raid without search
warrants or other court order.
A request for general amnesty
will be the next step in the efforts
to save from prison Wm. .D. Hny
wood and his associates convicted
of having conspired to obstruct the
war activities of the government.
Washington, April' 11. William D.
Haywood and seventy-nine other In-
werc coVvicted before Federal Jud-
ec Landis at Chicago in 1018 of
attempting to cbstruct the govern-
dustrlal Workers of the World whohnent's prosecution of the war, must
return to Tederal prison as a result
This was announced today by Ot
to Christenson, attorney for Hay
wood, after he had loarned of the
supreme court's refusal to review
the conviction of Haywood and his
H. G. Wells professes to believe
in the existence of ninety-nine clas
ses. Of couise he has his own idea
of what constitutes a class. He can
not point to ninety-nine class strug-.
ies. Wc see tw. closes anJ one
struggle. The State, including Con
gress, the courts and troops, is the
instrument of the one class, the
capitalist class, nga'nst the other
clnss, the works Throughout o '
world the struggle is becoming clear
er and more bitter. Where civil war
between the classes is not continuous m
and widespread, it nevertheless
breaks out here and there every day.
In this country we observe that the
use of armed fovce in industrial dis
putes is increasing. Some of the
battles in this civil war are Butte,v
the Great Steel Strike, Colorado, the
Boston Police and West Virginia.
' We are lhing in an epoch of civil
war. More than ever the working
class needs a strong 6rganization.
The decisive struggle is coming. The
vanguard of the working class, con
sisting of those who understand the
struggle apd how to fight it, must
be ready. Without this vanguard of
workeru which places the interests
of the whole workinfxclass - above that
of any group of workers, a success-
ful revolution will not be possible.
The capitalists understand that fact.
That is why they make it illegal to
be a Communist. And this is how
they do it:
Now and apparently constitu
tional laws were passed for the pur
pose of punishing or deporting in
dividuals for beiig Communists. Any
law which is passed to punish poli
tical opinion or to prevent political
organization is npparently unconsti
tutional. A law which may be un-
constitutional is usually not rigorous
ly enforced until it has been tested
in a higher court. There is a ruie
which has been established in crim
inal procedure that where the con
stitutionality of a stutute and its
correct interpretation have not been
passed upoh a higher court, or in
cases wjiere some new question oi
PreasonaBte doubt should be granteu
thus giving the defendant the benefit
of the doubt.
But when it comes to trying a class
conscious worker for taking part in
the class struggle, then the courts
refuse or forget to grant a certi
ficate not reasonabla dout. He is
guilty of leading his class, therefor?
he is guilty, however old the law or
however new, and whatever doubts
there may be about its being con
stitutional. Ben Gitlow was convicted over a
year ago. His case was full of un
usual features. It was the first in
stance in which a law passed 18
years before was used. The consti
tutionality and the proper construc
tion of the law had never been pas
sed upon by a higher court. There
were questions of fact in the casfe
so novel that no legal precedent
existed. But in spite of all these un
usOal features the court refused to
grant a certificate of reasonable
Take down your dictionary and
look up tlie word "justice." Or, bet
ter still, borrow your children's
school book on the American Gov
ernment and rend what it says about
judges being independent and im
partial. Then think about the cost
of 4iving and big business trying to
break up your unions. Tnen read
what the judrc said in Ben Gitlow's m
trial: "When I consider what oppor
tunities this cpuntry offers all its
inhabitants, I find it difficult indeed
to be patient with defendants like
Two months ago the case wis ap
pealed, but so far there has been
. . . ml .... . I ..-ill ,ii . . . t
no decision, l ne appeui i
probably be dismissed and then it
will be necessary to carry the case
to a still higher court,' thr Court of
Appeals, and perhaps to the United
States Supreme Court. This will cost
a lot of money. Congress cannot re
duce the salary of a judge, but legal
red tape can make it more and more
expensive for a worker to have bis
case heard in court.
Ben Gitlow's case is one of many.
It U the first of the Communist
cases. The cases of Harry Winitsky,
Jim Larkin, Ruthenberg, Ferguson
and Georgian ai just as urgent.
Read the Toiler and learn what hap
VERY SPECIAL "MAY 1st" EDITION
APRIL 30. ORDER NOW lc per copy.
In the menntimtf" raise money for
their defense. Send your contribu
tions to Geo. M. Dunaif, Treasurer,
National Defense Committee, 339
Stone Avonue, Brooklyn, N. Y. Sell
defense stamps to your shop" mates
and your union members.
Later: Gitlow's appeal has mid
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