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. .. NO. 186. SACCO-VANZETTI VER DICT CONDEMNED. J CLEVELAND. OHIO, SATURDAY, AUGUST 27, 1921. I ; : I WORKERS I PRICE FIVE CENTS. JURY OF PUBLIC OPINION FAVORS CONDEMNED WORKERS. By JOHN NICH OLAS BEFFEL. . Help Starving Russia. Boston, Mass., August 24 There is a nausea which comes with the sight of some person being torn to pieces by grinding machinery into which he has fallen. That kind of nausea has seized many people in thTs section as they contemplate the verdict in the case of Sacco and Van zetti, the two Italian labor organizers lately convicted of payroll murders at Braintree. Wherever the twelve jurors in that case walk they are met with question ing eyes. They know that a great hue and cry has gone up against that verdict; that even the conservative newspapermen who covered the trial for the Boston, dailies declare that the conviction was never justified by the evidence. They remember, too, the piercing accusation shot at them by Nicola Sacco from the defendants' cage as they condemned the two: "We are in nocent! You kill two innocent men!" Some of the jurors try to explain the verdict, and do it lamely. Others maintain a stony silence, which is the safer policy. Foreman Walter H. Rip ley has said that the verdict was based on a tiny mark found on the bullet which killed Alexander Berar delli, payroll guard. Prosecutor Fred erick Katzmann had argued that this mark was caused by rust or fouling in the revolver carried by Sacco three weeks after the murders. But Captain Charles Van Amburgh, commonwealth expert, admitt' I that such rust or 'fouling was a common occurence, and that the mark might have been made by any one of many guns. Jury was Prejudiced. One juror admitted that "the re3t of the jurors" were prejudiced against the Italian w' esses fat the defense, .figwad.thal.'ltb. tHRan w.i& stick together no matter what hap pened." But this does not explain why they rejected the testimony of all the American witnesses who swore that they talked with Sacco in Boston and with Vanzetti in Plymouth on the afternoon when the payroll guards were killed miles away. Curious and illuminating detail of that last hysterical night in the Ded ham courtroom is published in a re view of the case by the Brockton Dai ly Enterprise. "Ten minutes after the ierdict," says the Enterprise, "Assistant Prose cutor Harold Williams walked through the courtroom, his head bent. Another attorney extended a hand and said, 'Congratulations on a brilliant vic tory.' "With ters streaming down his face Williams replied: 'For God's sake don't rub it in! This is the saddest thing that ever happened to me in my life." Prosecutor Katzman broke down, the Enterprise says, and refused to leave' his room. These reactions of the two prosecutors are interpreted by friends of the defendants as meaninc only one thing consciousness of guilt, consciousness that they had started two innocent men on the dark road to the electric chair on evidence that would not justify the killing of a dog. Resentment against Patrolman Michael Connolly of Brockton, who arrested Sacco and Vanzetti and who asserted that they tried "to pull a gun" on him, is freely expressed by members of that police force. On the eve of the verdict, bets were made by Brockton policemen that the def endants would never be convicted, be cause they were not the bandits. In the offices of Slater and Mor rill, the shoe manufacturing firm rob bed of its payroll, many employes hold bitter feeling against Mary Evo Splaine and Frances Devlin, book keepers who testified at the preli minary hearing of Sacco that they were not certain he was one of the bandits and then, a year later at the trial, swore positively that he wns the bandit they saw in a fleeing auto mobile 80 feet from the upper window in which they stood. Miss Splaine saw the bandit while the automobile moved 35 feet at 18 miles an hour one and one third second yel she described him down to fine details, such as his "greenish-white com plexion." Counsel for the defense is prepar ing a motion for a new trial, to be argue in September before ludge Webster Thayer, who presided at the Dedham trial. If he rejects that mo tion, it will be taken (o the Supreme Court November 1, supported by a bill of exceptions showing innumer able errors in the trial procedure. Many disinterested persons have expressed the opinion that Judge Thayer's instructions to the jury were unfair, in view of the evidence of the radical activities of the defendants and t"heir anti-war histories. He pleaded for "loyalty to government," talked about "consciousness of guilt as murderers or as slackers and radi cals", and admonished the jury to "seek courage in your deliberations as did the American soldier as he fought and gave up his life on the battlefields of France." These words were uttered to a Puritan New Eng land jury. I The Judge's Death Sentence. Charles F. Dole, prominent author, ir a letter published in the Boston Herald, declares that a certain pas sage in the judge's instructions might have sounded to. the jury like a death sentence. Thi3 was the passage: "If a person is willing to use a deadly weapon such as a revolver upon an arresting officer to gain his liber ty, what would you naturally expect would be the gravity of the crime of which such a person must be con sciously guilty?" Alexander Howat writes from Kan sas to the defense committee sending money and reaffirming his belief in the innocence of Sacco and Vanzetti. The Sons of Italy, 'at their Massa chusetts state convention, pledged un qualified support to the defense. Money has come from locals of the United Mine Workers in many parts of the country. Aggressive co-operation is nvomised by the Young Peo ple s International League of Law rence, Mass. Many other expressions of sym pathy have been received. Appeals for money have gone out widely, but the returns come slowly and in small amounts because of the big percentage of unemployment. More than two pages of the New Republic are devoted to the Sacco Vanzetti verdict. That 'periodical sees little hope of any action by the np peals court. "Sacco and Vanzetti," it declares, "will go before the court of public opinion, the decision of which can be registered by executive clemen cy alone." 0 FOOD THEFTS GROW. Chicago, Aug. 13. Thefts of food from doorsteps and small shops in the poorer districts .of Chicago are on the increase, Police Chief Fitzmorris declared today. He added that indica tions are the city will be confronted with one of the worst "crime waves" in its history unless the unemploy ment situation in the middle west is improved this fall. Arests of persons charged with eat ing meals in the cheaper restaurants and then: admitting they have no money to pay, are more numerous the chief said and in some districts police captains report families are dispensing with cooked meals to economize on fuel. The chief estimate the number of unemployment In the city at 100,000. POLICE FLY TO RESCUE SCABS. A quarter of an hour battle with bricks, shovels and other tools of the builders' trade, took place in Cleve land, on August 17th between striking carpenters, sympathizers and scabs. Eighty scabs working on the B. !'. Keith theatre building at Euclid Ave. nnd East 17th street were being load ed at quitting time into trucks which were furnished to take them home when a half hundred strike pickets and sympathizers stormed the trucks and threatened to overturn them. A nenr-by cop waded into the meelc with his revolver threatening to shoot, but the bluff was called and he re treated weilding his club instead. A riot call brought out five flying squadrons wi:ich quelled the riot. Ths casualties from, each side were about a doscn broken heads and blackened eyes. The police carried off the worst appearing offenders and the trucks took the rest of the scabs to 4 heir homes. Send all funds for relief THE FRIENDS Of 201 W. 13th STREET This organization is in direct con winiiiiiiLv. ii nuin s liii i. 1 mill cm relief committee's hands, but will he a true friends. )f hunger in Russia to SOVIET RUSSIA NEW YORK CITY ct with the Official Soviet Relief o it will not pass thru any capitalistic ministered directly by the Soviets' Enthusiastic Demonstra tion for Soviet Russia. Relief Call Stirs Workers to Generous Giving. NEAR 6 MILLION NOW IDLE. SENATE GETS FIGURls ON UNEMPLOYED. MINERS MARCH IN PROTEST OF MARTIAL LAW. Washington, Aug. 16. Unemploy ment figures for the United States were given today by the department of labor as 5,735,000. Of this number there are '204,000 factory workers out of employment in industries of Ohio, so the same report shows. The statement, described by Secre tary of Labor James J. Davis as "a rough estimate ', was submitted to the senate today in response to a reso lution passed by that body several weeks ago. The head of the labor department said it was impossible for him to comply with the request of the senate for information as to the number of px-service men or the' nunber of women out of jobs. The figures submitted today were compiled by Ethelbert Stewart, chief statistician of ;the department, who. classified the number of unemployed in the various industries as follows: Manufacturing and mechanical in dustries 8,300,000. Mining 250,000. Transportation 800,000. Trade and clerical workers 450,-000. Domestic and personal service 335,000. Total 5,735,000. Data was also furnished to show the increase of unemployment in the first half of 1921. In the manufactur ing and mechanical industries, it was estimated 3,473,000 fewer persons, were employed in January, 1921, than in January, 1920. By July, 1921, the decrease in the manufacturing me chanical industries had reached 3, C06.405 according to the report. The department estimated about 100,000 coal miners are out of work, while many others are working part time. It added that there was much "slack" in the mining of iron, copper and other minerals so that the total of 250,000 men out of work in mining was "a conservative estimate." The unemployed railrond workers were estimated at 700,000. All the department's estimates were relative to the peak of employment in January, 1920, it was explained, so that the actual number of regular workers out of employment would be somewhat less than the 5,735,000 figure. In other words, many wives, daughters, nnd boys emptoyed when the demand for labor was at its height havo since returned to "non-gainful" home work or to school, nnd these are included in the estimated 5,735,. 000 jobless. In Illinois, the number of factory workers unemployed in June, 1921, as compared with March, 1920, was 203,000 in Ohio, the number wns '204, 000; in Pennsylvania, 371,000; in Michigan 108,000; in Wisconsin, 78, 000; in Indiana, 79,000; in Minnesota, 37,000; in Iowa, 25,000. CALLS OF NEEf)Y N-. CREASE. CITY BUREAU WITHOUT FUNDS FOR NEEDY. Funds for relief of needy Cleveland families is nearly exhausted despite that $45,000 recently was added to the original"32,000 appropriation. W. A. Kenney, superintendent of the City Outdoor Relief Bureau states. The bureau now i carrying for S000 families, compared with 800 a ye:ir ngo, said Kcnnej. "Applications are coming in 500 n day," said Kenney. "Present appro priations will be exhausted Aug. 30. The appeals for help probably will increase reatly as winter approaches." Nine hundred a ths Cabin and region were enc West Va., on Au Mingo County inj establishment of The miners arft what they term class rights by t almost perpetual martial law in Altho the cont wholly in the and law abiding miners are arnMfl this section. They in a pinch, resort. guns if conditions prevailing outlaw union in this Vir; is getting on the has created an condition IRISH-AMERICANS ORGANIZE. By M. H. ROGERS, Local Organizer Irish-American Labor League. ;1 coal miners of it Creek mining ed at Charleston, t 21, enroute into otest against the irtial ,Law there, fatly incensed at violation of their lauguration of an establishment of of the civil law. !;ited march is re of a peaceful utest, nearly all j I is customary in oukl undoubtedly the use of their i -tified. The long of the miners; !a mining section iners' nerves and i emely inflamable. A DEFENSE BOOST Dear Comrade: i I am sending y.u' a sum of money ! I collected for defense. It was hard work because in Hnrtshorne the peo ple do not know political prisoners what defense of is. Lewis Bruske and myself did the collecting, Please publish the names in The Toiler. ' George Davis. The names of the comrades who donate this fund to the defense of American political prisoners arer George Davis ' $3.00 P. Deveikis fit. 1.00 A. Staponovice 1.00, Joe Kailis . 1.00 1.00 25 1 Tony Davis G. S. L. B. B. R Felice G. Rents 25 Glovan Polite ... ji 25 Albert Fronini 50 Angello Vorgei 1.00 Tifigi Angeli K 50 B. Pofinon L00 Tom Yankes 40 Geo. Plunker 1.25 A. Basses L00 G. M. Ancetin 2.00 T. Lguiggi 25 Total $15.65 OPEN-AIR SUICIDES. Hy Rostun Quillan. A significant development in the unemployment situation here in Chi cago is the increasing number of one-! time workers who are taking advan-! tage of the only free things left in I "free and brave" America open ai and free water. Thev are leaving their 15 cent abodes on West Madison street and cluttering up the public parks. One lias but to visit one'of these breathing places to become aware of the vast ness of the unemployed army. They are perched upon every statue, they ruin the scencrv for the pleasure motorists and otherwise create them selves a common background against j which the beauties of our public play grounds are visioned. Another sign that they are obeying the doctor's prescription to take the fresh air nnd water is evidenced in the recent large number of suicMca of members of this unemployed army. Formerly they used musty gas in a lousy hall bclroom1, now they jump Into the lake or Chicago river. The pnpers have remrdod as high as fou such "water cures'' In one week. Four j bums stiffs- who will fail to an swer the roll call at the soup line.' Four men, once ustfttl to society, de-j prived of their useful- . whose, deaths cause no tarrow, killed by , capitalism. The Irish workers of Cleveland do not lag behind their fellow-workers of other cities. A branch of the Irish American Labor League was organ ized in thill city last week. Though in its incipient stage, the organization has developed a prodi gious capacity for work. Plans were made for the holding of large mass meetings and social affairs. An in tensive'membership campaign will be conducted here. The Irish-American Labor League is the only Irish organization in the United States which advocates the abolition o the present capitalist sys tem and the establishment of a work ers' republic. It therefore behooves every worker of Irish birth or extrac tion to join the League. Theirs is pre cisely the program which James Con nelly stood for and died for in Easter week, 1916. This is the program for which the gallant fighter, Jim Larkin stands for and because of his views is serving a prison term of five years in tin American prison. The following officers of the Cleve land League were elected. Edward O'Nill. President. Martin Bone, Vice-President. Patrick Doyles, Treasurer. John M. Gallae-her, Secretary. M. H. Rogers, Organizer. These officers constitue the Exe cutive Committee. Initiation fees are 50 cents and monthly dues are 50 cents. The branch meets each Tuesday evening at the I. B. W. A. Hall, 226 Champlain Ave. American workers generally, and Irish workers in particular are in vited to acquaint themselves with the work of this League and become mem bers. o NATIONAL FIGURES ON SUICIDES. (By The Federated Press.) New York. Man' men through out the United States scan the wantj ad columns of the Sunday newspapers for jobs, answer the ads only to find the places filled, and then go out and kill themselves usually on Tuesdays. This is the startling information re vealed by an analys of statistic!. just announced here. Tuesday has be- come the chief "suicide day", at least in New York City. The increase in self destruction has come as the aftermath of the world war and fully 76 per cent of those who kill themselves are victims of misfortune due to lives broken by the war or unemployment. The fcMowing figures show the in crease in suicides in a single year: Suicides in the whole country: First six' First six mos. 1920 mos. 1921 Men 1810 452? Women 961 1982 Boys' i. 88 214 Girls 137 293 Totals 2996 7016 In New York City: Men 277 319 Women 1C8 124 o SURPLUS MEDICINE MAY GO TO RUSSIA. Washington, Aug. 19. A bill directing the president to turn over $6,000,000 worth of surplus medical supplies of the War Department for use in Russian relief work was in troduced in the Senate today by Senator King of Utah. King said that thousands of Rus sians were dying tor want of medical supplies. New York, Aug. 14. A splendid demonstration was held at the Lex ington Theatre here today by the American Labor Alliance, which is cooperating with the Friends of So viet Russia in relief work for the workers of Russia. Fully 3,000 people were present and responded to an appea'l for funds by donations amounting to more than $4,000 in cash, checks and-pledges and about $1,000 in jewelry. The entire sum was turned over to the Friends of Soviet Russia. The meeting was a continuous de monstration from beginning to end. In opening the meeting, Caleb liar rison stated that it was the begin ning of a campaign all over the coun try to help the suffering workers of Soviet Russia. He called on all progressive and radical workers to respond to the call of the famine stricken people of Russia. He showed that Hoover nde his relief offer to aid and create counter revolutionary movements in Russia. "If Russia is not helped, she will be helpless and at the mercy of the atrocious White Terror. But if we can provide the food that is so. necessary, Russia, self-sufficient, independent, can lay down the terms of her relief and need not fear the counter-revolutionary intentions of capitalist na tions." Hoover Called Russian Workers "Rabid Bolshevists." Dr. J. W. Hartmann, editor of So viet Russia, remarked that it was very strange that Hoover, the man who now wants to help the Russian work ers, was the man who always called them "rabid Bolshevists." Has he changed his mind, or has his opin ions been changed by "higher inspira tion?" Reading from an article in a recent issue of the World's Work he showed how one of Hoover's agents used his power as head of the relief work in Hungary to iireak tti hjrwf munist regime in Hungary. FamiKci Have Occured in Russia Before. Ludwig Lore, editor of the Volks zeitung, refuted the accusation that the famine was caused by the incom petency or treachery of the Soviet government. He pointed out that there was a terrible famine in Rus sia in 1891, which caused deaths of hundreds of thousands of men, women and children. The present famine is due to the after-effects of the war, the blockade nd the low stage of Russian agriculture. The transporta tion facilities completely broke down during the war, and there was a fear ful scarcity of farming machinery and implements, which other countries managed to get, but which were denied to Soviet Russia because it was a Workers' Republic. "Why does not Mr. Hoover think of providing relief for the 5,000,000 unemployed in this country?" a3ked Rose Pastor Stokes. Achievements of Revolution Not Sur rendered. The. Relief Commissioners of Rus sia have refused to accept the harsh conditions imposed by Hoover. They are intent upon not giving up the achievements of the Revolution nnd will hold high the principles of Com munism, even though, at the moment, they are compelled to make temporary concessions. "If the government of the prole tariat had not been established, she would have been supplied with rail road equipment and locomotives and every capitalist government would have rushed to her relief long ngo," Mrs. Stokes declared. "You may imagine what would hap. pen if Hoover had his way," she con tinued. "He would have armored cars, gatling guns and White Guards. The Russian workers will hold the power and never relinquish a jot of it. They will hurl them back with the great slogan of the last imperialist war: 'They shall not pass!' " Resolution Unanimously Adopted. Mrs. Stokes proposed the following resolution, which was adopted wHh stormy applause: s I "Whereas, millions of Russian workers and peasants are starving through atmospheric causes beyond humai control and through the block-. counter-revolutionary element into Russia to destroy the power of the workers' and peasantry government, and "Whereas, here in capitalist Amer ica, which boasts the most highly per fected technical equipment in the world, 5,000,000 workers are unem ployed and many millions more suf fer hunger and want in the midst of the abundance they have created, be it therefore "Resolved, that we, the workers, in mass meeting assembled in the Lex ington Opera House, pledge our loyal and continued aid to the Russian work ers and peasants who are victims of the blockade and the drought, and urge the workers who suffer under capitalism everywhere to share gen erously their little with the stricken workers and peasants of Russia, the shock troops of the world's Social Re volution, and be it further "Resolved, that we favor the stand taken by Soviet Russia in accepting relief from capitalist sources to be administered solely by the Russian Workers' and Peasants' Federated Soviet Republic' WORKERS MUST AID RUSSIA. By H. W. GARNER. ade deliberately inflicted upon them by the bourgeois enemy governments of the world, and "Whereas, these enemy governments, and their private relief organizations are preparing to use the famine situa tion as a means of bringing the world's most active and sinister' Are we going to permit the free dom of our Russian brothers and Com rades to be bought with crumbs of bread? I believe this question to be of paramount interest to the Amer ican workers at this titoe. 'i'he capitalist nations of the world, having been defeated in their efforts to crush the workers' government of Russia by aiding countr-revolution-ists will no doubt, try every con ceivable scheme to take advantage of Editions ciHtoajfirj Jy, gjti? , . whatever foothold will tend to weaken the power of the Soviets. We ask work ors having a common struggle againut the world's capitalists must not permit this to happen. One step has already been taken by the American Relief Committee in demanding the release of American prisoners, (capitalist spies) held in Russia before any relief will be given. This in itself may not be of very great importance, but it may be only the beginning of a campaign to take advantage of and render helpless the workers' government of Russia. If there is suffering in Russia we must remember that Russia has pas sed through seven years of war and revolution; that for the past four years the workers of Russia have held out against the whole capitalistic world. Ah! and now the capitalist press has the audacity to point to the Bol shevik government as having been a failure in Russia. "See, the people are starving and dying of disease", they say. I want to ask wTiat capitalistic na tion can with-stand such attacks as have been made upon Russia and depend entirely upon her own re sources? Can America do it? Ask some of the five millions of unem ployed, whose families are facing starvation in a time of peace. No a capitalistic nation cannot support its people in decency in times of peace but those who control the press try to keep this fact covered up. We must remember that Russia's fight and sacrifices have not been made alone for Russia, but for the workers of the entire world. They have suffered and died for tus. It is up to us now to see that they receive aid in time of need. Take the matter up at your union halls, pass resolutions demanding re lief be given Russia. And also let it be known that we will not stand for nny relief committee to dictate the policies of Soviet Russia. Let relief committees keep hands off the poli tical situation and carry on their work in co-operation with those appointed by the Soviet Government. It is our duty as workers to see to this. Let us do it. U. S. STEEL CUTS PAY FOR THIRD TIME. New York, Aug. 19. Reductions in wages by the United States Steel Corporation from 37 cents to SO centa an hour for day labor, effective Aug. 29, was announced today. This is the third cut this year by the corporation. Overtime pay was also eliminated.