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3SITY EVERY CLASS OPPRESSOR REQUIRES TWO SOCIAL FUNCTIONS TO DEFEND ITS DOM1NATION--THAT OF THE HANG MAN AND THE PRIEST. Lenin. NO. 187. CLEVELAND, OHIO, SATURDAY, SEPTEMBER 3, 1921. PRICE FIVE CENTS. P9 The Railroad Workers and the Pennsylvania Railroad. WHAT THE RAILROAD WORKERS ARE UP AGAINST AND THE WAY OUT. By TOM CLARK. The Pennsylvania Railroad is a billion-dollar concern, owning more than 21,000 miles of trackage, 72 subsidiary railroad companies and large interests in 254 related industries. In normal times, it has a working force of about 275,000 men. This is a small kingdom and re presents control over at least 1,000, 000 people. The importance of every agreement made between the workers on the railroad and the executives of the railroad hence is quite obvious. The railroad executives were order ed by the Railway Labor Board to make a new contract with the work ers. They intend to reduce wages, eliminate overtime, and particularly are determined to introduce the open shop. Seperate Agreements with workers. One of the specific methods that the railroads have of reaching this end is to obtain regional agreements with the workers, thereby nullifying the value of organization. But they do not stop there: they effect separate agreements with the crafts, thus mul tiplying the number of agreements and making it impossible for the men to enter into joint action for any specific purpose. Another feature of the railroad si tuation must constantly be borne in mind. In 191G, according to the World Almanac, there were 11 financial groups controlling the railway sys tem of interlocking directorates, four groups have got into control of all the railroads of the country with stocks of more than 6 billion dollars, and bonds of an equal amount. These groups are Morgan & Co., the Nation al City Bank (Rockefeller group), the First National Bank of New York (Baker group) and Kuhn, Loeb & Co. Although the Pennsyb infa system represents a vast system of roads, the subsidiary roads effect seperate and distinct agreements with their men, thus confusing the situation to the utmost. This is all part of the scheme that the financiers have projected, in order to bring about chaos in the ranks of the railroad workers. Whereas the railroads are among the most consolidated organizations in the country, disposing of hundreds of millions of capital, having the ser. vices of the best experts in the line, they are obstructing the workers in their efforts to protect themselves in the tremendous struggle for a living that is now going on. Road Has Own Union. The Pennsylvania Railroad resolved that t would not recognize any labor organization and hence proceeded to organize its own union, which has en rolled less than 10 per cent of the workers in the shop drifts. As a mat ter of course, 3uch bodies as the Na tional Association of Manufacturers, the National Founders' Association, the National Erectors' Association (this latter concern Is tne one that refused to supply any iron structural material to firms employing union labor), and the Employers' Associa tion of Chicago, have endorsed the open shop move of the Pennsylvania. Pretending to speak in the name of the "public"(!), they declare that they stand for "freedom of contract ami the right to select the kind of shop each industry desires and to hnve the protection of the law in its opera tion." This is the slogan of the open shop advocates! The Pennsylvania Railroad was ordered by the Railway Labor Board to meet representatives of its work ers to formulate new working con ditions. Elections were to take place in order that the workers might de signate representatives to confer with the railway executives. The Pennsyl vania, however, refused to recognize :nv ihcr union but its own, ignoring 33,000 men, or more than 89 per cent of its shop employes, who are mem bers of the unions of machinists, boilermakcrs blacksmiths, electri cians, trackmen, clerks, telegraphers and other employees. In addition, the railway executives protested against the decision of the Railway Labor Board, which was to the effect that the worker? might elect any organization or person to represent them in their dealings with the railroads. The executives insisted on dealing with the workers direct, knowing that in this manner they would be able to outwit them. Thus we have a gigantic corpora tion, supported by the billions of Wall Street, pitted against the 33,000 work ers, who are determined to accept no other representatives than those of their own choice, while the railroad is equally determined to pay no at tention either to the ruling of the Labor Board or to the will of the men. Were the situation reversed, the government would already have made preparations to coerce the men. But capital can do no wrong. Hence the inertia of the part of the government while the Pennsylvania is laying in a store of cots and food, and, it is reported, GUNS to meet eventuali ties! There is only one hope for these railway workers: in case they go on strike, all the railway employees will declare a strike in support of the shop crafts of the Pennsylvania. Should all the men fail to go out, the workers organized in the shop crafts unions will be defeated, despite all decisions of the Labor Board. And THAT WILL BE THE SIGNAL FOR A GENERAL ONSLAUGHT ON THE RAILWAY UNIONS! Workers Already Betrayed. The union leaders are doing noth ing, m spite of the huge possibilities of the situation and the general seriousness of the matter. Their de termination is a mere paper affair, while the government is beginning to back down by granting the railroad executives an extension of timeand the Pennsylvania is laying in guns for trouble. The reactionary leaders of the union are afraid to enter the strug gle. They are retreating this year, just as they completely backed down in 1919. Instead, of having built up their unions and strengthened their morale, instead of having provided for the emergency that they are now faced with, they have let matters drift, in th f"li. v,)nri.'Fji'SS JthuJ Jiuy -Afr'AnW , refuse to fight. H. S. Jeffrey, chairman of the ad visory boad the Shop Crafts Union of the Philadelphia-Camden District, ! has announced that the union will not! threaten the railroad or strike, but I will depend on "patriotism and public sentiment to force the road to obey the order." What piffle! What a betrayal! Need Shop Delegate System. This situation will continue as long as the unions are led by men who seek "industrial peace" rather than the welfare of the organized workers. It will continue as long as the unions j are divided into crafts, each nego tiating regional contracts with the railroads. The railroad workers will remain the victims of the big controlling groups in Wall Street, until they re cognize that the rank and file must get and retain control. This they can do only through shop organizations, through the SHOP DELEGATE SYS TEM. In this system, the workers elect representatives from every shop, IRRESPECTIVE OF THE CRAFT. These shop representatives, or dele gates, from the Shop Committee, which takes up all shop matters with the local railway superintendents. The Committee elects a chairman, who, to gether with the chairmen of the Shop Committees of other shops, form the Local Executive Committee. These local Executive Committees elect all local officials. Delegates from the Local Committees form a District Council. All delegates to na tional conventions are elected in the shops. All officials are recallable. All delegates must report back to the shops, which have the power to re move anybody at any time. This ensures rank and file control. This eliminates cowardly, treacherous leaders. This makes it positive that the WILL OF THE RANK AND FILE WILL PREVAIL. When the workers perceive these facts, and when they organize in such form thnt joint action of the 2,000, 000 railway workers will be possible, then and then only will the Pennsyl vania, and with it, all the other lines, not dare to defy either the workers or the Labor Board. LABOR DAY 1921 This year, Labor celebrates Labor Day the Day of the Toilers, under the most in auspicious conditions. ' Six millions of fellow-workers are out of work. Millions trudge daily to the factory door to be told there is no work. Millions are working part time. Men have been laid off and women Jut in their places because woman's labor is cheaper. Child labor is on the increase despite State laws. The morale of .he workers has been smashed by the unemployment and wage cuts. The bosses insist on lengthening the hours, in order to extract more labor and more profit from the bodies of the already ovir-exploited workers. It was the proud boast of workers during the war that labor at last i ras coming into its own and was gaining the re cognition and respect of the employing chis. Capital henceforth would have to consult with labor. But disregarding the workers and their demands, the capitalists have forced longer hours, thrown millions into the streets and put into their places, children even of four and five years who become the bread-ewners of the family. Wages have been reduced far below the subsistence standard. Competing with the ke men still at the machines are forced to ac- rvation. Reduction in pay once, twice and hungry armies outside the factory doors, cept terms that condemn them to semi-s three times within a year that is Labor's I Conditions OS The Workers. Undernourishment is the scourge of tpe hour. Pale, anaemic children attend the public schools, two-thirds of them suffering! from physical defects as a direct result of mal nutrition. Tuberculosis is rapidly increasing,) the workers being stricken from overwork and poor food. 1 Soup kitchens, bread lines, charity societies are the institutions most active to-day. THE WORKERS ARE NOT ALLOWED TO WORK, BUT MUST DEPEND ON CHARITY FOR FOOD! j In the southern States, a veritable plagie stalks abroad, child of famine and hunger. One hundred thousand human beings are jtricken with disease because they cannot obtain sufficient food. And yet this year is but a Repetition of last year and of all years, only in an intensified degree. y The tenant farmers 38 per cent of te population are living on a standard far below that of the worker. They are the producers of food, yet they dare not eat! In the South, they are dying because the food thai THEY produce belongs first to the landlord, and only what remains to them! Crime is on the increase. Bread is dea; and work is not to be obtained. Men, women and children, suffering the pangs of hunger, jae learning to disregard the distinction be- tween "thine" and "mine". The thief so etjily becomes the murderer when his theft is discovered. Ex-soldiers, who gave up everything h the war, have returned to find that starvation is their lot. ONE OF EVERY FOUR FIRST OFFENDERS IS A WAR VETERAN! Crazed by the unemployment and economic stress 6509 men and women ended their lives in the past six months 36 every twenty-four hours! THE POWER ff THE TOSSES. 7i0 employers, on fneottfer fianiWeifWgli of commerce, manufacturers' associations (etc. Behind them in the fight against the work ers are the billions of Wall Street. They bae declared the open shop. The labor organiza tions must go. They have determined that tl e few safeguards that the workers have built for their protection must be smashed. No means to this end are too foul. Lockouts, closed factories, injunction legislation declaring strikes a penal offence, thugs, spies, gunmen1, militia, federal troops the government anc all its organs are at the behest of the capital ists in their greed to crush labor. Schools are but places for distorting he minds of the children with wild patriotism. The press is a cesspool of lie and calumny. The Jiurch damns everything that the work ers undertake to free themselves from increasing degradation. The platform resounds with vile stories against the emancipation of th! workers. The Ku Klux Klan, the American Legion, vigilantes, and other superpatriotic bodies stretch out their blody hands to throttle the upward movement of the workers. And the capitalist government looks ort benignly, glad, indeed, that the forces of re action have created these lawless bodies to jdo the bloody work it would otherwise have to do if capitalism is to survive, if the capitalist system is to survive. THIS IS CAPITALISM IN AMERICjA TO-DAY. The capitalists and the capitalist governments are not blind. Since the war, the British government has had to face contests with Organized labor forces and has defeated them only through the treachery of union leaders The working masses of Japan do not hesitate to demonstrate their rebellious spirit. The six million unemployed in the United States are a power for revolt that the United States tovernment is well aware of. Hence, the crea tion of a MILITIA ON A NATIONAL SCA.LE to cope with internal troubles; hence the equipment of police forces with riot guns md poison and tear gas. THE FORCES OF REACTION ARE UNITED IN POWERFUL ORGANIZATIONS, WHILE THE WORKERS ARE DIVIDED INTO MANY ORGANIZATIONS WORKING AT CROSS PURPOSES WITH ONE ANOTHER! False, treacherous labor leaders are leiiding themselves to the bosses in the movement single organization that will be able to fight the workers apart, fighting against and scabbing to destroy the unions. Instead of creating a the bosses class against class they keep on one another. Hence it is time for the workers to renlize that there must be UNITY, or there will be annihilation. The working masses must realize that every dav they remain apart, they strengthen the forces of their enemies. A united front, a MILITANT front in the interests of labor that must be labor's slogan. Now is the time for the organized workers to make the unions instruments for waging a militant fight against the bosses. The reactionary leaders have failed. The rank and file must take up the activity of the unions, to hiake of them powerful weapons of defense and offense awinst the capitalist class. ATTEND YOUR UNION MEETINGS! LINE UP THE MILITANTS AND PRO GRESSIVES FOR THE FIGHT AGAINST THE BUREAUCRACY! MAKE THE UNIONS A FIGHTING FORCE NOT ONLY FOR BETTER WORKING CONDITIONS, BUT FOR THE BIGGER STRUGGLE FOR THE dOMPLETE EMANCIPATION OF THE WORK ING CLASS FROM THE CHAINS OF SLAVERY! That must be the sloran of Labor Dak'. BEG PARDON! Due to the necessity of substituting more important matter, the first in stallment of "MY TWELVE DAYS IN GERMANY" will not appear un til next issue. Relief Conference Affiliates Organizations With Friends Of Soviet Russia. Boston, August 14. At conference which met here last night, to devise ways and means of helping the famine stricken mas ses of Russia, it was decided to af filiate in the relief work with the Friends of Soviet Russia. The call for the conference was is sued in answer to an appeal recently sent out to the by Lenin. The M To Aid Russia WORKERS ORGANIZE FOR FAMINE RELIEF. An Open Letter to President Harding My Dear Pres. Harding: I was very glad to read in the New York Times of the 19th of Aug. your kind letter to Sec. Hoover who is directing the American Relief Com mittee. It is splendid to note that you are ready to cooperate fully in the distribution of food to the starving Russian people. This I may call the first act of sanity of our government officials since the memorable yet dis astrous Murmansk Campaign. Still there are several passages in your letter that are rot fully com prehensible and I am therefore writ ing you for a clearer explanation, f May I call your attention to the following: 'My particular purpose in addres sing this letter to you is to emphasize my wish that the distribution in Rus sia of ALL charity arising in the U. S. should be carried on through ONE American organization.' Also to this passage: 'It is also of importance that the American people should be protected so far as we can do so from those persons who may wish to thrive on great disasters by creating unneces sary organizations to collect charity.' My dear President ihese are un usual conditions and added to these comes the announcement from Sec retary Hoover, no doubt with your sanction, that there will be no nublic appeal for funds. In behalf of my fellow workers I must ask you "WHY?" WHY should all relief be carried on thru one organization? WHY should there be no appeal to the American Working Class for help? WHY do the American workers need to be protected(?) from those who are ready to give their time, their energies and their money to wards getting the much needed re lief? WHY should the ONE organization be one not controlled by or in any way responsible to the masses of this country ? WHY should your good fvtimitteo be "afraid to call "tip'ofl the'people' To" give money to send food to Soviet Russia ? WHY should we stand in the way of those who are ready to sacrifice their all for the Russian workers and who have sent help and encourage ment to Russia while your good com mittee was feeding the Russian work ing class on Lead and Steel thru1 o - gattling guns? ; Can it be that vour eood and kind 1 STATISTICS THAT TELL Hoover Committee want to be in ab solute control of the only relief that can be sent Russia so that they can use the much needed food as a whip over the backs of the Russian people? Can it be that this Committee is plan ning at some time near at hand to demand as the price of Food the over throw of the Communist Government of Russia? Is the tragic spectacle of Hungary to be repeated ? Can it be that your Committee hesitates to call for funds from the American workers lest the response be so overwhelming as to express the complete solidarity of our Working Class with their Comrades and Broth ers in Russia? If there is to be no public appeal for funds where are the funds to come from? Is it to be from some Slush Fund, from some wealthy and sinister source and that will demand its toll in blood ? WHY, my dear President do you even consider offering the starving Russians material help when at the same time you would deny them the Spiritual and Mornl Aid that the Workers of this country would send them as an appreciation of the splen did and heroic struggle that the Rus sian Revolutionists have been waging against the combined Capitalists and Imperialists of the world? My dear President, I wonder WHY? M. Parnell Jr. New York City. , o An organization of "The Friends of Soviet Russia" was effected in Cleve land Aug. 25th. Delegates from twenty-one labor unions and other working-class bodies met under an invita tion of the American Labor Alliance and agreed to form a branch of the new workers' relief agency, The Friends of Soviet Russia with head quarters at 201 West 13th St., New York City. Enthusiasm in the proposed relief work marked each successive step in i the amalgamation of the organiza tions forming the "Friends". A letter from secretary Allan S. Broms of the : American Labor Alliance authorizing the organization of The Friends Of Soviet Russia was read by E. T. Al lison of the Ohio branch of the Al liance. Executive Committee Elected. An executive committee of five was elected consisting of: E. T. Allison, Editor The Toiler, Chairman. John Fromholz, Secretary. Joseph Jodlbauer of the International Workers Amal gamated Food Industries, Treasurer; and Tom Clifford and J. N. Simanov sky. Extensive plans for relief work were suggested. Mass and community meetings will be a large part of the work outlined. It is the intention of the organization to obtain the co- j operation of the entire organized labor I union movement in a drive for relief of the stricken Russian people. A second organization meeting was to be held on the following week which was expected to secure many new affiliations. Weekly delegate meetings will be held. All organiza tions affiliated will form sub-committees for work within their organiza tions ond in the various languages. First Mass Meeting. The first mass meeting under the Friends' auspices will be held at Remeney's Hall, East5Gth and Wood land Ave., Sunday, Sept. 4 at 8 P. M. Caleb Harrison of New Y'ork City wilt be the speaker. It is planned to make J,i. fi.vW u a itina start in the work. Admission is free and all workers and sympathizers are cordially invited. It is suggested that organizations and individuals interested may get in touch with the organization thru the headquarters located at 3207 Clark Ave. Bell Phone: Lincoln 3G39. A STORY. OPIUM AND DEATH. workers of the world assachusetts District Organization Cojmmittee of the Ar beiter Ring initjiated the movement, by the Amalgamated Clothing Worked of America, the In ternational Ladtes' Garment Work ers' Union, the lloston joint Board of Cloak Makers, the Labor League, the Independent ArbViter Ring. About 100 oriranisatinns responded to the call, heink rv cnted by 150 delegates. The Conference was en thusiastic from bginning to end, and demonstrated that the workers of America are a unit in their deter mination to help their fellow workers in Russia. An Executive Committee of 15 was elected. Every member present pled ged earnest, energetic work. Th headquarters of the Friends of Soviet Russia are at 201 West 13th St., New York City, to which all funds and contributions should be sent. ' Dear Editor and Comrade: I am working at odd jobs and some times see some things which look funny to one of a revolutionary mind. Here is one thing I saw. I was working in a bedroom of a Roman. Catholic and on the wall was a crucifix. Having never examined one closely I proceeded to do so. Above the image were the letters, I N R I and below were a skull and crossbones. I said to myself, "Well, I knew religion was opium for the people, but I'll be damned If I knew it meant doath too." A Comrade. The following figures give much food for thought to all workers. Read them. Study them and you'll see your finish unless you join the effort to finish the capitalist system. Ford Motor Company: 1920: GO ,000 men produced 4,000 Fords per day. 1921: 45,000 men produced 4,500 Fords per day. Production was increased 12 per cent by throwing 15,000 men on the unemployed market. Overland, Company, Toledo: 1920: 14,000 men produced 500 autos per day. 1921: 7,000 men produced 550 autos per day. By throwing on the scrap heap 7,000 wage workers, production was increased 10 per cent. Ruber Factories, Akron: 1920: 95,000 workers produced 100, 000 tires per day. 1921: 35,000 workers produced 80, 000 tires per day. This means that the rubber industry of Akron will never again have em ployment for 50,000 former workers. Now note how the workers assist in their own demise. A cut of 17 per cent was made in the piece work wages of the Akron rubber workers. The workers speeded up in order to keep up with their former earnings. Still another and then another cut was made on piece work jobs. Each time the workers speeded up in order to make former wages, until now they are going so fast that in some de partments they are doing the work of three men. It is food for thought, is it not? So our suggestion is THINK! o New York. The weekly earning! of workers in New York state decreas ed 15 cents per week in June from the May figures, according to figures complied by the state department of labor. The average weekly wage of factory employes in June was $25,71. About 460,000 workers, employed in 1C48 factories, furnished the basis of the compilation.