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TI-IE TJISriOlsr OP THE
3 VOL. 1. LANCASTER, OHIO, THURSDAY, JULY 5, 1860. editors l PROPRIETORS, - - O F F I o i: Tallmadtro IlloekTlti ra Morrto the JUcIt at the llcnd of the Stair. . , -"77 "TERM30F 6UB8CR.TPTION. " IhoGaintte will ho published every TUuraJay, on tlio following lurms: ' Orio yoario advance ...,..ai $0 Aftertheoxplriitlonoffl months i no "' For lowlirao than ono jroor, at the ruto of., 1 50 per dnnmn, but Invariable In advance. ifJ'So discontinuance until arruara(oi arc fold. ;';; ' . ' : . v, TERMS OF ADVERTISING. X iqnoro of 10 llnoa, or tail, Quo lmertlnn 80 511 Three Innorllnns 1 " yr each additional Innorllon M ' All advorllaomonta running loaathau throe months, chargod l the above rnU. , ,, , "'Onoiquaro, , 1 wo Throo ' Four Orio-foiirth eotuinn. Ono-lhlrd Oiin-balf " Ono column $ no.. .. J 00.. ... 7 no.. .. g mi. . ,.u no.. ..14 on.. ..lit no.. .J5 51,. . . 7 nil.. ,. g no.. . 1 1 mi. . .15 110.. .t? no. . .1!) on . .35 00.. .is mi , in no 12 no , 1.1 no so on . Stf on 9.1 on 40 no . HTBiulnei!C.'ir4s of about 8 llna,by tho year, 45 " - 11 fAdvorllnomoiitii, not marked on the manuscript, will no enntlnuod at our lorine until forbid. . TCPLogul advortmemonH, Administrator's notlcoa, Ac.,muit bnpuld for In adranoe,, fur roasooe whloh, we will eiplan at the time. , . jrjTba ubove torma strictly obaorvod In all caeea. " , BOOK AND JOB PMNTING. Wo are nreriarod to eirocuto alt doscrlnttniuof JOB WOHK! audi aa CARDS, ClRC'tAUrf, POSTKKH, BALLTlCKBTS.and erory other variety of PLAIN AND FAKCY JOBIHNG, with now and superlotlypo, muil on abort notice. COUNTY OFFICERS. Ju lut of Fairfield Common Pleat Col HEXKY C' WHITMAN, residence Unrnatrr, Ohio. ' Prabati Jiitys-JESSK tKOHNEK.OnlcolnPubllc Prftinr J!li.rii-JAMES W. STISCHrOMB, Sasrif-AAUOS W. EIIKlftHT.OfflcoatJall. CIrCiur(-JOHN C. HAINEY, Offlco Pub.to HolMlng. . ,, ,, j'j!ili- A. J. TIT,IllKK,Ofne Pu'.iUp nnll.llntr. Trtaiurtr P.C. nKNUlUM.OfuVo PnMIc llulldlng JlMorder-A.FYKBHT.OIHTO Public Bull-ltnir. .Inrpcyw K.8. HANNUM.Omco.Tallraadnorilock, tjecocd Story. Corontr f,. SH.EFFKR.mnliiflneo. Madison 1p. Comafionr-JOSElH SHARP, of born Town; aliln; JONAS A. HAKF.K, of W aluut Townnhlp. und Join W, CVNXIKOHAM,fHnc-klii Township. SrUol r.taminirt-WX. V. WH1TXKY, JOHX WILLIAMS and IIKIAU C. 11UTTEK. SPEECH of HON. J. 1YI. ASHLEY, OF OHIO, 'i.t la the House of KeprcnontnUvc, MAY 29TII, I8G0. ordained to Bocure and oioHsings. In fil'tocn Stntcfi f ilio Amcricnn Un ion, pmctioHlly, tlio rcvutBu of all this is true. Tlio exceptions io only ir. a fuw vf ilio border counties of slave StMca, ad joining the frea fcjtutos, and in threo or four cities whose comuiorcinl intercourse in oxtensivo in the North. In all these fifteen t'ave Stales, a class is' dominant which fills all the offices, and controls the legislative, cvecutivo, and judici.il de partments of tho Government. They do not pretend to ho loyal to the national Constitution, or obedient to the laws pas sed in pursuance thereof, but claim that their first and highest nllegiaDCu w duo to their several btato governinenu and their institution of human slavery ed, Rut alaf for ficedtiml their admoni. lions and warnings have not only boon Uiilioedwd, but the scheino of ft sectional and privileged clitts, aided by . ntrihcrn Ileprcsentativcs, has bean aecorap'mhd Bo far as flouring complete control of llife d. partmeiit of the Dovernmont is concerned: every moycmeiit they iiiinerviously die late, a chango in their action and tone to wards this judicial department. In com pliance with this demand, we find the party to-day, which for years bo vono mently denounced the usurpations of this court and opposed and disregarded its de cisions, have come to regard it, if the dec laration of their Presidents and lli prc 8unlativefl and party conventions aro to They cftro uothiii'' lor the Unloft; eX'eepOa fk'f a.s Min subserves th'dr purposes of building up aro infalliblt,, from whose judgment there ana extending tl.cir peculiar mstiiution.ftna j is iio appeal, and bcturu whose decisions pcrpetuatinj; their own political power, and political decrees citizens and parlies, 'Pi,.., i n .....: . L... o..... .... ...... It Congtens, in which lie jtratod thdu, until they have fur years pive thorn rprenentativir "Y , completely eootrollM tl Uniuocratio or- and ihe .uniair fliahner iu whiul removal, it is an established prineipU in Itioai m'trwage It mhui am wrii lj iuill UUVCrnilieilM I Haul; ,i . ).';; BUM Ml. an) iiHil.it li.nii.u..i. I . .11 Tl . r .... h.vo : i :z " 1 1, w p nin.zti.. and chngd fundamental nonfa An pf.nt Aatatiltar.ii.r. ll. .:..t .r'.i . tt -i i .. . 1 . . . 1 . .. v....,...,.....e rigni i , i lie umu'U ftiaicH, ol tlio uu HucstiuD ofalnvc the nowrr tliat orMUtl anil m..... ;,,! ii, .1 . t ... . ' duties of Uicso couris-fto repeal th. l,w, And .(rang, to .y, this aang.ront an- ..r m i ii. . 1 . ... outu. o.it. c uy iu pywei mat breathed itririo. reoieyes the support of ihe preat into them the breath oH.e: Afief a fuljbody of Ilpresmtatmii 00 this floor mvuaiigitliuu VI lion buujuci, i neiieve tno only practical way, without change in tho Constitution, to refoi ui the gross buses, not only of the Supremo Court, but of tho United States district courte, is: first, to reorganize th Huprme Court, and either create additional judges, or re- unmet tut circuits iuj Bue,it a manner as The House heing in the Comm'Uee of the Whole on the state of the Un'on. Xt. ASHLEY said; Mr. Uiairsjan: Respect for legislative, executive, and judicial authority is a pe . culiar characteristic of the constituency I have tha honor to represent. Indeed ie ppootforall constituiional obligations, and for tho laws passed in pursuance of the Constitution, as well as for oil authorita tivojudioal decisions, may with proprie ty be said to bo a leading trait in the char acter of the Anierisan people. Especial ly is this respect habitual with the groat body of tho people of tho free States: Trained in tho school of loyally, taught to venerate the toaohings of the fathors, guided in their daily walk nnd in all their public and privatointarcourse with their fallow rain by tH stern principles of that wise Christian molality which has made Now England at once tho hope and glory ol our .country, it could not bo that tl e oitisens educated within her jurisdiction and the Siaiei founded by htr wisdom nnd enterprise should be otherwise than loyal to tho Constitution and the Union. Aaking for themselvrs nothing that they would not coneedo to tho humblest, they muko tho community of intcicst indenti on!, aud the loyalty of every inhabitant of the Stilt a necessity. This ur.iitd consummation has been practically achieved in eighteen States of tho American Union. The system of government adopted by them, in my lutkenitfut. is tbo best HVStom known to man. It H tho host, becauso it rests up on labor and is created and controlled by the frco and untranieled will of tho labor er. It is the best, because experience has domonstra'ed that it is the only foundation upon which States and overnmeiUS can .safely and securely rest. In suoh a gov eminent tho labors must not only bo Ireo, but tbey must be citizons; bavins right which tho covernmont anil all classea of eitizms are bound 10 rospeut and detond tho poorest and humblest inhabitant be ing eouul, before the lawwith tha richest and most poworful; sharing in its buidens, enjoying its protection, and feeling indi vidually responsible for its good or bad management. This theory is daily grow ing strongor among all civilizod nations, and "the world .beginning to understand that injuring ono class for the immediate benefit of anothor, is ultimately injurious to that other; and that, to securo prosper ity to a commuuity, all interests must be consulted." This truly republican idea of consulting the intorcsU and obeying tho wishes and wants of tho people, was rci'cntly acquicsood in to nn extcut before unknown, by the lending Vowers ot Eu rope, when they recognized tho right of the pooplecf tho lloiuan Stntos to doolnro by ballot, whether they desired separate governments, or a united Italy, with Vic tor Eaianual as their chief: Tho state of society ncoossary to form suuh govern ments as we have in eighteen Stales of this Union, cau only be secured wlioro nn un tranieled press and free speech aro guar- antics, and public schools and a free (.lunch is secured to every inhabitant In tha Commonwealth.. These institutions the free Slates have to an extent unknown to nriy government or people on earih;. mid to them, more than to any otlwcaubo are they indebted for their unsurpassed development, and for that prosperity and growth whloh have boon the wonder and admiration of tha world. It is impossi ble that luoh n people, living under such government as is secured by the laws and constitutions of the free States, no matter what their former nationality may have been,. should be otherwise than loyal citi zens, or that thoy should bo otherwise than tha tirmost defenders and compromises on this continent, and neither respeot or obey any law or judi-l ciul decision that does not sustain their impirioua demands for spociul legislation and protection. Trained in tho disunion school of Cal houn, they reject not only the teachings of tbo fathers, but the dootrines of that Chtistianity whioh enjoins upon all.whoth er uj individuals, communiiioe, or States the duty of doing unto the least and weak est as they would that others should do unto them. Hence in all the slave Slates tho constitutional rights of an American citizen aro not respected; tho constitution al guarantee for free spocoh and a free press is t mockery; freo schools and an enlightened Christianity an impossibility. The laws to suppress tho slave trade aro openly disregarded; and violonce and mob law reign supreme. The laborers npon whoso toil theso States exist aro slaves, and have bcon declared not to bo citizens though born upon tho soil, but simply persons with no moral, social, or natural rights, that tho dominant raco are hound to r?spict, if tho mere fye dixit of the Supremo Court is to be regarded as law. Their obedienco and subjugation are se cured by enactment and usages the most barbarous and tyrannical ever known to man. A reign of terror secures the obe dience and cooperation ofthe poor whites; and because of this submission, they are claimed as loyal friends of the institution of slavery. But their loyally is, in fact a humiliating submission to tho privileged class a submission as abject in most of these lit teen states as is tho submission of the most spirit-humbled slave. ' The guarantees of tho national Constitution, so far as they alioct tho individual rights of an American citizens, aro denied alike to all men who are not of this privileged class or tluir open allies; and to be an American citizen secures no protection from insult and outrage unjust imprison ment aud terrible punishments, nnd even death. So complete is this rug 11 of ter ror that no man can print, or speak, or preach, or pray, unless he does it in the manner prescribed by this privileged class. incse two lorms 01 government and booi- cty nro the antipodes of each other, and cannot co-exist and peacefully euduro. Thero must, of necessity, be serious con flicts nnd constant struggles for ihe as cendancy; and eventually the one must give way to the other. There is' then, an " irrepressible coiijlirt," as the distin guished Senator from Mew York bus said between tho two forces or forms of gov ernment and society; and it will contin uo until freedom or slavery shall have completo domination in every department of the Government'. This priviledgcd class, wi'.h Calhoun and his political disciples, have bad, with the exception of ono or two short intei vals, almost coniploto possession ot overy department of tlio naiional Government for tho past twenty yesr3. Taking ad vantage of the well-know n Icyalty of the pfoplo of the free States to the Constitu tion ami thi- Union, and their habitual re spoct for all laws and d cifions of the ju dicial department of the Federal nnd State governments, they have, by threat ening 10 dissolve tho Union, and by ap peals made in tho sacred name of Democ racy, Bicnrcd tho co-operation aud aid of thousands of patriotic citizens in the ireo States who aro conscientiously opposed to tho institution of slavory. They have thus been enabled to obtain and keep pos session of evory department of tba Gov ernment, and so to shape its legislative, executive, and judicial action as to foster; build up, and extend this monstrous wrong ol human blavery, and irako it a national, instead of a Slate aud local in stitution, it the Dred Scott decision is to be taken and held, as tho President nnd his party declare it is, tne correct inter pretation ofthe Constitution. I propose, Mr. Chairman, to show tho House and tho country how ono depart ment of the Government has been taken possession ot by this privileged class I mean tho supremo judiciary. I propose to show that, while ihey hnvebcon preach ing concessions and compromises to us, they havo for years boon secretly and cautiously at work to obtain complete control of this important, ns well as most dangerous, department of tho Federal Government. That this department of the Government is dangerous, 1 think tho his tory of its usurpations since its organiza tion will show. Tho opinion.'! of somo of the ablest men of tho Revolution many of whom oppos ed tho organization ol this court with the powers granted to it, and prodictiu wun singular foresight tlio dangers to which (ho rights of citizens and sovereign States would bo exposed if it was established' have been more , than realized. It had been well for the present and future of our country if the admouitious of those who opposed the organization of this de partment of the Government with its im mense power had poen regarded with more favor. It wore well even now for our fti turo poico if tho warnings of Jefferson, Mndihon. Henry. Funklin, Grayson, and e crdii45l, a t.t)wSt lvUf UiMf4,5 UA(MUaHlMi JMia& ui- qtir th- 1 tlio World a tribunal whoso opinions judges to bo residents of the districts for which they were respectively appointed, or in which, by law, they are required to attend courts; and, sooond, to repeal the laws creating district courts and defining their jurisdiction and duties: thus legis lating your judge Kanes, Magraths, and claiming to be Democrat. ' Mr. Chairman, tile elTort of Mr. Cal houn to nlisl H the Southern StitUs io his disunion movement of 1S32, under colpr of opposition to tha tariff act of 1828 having failed", snd (he scheme exposed aim eiicctuany crumied out by the bold to Low. On failure to acquiesce in this claim of prerogative, the Representatives eluded Irom the Democratic party dnring the Administration of fiat old hero, other expedients wcro resorted to by Mr, Cal For the first time in this hlxtorv ofthe Gownruent under Mr. "Tyler's ndminii traiiou, tlio opinion of iik-k lfcted tor the Supremo , Conrt on tho .question of iBverj weru mje aicst ol their promo tion to 'that exalted position. No man who was known to enlertain vlnws hostile to the ititerest and political opihiDn ol the privileged clasa represented by Mr. Calhoun could bo nominated, or if noini nated, confirmed to a seat on tho bench of the 8uprerne Court. And two of the present iudces Jnrtira Dnninl nf Virnin. - 1 j. - ... r . . . ? . ? .. . - - mo mm oeoikion 01 uoucrai jackionjaml and Justica Jtelnou, o( Ja .Voiiv- u rn ocsperni inciton and ffieir leader ex- were selected bv Mr. 'f vler. with tha r proval of Mr. Calhoun, because of their reputed fidelity to this class in'erest. Having secured, by A;cidoiit, fhe execu- houn to secure the accomplishment of his 'live branch of the Government, their next of sovereign Slates are donounced on this j Joneses, out of office. ot the Drinci- plos which lio at the foundation of these Slates, and tho jealous guardians of that Cccstitution and Uuiou which our fathers ! other distinguished men, should bo hotd floor by the leaders of this privileged class as tMitors to the Government, und as per jurers, who have sworn to support a Con stitution they tntond to violate. Aud here let me ask what there is in this tribunal, composed as it is by nine men, that should entitle it, as a political authority, to . the veneration and unques tioned obedience claimed tor it by the present Administration party, any more than to the same number of Senators and Rej resentatives that might with case bo seleciod as gentlemen possessing at least equal, it not superior, legal and natural abilities? Is there anything in the char acter of these judges, in their services to the country, 111 their learning or qualifi cations as lawyers, that should entiile them to the appollatiou of an ''august tribunal?1' Is it not a fact, well known to every one, that so far from this court being compos ed of men of superior abilities, or tbo abl est lawyers in the country, n mnjorily of them wcro partisans, and selected bo cause of their partisanship when placed upon the bench? It is certainly a fact not unknown to the Houso aud the coun try, that men of better legal abilities, whoso nomiuotion had boen submitted to tho Senate for confirmation, have oficn been rejected. The commUteo or, the Judiciary, (a majority of whioh has been pro-slavery for tho last twouty years,) to whioh said nominations are always refer red, have, by some means unknown to the public, f-ucceedod in prevailing on the ac ting President, ' whoever ' he may have been, to withdraw objectionable nomina tions.and substitute others moro accept able for the purpose contemplated by them, while some of the present partialis sf this court were confirmed instead of those whoso names were thus withdrawn or re jected. Before I take my scat I expoct to show that a purpose was to bo accom plished by those who secured tho rejec tion, on a direct voto for confirmation in the Senate, of men of spotless characters, of great learning, and eminent judicial abilities, or their defoat by tho withdrawa of their names by the President, at tho dictation of this class interest. Debate wns sought to be avoided on this delicate point, that their ulterior purposes might thus remain undiscovered, even in the se cret archives of the United states Senate. Sir, if the country could understand how a majority' of those judges were placed upon the bench, and (ho schemes resort ed to by this class interest to secure men to represent iboir views buJ intorests, tho people would scorn their political de crees, and tront their usurpations ns they deserve. Sir, I expect In show that no man whoso nomination has for years been sub mitted to the Senale for confirmation ns n judge of this court lias been rejected for his want of learning, or charactor ns a citizen, or ability as a lawyer; but that they havo been rejected eolely on tbs ground of their known or supposed un soundness on tho quostion of slavery; every man known to ontortaiu liberal viows on that question being rejected; and partisans, without the eminent abilities or oilier requisite qualifications for the bench, havo been nominated and eonfirniod in their stead, dimply becauso they woro ci ther supposed or known to bo reliablo on tho quostion of sustaining the claims of tho slave power in the judicial deciMons hucii is tne extent to which tins scbemo has been carnod and I regret lo say, suo eesslully carried by the carelessness, or incompetency, or criminal complicity, of northern Senators, somo of whom have had,- southcru plantations well stooked with slaves, while claiming to represent a fico pcoplo. 1 say but for the inrlilfrienco or tho inability ol northern Senntors to defend nnd guard tho interests of those they wero commissioned to represent, or their crimnnl complicity, this scheme never could have been accomplished as it has boon; for it required tho votes of northirn Senators to do it, and by their action or non-action this court, which in former years stood so high in the estima tion of tho American people, is now look ed upon by the great body of citizens with distrust, and regarded by many of tho best men of the nation as little elso than a partisan political tribunal. Mr. Chairman, it is no pleasant (ask for an American Representative to declare on this floor, and to tho country, as I now do, aud aa candor compels me to do, that I havo lost all ooufidenco in, and veneia tioii for, this Supremo Court; aud I could wish that even before the tixpiratiou of the next presidential term I could see ibis Supremo Court reorganized, I winh I oould see all lavvs repealed creating infe rior L tilted States uiBtr'.ot ccurU, so that we might be able to get rid of the whole batch of these United States judicial otfi- olals as summarily as the Republican party under Jefferson got rid of theswarm of district judges created by what is fa miliarly kijownas tho midnight judiciary net, passed on the night of 3d of March, I St 1 1 . tox mv'.n we ctnnut deprive these If new district courts are indispensable let them bo carefully oiKanized, and the judges be clothed with just a little power and as limited a jurisdiction as possible We should make business and the wants of tbo country only a basis lor creating districts; and not creato districts and of fices for brokon down politicians, as has been done to an extcut that would aston ish Ihe couutry could it be known. As anevidonce to this fact, look at the State ofllorida; with less than half the popu lation of my congressional district, she has two United States district courts, and. of course, two judges; Tennessee, three; Missouri, two; and so ou to tho end of the list. Sir, unless a man has carofully ex amined this subject ho cannot conceive, tnd even after an examination will be re luctant to como to the conclusions, which 1 codIces I have, to wit, that the Supreme Court is, as Jefferson declared it to be, "a subtle corps ol tnanpers and miners, constantly working under ground to un dermine the foundation of our confederat ed fabric." "They'nre constructing our Constitution,'' he added, '"from a co-ordination of a general and special Govern ment to a general and supreme one alone." leel couliJent that it these usurpations of this court be not speedily chocked, the rights of tho States and the liberties of the pooplc will bo endanged; and the dan ger is tho moro imminent, from the fact that a clasb interest bavo secured the ab solute control of this court; and having socurcd it, now demand that the party which they also control shall proclaim, through their President!", nnd party con ventions, and party press, the doctrine that the political decisions of a majority ol those nine mon are infallible and bind ing upon the party, without the benefit of an appeal to tho people. ' The extraordi nary specUcIo is presented to the world of a once great party, which cherished and defended tho rights of the masses, having been taken possession of by an oligarchy, and the doctrine proclaimed that there must be an uncontrolled nbsoluto power in tho Government somewhere, from which thero can bo no appeal; and that power thoy claim to-day must ' be vested, not in Congress, or in tho States, or in tho peo ple, but in the nine men who constitute this Supreme Court. ' Sir, the Republican theory h, tha the government is not the master, but tbo servant. Every dopnrtmer.t was created by tho pcoole, not lor tho benefit ol any class interest, but for the safety and hap piness of the whole, and every department is subordinate to their will. Government is but a means to an end, and whenever it ceases to answer the purposes fur which it was erected, the people can alter or abolish it. Sir, neither tho executive, nor judicial, nor law making power js supreme. The Constitution is above them; and the peo plo, who nndo the Constitution, and vest ed temporarily the authority ol enacting, executing, and adjudicating tho laws, are above and superior to all. This absolute power, thereloro, claimod for the Supreme Court by tho Administration party, must bo resisted, because thero cannot with safety be any department of a republican Government from which an appeal to tho people cannot bo taken. If thero is an absolute power in any Government that is above und superior to the people, it is a despotism. In an oration delivered by John Quinoy Adams, July 4, 1831, and cited by Judge Story in a note to section 208 of hie CommcnUrieB, he says, in re ferring to this lubjoct: , ;"It is not true, that, thro must reside in all Governments an absolute, uncon trollable, irresistible, and despotio power; nor is suoh power m any manner essea tiul to sovereignty. Uncontrollablo pow er powoi exiBts in no. Government on earth. Tho sternest despotisms in any region, nnd 111 cverv ao ot tho world, aro and havo been under perpetual control. Unhmitdd power belongs not to man; and rotten will bo the foundation of every Government leaning upon such it maxim for its support. Least, of all can it be predicated of a Government professing to bo foundod upon an original compact. Tha pretense of an absolute,' Irresistible, despotio power, existing iu overy Govern ment somewhere, is incompatible with tne first principles of right." . , . .. Sir, these well-considered reflections, made by ono of the wisest and best states men who since the days of Washington adorned and dignified tnd the presidential luce,-are well worthy of the serious con sideration of tho peoplo at this important irisis 111 the htotory of our country; when a great, party, who h&ve nad posession of the Government,haTe doctored through their present Chief Executive that there is a power in the Government to whioh every department mustyield.and to whose opi.iions.the paople of all political parties must give implicit obodieuec. Theanti-Demorrntierloctrinewas broad lv announced bv Mr. Buchanan in that ioflkuh; of theu life teuuie'i. or ti'.ljj by uioat remarkable paib.10 in bis la'.o an cherished purpose, namely, either a disso lution ot tho Union md the organization of a southern tlavcholding confederacy, or the recognition of the present Government of his theory, that slavery is recognized by tho Constitution, and that Congress had no power toabolish or exclude it from the Territories, or the District of Colum bia, After the election of Van Durer. to the Presidency, Mr, Calhoun and his fol lowers were again received into a kind of quasi fellowship with the Democratic party and supported the leading meaiares of that Administration. The cinreaa ground upon which this support was civ- en.was the ollcged fact (hat Mr.Van Huren was disposed to favor Mr. Calhoun's the ory that the Constitution of tho United States rccoirnizid pronertv in man. Whether such were Mr. Van lluren's views, or not, I am nnable to say; but certain it in, that he pledged himself in his inaugural address unasked by the Doruociatio party, to veto any law which Congress might pass abolishing s'nrery in the Dnvrict of Columbia; and before l.e had been one year in tho presidential of fice he acquired, for the first time in the history ot tho Government, the unenvia ble appellation of a "northern man with southern principles." Failing, however, to secure tho open indorsement by the Democratic party of that day of the favorite theory ofthe slave power, Mr. Calhoun hit upon the plan of getting possession of tho Supreme Court, Because it is a power the furthest remov ed from the people.it held in great es teem by them, and such acts of aggres sion as Mr. Calhoun contemplated, it committed by the Supreme Court, be knew would be so quietly done as to ex cite no alarm and pass almost unnoticed. In the scheme, as tho history ofthe country will show, Mr. Calhoun was suo aessful. Let us look at this point a few mo- monts: The Supreme Court was organized bv an act of Congress passed on the 24th of bepterabei, 17a!!, by which act the court was made to consist of one chief justice and five associates. By an net of April 29, 1802. districts, (each State being then called a district,) were formed into circuits, as follows: "Tho districts of New Hampshire, Mas sachuseits, and Rhode Island, shall con stitute the first circuit "The disirictsof Connecticut.New York and Vermont shall constitute the second circuit. "The districts of New Jersey and Pcnn sylvnnia shall constitute the third circuit, "The districts of Maryland nnd Dels' ware shall constitute tho fourth circuit. 'The districts of Virginia and North Carolina shall constitute the fifth circuit. "The districts of South Carolina and Georgia shall constitute the sixth cir cuit. It will bo noticed that this law gave tho North and South each three judges and thrcs circuits. By the act of February 88, 1307, the Supremo Court was made to consist of seven judges; and the seventh circuit com prsed the States of Tennessee, Kentucky, and Ohio. By act of 3d of March, 1837, two ad ditional judges and southern circuits were created, and the districl of Ohio delaoh ed from the circuit of Ken lucky and Tenn essee, and the seventh circuit maae t) consist of tho States of Ohio, Indians, Il linois, and Michigan. In this aot it was doclafed that "tho districts of Kentucky, Tonnisscc, and Missouri, shall foim, snd be called the eighth circuit;" and "the districts of Alabama, Louisiana, Mississip pi, nnd Arkansas, shall form, and bo call' ed, the ninth circuit. ' " I)v the creation of the ckrhth snd ninth circuits, the South, with less than half the population, nnd not more than one fourth of the business in tho Supreme Court, obtained a majority ofthe judgos. Since the organization ofthe eighth and ninth ciicu'is, tho fre States of Iowa, Wisconsin, California, Minnosota, and Oregon, havo bean admitted into the Union; and although these States con tain a population, and havo an amount of judicial business equal at least 10 one third of those ot the emirs n teen siave Slates, thoy have not been erected into or attached to judical circuits', and have no representative on the bench of the Su prcme Court. . The reason for refusing or neglecting to place these States upon an coital foolinir with the new soutriweRt- in Glutei), whose ronulations are far less, will be manifest, 1 trust, before 1 trot ill roil oh. When Mr. Tyler, by death of Gen eral Harrison, beoaine President, and iiPtfnW fhe naftV which elected him. by throwing himself into the arms ofthe dis of (he Democratic party, and placinc Mr. Calhoun in the office of Sec retary of Slate, for tbe purpose of acquiring Texas, a point was gained by this faction which they have not only neverlost.but hav ing secured the control ofthe succeeding Administration of Mr. Polk, they havn ad vanced with rapid strides from a small and once powerless minority; as ttey wcro when treated as Geneial J.vAson step was fi obtain and kep control of the Senate committees, especially the Ju diciary,Cominit'e, to whom all nominations for the Supreme Court are r.ferred; and as a result of this pulicy, the Judiciary Committee for the last twenty years has been completely in the hands or this fac tion. The following (Senators were mem bers ofthe Jaiiieiary Committee at the time of Which I am Speaking. Ashley of Arkansas, chairman; lireese of Illinois, Bcrrine of Georgia, Westcott of Florida, and Webster of Massachusetts Thty 011 the bench, whiu,h the pres ent nine circuiii art constituted, in oder, as mast b.e apparent t everrtono Uo se cure a majority of the. Supreme Court judge to the South, is not .'of itsttr sulli- cient t.isattaljr any impartial mind of thu covert tlviitrrjavjfhost rHf'dnlrol and dicate tho policy of the Democratic party, a glunc at the population of 00 e or tw of tho judicial circuit, and the -business before tba court, - will satisfy the most skeptical that this inequality is not tho leault of mere aoeidoni, but of a deliberate welMald, persteBt,ly-ptirBd enema. . Tako the population of the ninth circuit composed of the 8tales of Arkansas and MiMMipi, and rontparerit jalih thav. enth, Judge McLean's circuit, which com. prtww the States of Ohio, Indiana, Il linois, and Michigan. The ninth circuit, Justice McLean's contains over six mil lions. 'I he second circuit Justico Nelson's composed of tne Sfatea of New York, Conneticuf, and Vermont, contains over five millions of freemen, while the fifth circuits, Justice Campbell's, composed of tne wales 01 Louisiana and Alabama, has but little over a million white inhabitants. , a What justification, excuse, or apology can tha members of the Democratic party in the North, give for this shameful neg lect or betrayal of the interest of their constituents? Let any impartial man answer the qneS' roeominended tho confirmation of Robert jtion, "how ought these circuits to be con- j. oner, ol I'hiladelphia, nnd the rejeo- stituted? and he will answer you, "in tion or withdrawal, by the President, if! proportion lo the amoant of business not of each of the following names, all done by each judge of the several cir leastofsuch men as John M. Read. E 1- cuits." If this, iuat principle should be ward Key, and George W. Woodward, of adopted; and ' will soma day be adopted, Pennsylvania, who Were severally nom- jand the averaged business of the present inated and rejected or withdrawn becauso !iivo southern circuits should constitute ol their known opposition to slavery, aod the bas:s for creating now judicial circuit! ineir teiiei mat congress bad tho powerland judges of the Supreme Court, the under the Constitution, and that it was j North would bo entitled to at least four their duty to abolish and prohibit slavery 1 teen or fifteen more circuits and judifcs. in nn national ierritons. wunoui inciuuin" tne Mates 01 lows. Wis- During Mr Fillmore'a administration consin, Califjroirt, Minnesota and Oregon the Judiciary Committeo recommended which I have not included in the calcula ble rejection or postponement or with- tion. drawal of the nomination of E. A. Brad- Why is i'. that this inennaiitv is feer. ford, of Louisiana, one of tbo most dis milled lo rontinue? 'Why is it that the linguished lawyers of that Stato, and also I Representatives of tho so-called Democrat.' the indefinite postponement ofthe nomi-ic party from the North have not long1 nation of William C. Mieou of ihe same airo moved to aualite this department of State, on the tatrt Juuthe nomination uai : the Government: and obtain for their enrt- sent to the Senate. Mr. Micou wat. at that stituenU n representation bn the bench time a law partner of Senator Benjamin, 01 tiouisiana, and a distinguished mem ber of the bar. Ihis was dibposiog of a man summarily. These nominations were equal to their numbers, business, aod wealth? ' To say that all fh's is the result of ao cident, and the unexpected increase of inaue vj air. r iiimoro, as was also the population in the North, 'a a mockerv. I nomination of Hon. George 15. Badger, ofi tell, you, as all reflecting and observing uv..,, v.,,,,,,, coiiurinuuun waa men w-uo AT0 not psrtigaDS Will tell vrju, refused and the consideration of it post poned on the recommendation of this com mittee by a test vote of 26 to 25, simply becauso he believed, with Henry Clay, that Congress had the power to exclude slavery from the Territories. So close was tnis vote, that tho slave interest wereiaU the StaieR and Territories of compelled to telegraph to Alabama tor pabho, that it is but jne of the many schemes to which the democratic party, since its rur render to the Calhoun faction, has lent' the use of its great name and influence to establish and make permanent and uni- verral the institution of human slavery in this fib senator ritzpairu-K to come on and aid in bis defeat by postponing the considera tion of the 6ubjtt until the inauguration of Mr. Pierce, who at that time was elect ed. Aftet Mr. Pierce came iuto office he submitted the name of John A. Campbell, of Alabama, and he was confirmed. This! committee were Butler of South Carolina, Downs of Louisiana, Bradbury of Maine, Geyer of Missouri, and Badger of North Carolina. It will be observed that on this important committee but oncuioniber was from the frea States, and he a sup porter of tlio Administration. How manv ol the best and most distin guished men hnve been rejected during the past twenty year?, after having been nominated for seats on the supreme bench, tho public have no means of deiermir.itg, as the official action of the Sente is lock ed up in tha secret archives, into which the people are never permitted to look by the leaders of the Democracy, for fear of being callt-d to nn aocouut for their base betrayal of the interests and wishes of their constituents. Many things have been said and aone in tne secret sessions of the United States Senate, which, if made public at the time, would have Consigned the utlerer to the shades of pri vale life, and the parly to a hopeless mi nority. This practice of holding secret sessions of the Senate is a feature in our system of government for which I have no partiality, and for which; there is, in my judgement, .110 justification, except porhaps when the couutry is engaged in a foreign was, or discussing the proposed, ratification of a treaty. No business touching or affecting the interest of the country at home should be done in secret, and kept from the people. The following arc some of the names which I remember although there are doilbtless more( ofthe persons who have been nominated lor places on the supremo bench and either rejected or their names withdrawn John t. bpenoer, of SSvr lork, liuoen Wal worth for manv years chancellor ot lliu State of New York: Edward Key. Oeo'go W. Woodward and John M. Head, of Pennsylvania; E. A. Bradford and Wil liam C. Micon, of Louisiana; George E, Bad''ir. of North Caiolina, and others whoso nainoa I cannot uow recall. v And in the places of such distinguished jurists and most Wortny anil learned citi zens, We nave to -any, is tne result ana success of the I alhomi conspiracy, kel son of Nw York, Grier, of Pennsylvania Campbell of Alabama,' Daniel of Virginia, and uniiora 01 Name; somo or wuom cerlairflv Would never hive been thought of for a soat on the Supreme bench, but for their loyally and devotion to the in terest and wishes of the slave power To the political opinions of a court thns constituted. the people 01 tie united states are called upon by the President and tb so-called JJemocratio party to oow in suo mission: and afe denounced as traitora to the Constitution and the Union, unless they yield up their political views, and embrace those of a majority of this packed and irresponsible tribunal If Hi neglect to orgauize the five free StLtia I bsvo namad i.110 cwcalts", ud Mr. Chairman, the time was. and that, too, within the memory of many members on this floor, when slavery was regarded and admitted by the majority of the A- merican people, by men of all parties, and all religious creeds, to be a moral, social, and political evil, from which It was thj duty ofthe 8tates to free themselves as speedily as possible, and for ,whosa exist-, enee and continuance the national Gov ernment should in no way be held re sponsible before the world. Now all this is changed; and a great parly to-by thro its Rpresentatives in . this Hall, with, here nnd thero an ' exception, claim that slavery is a moral, a Christian, and desir able political institution, established by the Great Supreme for the happiuess alike of the white and black inces. And not only this, but ihey claim that the nation al Constitution, which our fathers declar ed they ordaine 1 lo secure the blessings of liberty, carries, sustains, and protects, of its own force, the right of tbo master to the pet'dn and service of slave on eve ry foot of soil, and wherever floats the na tional ensign, save only in soveieign States where, by positive enactments, its existence is prohibited: in other words. that slavery is a natural, legal, and uni- . versal relation. And freedom unnatural. exceptional, dad local, and only made ex ceptional by the exercise of arbitrary will ol the electors 01 sovereign e tales, ex-' pressed in the form of positive legislative in Kitvittivrt TrTtaiAH 1iia nn. j . n A oil tMrrlit lUfai unit' 11 1 ju veil 1 11 10 or,uuv.4 a-f unsustained as it was by any rcspectuble number of men from the organization of the Government until tho birth of the Cal houn pirty, in 1844, has becomo tbe car' dins) poiut iu tho Democratic creed. This desperate faction was unfortunate ly recognized And negotiated with at that time, and lis leaders succeeded in making a secret treaty with the recognized chief 01 die ueniocrauo party, irom tno Daa 01 feets of which the party never recovered. Since that time this mere faction a clique that twenty years ago could be easily num bered have been constantly gaining ill power and strength, until at last they rave been able to force from the party am au thoYilive recognition of theit doctrines. Tlwy have baptized them id the name of Uemocrscy; and from tins time lorwaru not only are the living principles of iho old Democratic party to be ubandoned.but the doctrine is to be maintained that the Dred Seolt decision is the tfue interrelation of (he Constitution; that tho logical result of that decision pretests the people of a sov ereign State from excluding slavery. " ' TO DK CONTINUED NIXT WtKK.J ' XiTA young musical prodigy is altraiit ing a good deal of attention in the vicinity ofSfllern, Massachusetts. A little girl aged three years and seven months, who plays upon the piaoo more than fifty spar ate airs, having composed two or three herself. She It.trns very readily ; can play in the dark or blindfolded. He name ia Martha 8. Siory, 2d, ofEsite., Mass. Ehe had exhibited her wonderful taleuta orv several occasion to the groat tritettain-' meat ol hi.- iniuitoio.