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-' ---A tf J! V ' ' V JI V a - - tU,r . A J I . I V II V . I I FV :i I "J, i! II 6 NEW SERIES VOL. 1 CITY Or LANCASTER: rVBUSBEO KVBBT THUBSDAT MoBMSO IVS. SLAUGHTER. EDITOR AND PROPRIETOR OfTlCE-Old Pohlio Building-South-east Cora, of ths Publle squrv T'jiiiV.lti 71 nsf iiiq n .d"tn. Thursday Evening )t.'18 throw In iortte of those .n.rin, filters. o we can hand them OV ertothe loader of the lae Whig party. oI, GAwnm OBQAitf , . , . - , The above is taken from Auditor Jeffrie orcan. and intimate that fraudulent tick et urArn nrin ted at the Gazette office. The editor of the Eagle ha proven himelf to be Vh cowardly and; . dishonest politician; one who, dare not come out in an open and man ly manner against the corruption of hi po litical colleagues; one who ia eubservient to the behests of political knave, fcven after the editor of the Telegraph had come out and acknowledged the printing of the ticket in question, the editor of the Eagle has the cowardly audacity to Insinuate that they were printed by u. The editor of the Eag'j knew, on the day of the election, that those ticket were, not printed at thi of fioe,' and he also knew that they were print ed at the office of the Lancaster Telegraph. Now, if he. find any fault with the person vho printed these tickets, and he pretends to think it an unpardonable tin, why does he not direct his battery against the Tele graph? Is he afraid to brook its indigna tion! . Is he afraid the Democracy wilt re pudiate their old organ that ha battled for them ever since the organization of the Democratic party,in this county, and fall in with what the Eagle call "a bastard sheet" of only Tour year's growtht . ; One would, think that the acknowledged 'organ of the gallant Democracy of old Fair field would frown down thi dishonest broth er, "and not try to screen hi corruption by endeavoring to. fasten Jus guilt on an inno feent person. ' What does the Telegraph say! Simply this: .'.I.'-. ' ' ' ' "Some very disinterested person are en deavoring to make capital to Our injury out bf the printing of the tickets used by the 'temperance men at the late election. : We Jprinted their tickets." Now who are these "very disinterested persons' V Why. the fact is, the plural should not have been used at all by the Telegraph, and instead of saying "some very Vlisintorested persons are endeavoring to make capital to our injury," he should have Said, "the editor Of the Ohio Eagle,oar broth er, is endeavoring to injure us by charging us with corruption." . .'The truth ofthe matter is, that neither the editor Ofthe Eagle nor the editor of the Tel tgraph have the manly courage to come bold j out and express theft abhorrence of one another. Though if either of them could secretly, in the dark, and assassin like, stab "the other, politically, he would readily do ft. But their blind and truckling devotion to the spoils, completely shackles , their independence, and although the corruption ofthe Auditor and Treasurer was known to both these Ditnocralic, Libvty-loving organs, the promise of a few dollars' worth of pub lie printing was sufficient; Inducement to .keep them silent. We can respect and honor a man who op poses as on the ground of difference in prin iphr and who will meet us in a manly and courteous manner, endeavoring, by argu ment, and with an honest Intention to et before us what be considers to bo important ,truth, and addresses himself to our under standing and conscience4, but the man who 'bppose us merely for the sake of political preferment and the spoils of party, we look upon with too much contempt to counte nance ! either publicly or privately. VWe trust that thi will explain the reason ' hy we have never contradicted the false and Cowardly charges of the editdr of the Eagle, 'bai we were alRod to the Temperance and 1 Abolition parties. So far a the Abolition party is concerned, we think that it ia do ' ing more to create strife and dissention among all classes of our citizens, and do ing more to endanger . the permanency of 'the' Union and to fasten still tighter the ' C tknn Ant, rtthni narfv that, has cVer been arrayed against Amer ican Institutions or organized on Amerl- can soil. " ' The Temperance question' is a great moral question,, and one that should be en tir'ely'disconnected from politics. It Is t6b good a question to be controlled by politi- . hucksters, and used by : them to ride Into office, and we hope the day Is not 4T- ' ttrlran InfAmnAPnnRA shall Cease USA U19ll " ., j,. . w ... j. '0 xistnd the rum-seller shall be no more. ' ' We have seen proper to make these re marks in this connection, inasmuch as the editor of, "the Eagle has falsely charged us with befriending a coalition' between the " Temperance and Free Soil parties with the Whigs. We never did and never shall be friend such a move. The Whig party is good :nsndsT for us; its principle are as precious wow Wever.'and a great deal more needed. And although we may be defeated in every Ctate, and routed In every townahlp,you : "will still find us battling for their suprema- ;rj : Will the editor of Eagle have the manli ness and Independence to take back his Blaise -charges against, the editor of thi pa S per, that we wers allied with the Temper ' .... ihni;iUn' niirtiKt ' Will he take ', back hi cowardly intimation that we had printed the fraudulent tickets, and have the .conraze to fasten it upon the editor ofthe ' Tmkgraph, who acknowledgea - the priatlngiour constitutions and law establish politic- :Mt thsmt We shall see. ' ' " ' . I al equality, they operate to produce fecial e- . NO, 26. Friday Evening. Oct. 21, 1853, "Ths tscb Oasis or Amebic Iok pekdehck." We were so well pleasod with the address of William II. Siward before the. American Institute, New Vort, on me aeove suoiect, tbat we thought we could occupy our space no mora pro IB tab 1 than giving it entire. "It lucid ex position of the true sources of national grandeur, its profound analysis of the principles of A mericau Independence, and its fervent ap peals lit behalf of popular labor and univer sal freedom, challenge the attention of ev ery reflecting reader:'1 . ' Crentlemen of the American Institute, Dr. Johnson truly said that the first man who balanced a straw on his nose; the first men who rode turde horses at a timej In short,all sufh men deserved the applause of man kind, on account, not of the use of what they did, but of the dexterity which they ex hibited, for that.every;l)ing which enlarged thespHereof human powers, and showed man that he could do what he thought he could not do, was valuable. I apprehend ed that this is a true exposition of the phi losophy of ' your own most useful labors. Tbe increase of personal power and skill diminishes individual dependence; and indi vidual independence, when it, pervades the whole State, is national independence. Jt is only when through such individual ity of its members, a nation attains a certain independence that it passes from that con dition of society, in which it thinks, moves and acta whether for peace or for war, for right or for wrong, according to the interest or caprices of one or of s few persons (a condition Which defines monarchy or aristoc racy,) to that better condition in which it thinks, moves a- d acts, in all things under the direction Of one common interest ascer tained and determined by the intelligent consent of a majority, or all Of its members, which condition constitutes a Republic or Democracy. So Democracy whereve it ex ists, is more or lees perfect, arid of coiirse more or less safe and strong, according to the tone of individuality maintainedby its cit izens. Of all men and of all nations) it seems to me that Americans, and this Republic, have at once tbe least excuse for a want of inde pendence, and the most need for assuming and maintaining it. No other nation has equal elements or so ciety and of Empire. -Clitrlemagne, when founding his kingdom, saw -or might have seen that while it was confined by theo cean and by the medeterranean on the West and on the South, It was equally shut in Northerly" and Esstwardly " by river and mountan barriers, which would be success fully maintained forever, by races as vig orous and as independent, as the Franks themselves. Alfred the Great saw so clear ly how his country was circumseribed by the seas that he neveroncethoughtof continen tal Empire. .The future career of France and England may, like the past, be tilled up with spasmodic efforts to enlarge fixed do minions by military conquest, ond agricultur al and commercial colonies, but all such at tempts, even if they should be as gigantic, as those which have heretofore been made, will, like them, be followed by disastrous re actions, bringing the nations back again, and confining them at last, within their neutral and earliest borders. No political system can be held together permanently by furce suspending or overpowering the laws of political affinity and gravitation. Unlike those nations, wj are a homogeneous people, occupying a compact and indivisi ble domain, peculiarly adapted to internal commerce, seventeeu times greater than that of France, and an hundred time more extended than that of Great Britain. While it spreads Eastward and Westward across the Continent, nature has not interposed, nor has man erected, nor can he raise, a barri er on the North or on the South, that can prevent any expansion that shall be found necessary, provided only, that effect it shall be, as they ought to be, wise, peaceful, and magnanimous. Unly Russia excels us in territorial greatness. But while alt of her vast population are not merely willing, but even superstitious subjocts, of an unmiti gated despotism, more than fuur-nlths ol them are predial slaves. If such a population could within any short period, rise up to a state of compara tive social elevation, such a change would immediately lead to seditions that must in evitably result in dismemberment of the umpire. Why should we go abroad for minerals, or for metalic treasures, since this broad domain of ours is even more plentifully than any equal portion of the earth, stored with Marl, Gypsum, Salt, Coal, Quicksil ver, Lead, Copper, Iron and Gold! Where shall we find quarries and forests, producing more amply the materials for architecture, whether for the purposo uf peace or of war, on land or on seal . Our cities maybe built of our own free stone',, marbles and our Southern coasts, are fringed With nine and live-oak, while timber and lumber, diversified and exhaustless, crown our Northern mountains and plains. Why should we resort to other soils and climates for supplies of subsistence we ex pect spices, dyes and some not indispensa ble tropical rruits, since we nave sugar, rtce and cotton fields strecliing along the shore of the Gulf, long mountain ranges, such as those of Virginia and Vermont.declivntes in which the Vine delights, along the banks of the Ohio', and the endless prairies, fertile in all cereal grains, tobacco, flax and hemp, that border the Lakes and the Mississippi irtd their widely branching and tar-reaoliing inlets add tributaries. ' If there ia virtue in blood, what nation traces its lineage to purer aud gentler stocks)' And what nation increase its numbers) by either immigration or by native birlhst more rapidly; and what nation more over, has risin in - intelligence a equally or so fast! , If it be asked whether we have spirit and vigor proportioned to our natural reaouroes, I awnswer look at these thirteen original States. Their vigor ia not ouly unimpaired, but it is increasing. . ' Then look at the eighteen others, ollsnoots of those stock. They are even more elas tic and thrifty. Consider how small and how recently planted were tne germsoi an this political luxuriance, and to what early hardship and neglect they were exposed. Can we not reasonably look for a maturity full of strength and majesty! . Moreover, the circumstances of the age are propitious to us.The nations on this con tinent are new, youthful and fraternal, while those existing on the other are either lying in hopeless debasement, or are preparing to . .. i t . . undergo ins convulsion oi an iiiuispeimi bie regeneration. What power then need waiear! What power, if we were in danger, could yield us protections even aid! While -1 ppr- -Tifntia mm 'iii'TTTii iTT " I j '- - Lancaster, quality also, by preventing monopolies of iana ana great accumulation ol Wealth; and so they afford incentives to universal activity and emulation Why, then, should not the American oitisen and the American Reouh lie be consciously Independent in all thin if .t ' - iney are saie ana ireei Such independence should be attained and preserved, not by a few only, but, as far as possible, by all citizens. It Is not less essential th it the farmer, the mechanic, and the laborer shall enjoy it, than that it should regulate the action of ihe merchant, the lawyer and tbe states msn. ... Every member of the State mav becoms a soldier and even a Senator. He can nevr be less than an elector. What does not the Republic owe to Sher- mon and f ranklin? Yet they were me chanic. What would dot have been its fate but for the independence of the cap tors of Andre! Yet Pauldin?, William and Van Wert were mere laboring men. Virtue is . confessedly the vital principle of the Republic: but virtue cannot exist without couraire, which is only the con' scinusness of independence. We are bound to recommend Republican Institutions to the acceptance of other na tions. Can we do so if we are content to be no wiser, no more virtuous, no more use ful to humanity, than those to whom cuh institutions are denied! Responsibility is always in proportion to the talent enjoyed. Neither man nor nation can be wise or real ly virtuous, or useful, when dependent on the caprice or even the favor of another. Is there one among the tens of thousands of inventions in the fatent Othoe that was made by a slave, or even by one whose blood had been recently attainted by slave ry! Peter the Great, master of so many millions of slaves, resorted to the shop of a free mechanic of Saardara to learn the mys tery of ship building. His successor, Nich olas, employs Whin tier, a Massachusetts Engineer, to project, his railroads; Ross Winans, a Baltimore mechanic, to construct his locomotives, and Orasmus Eaton, a car riage maker of Troy, to construct his cars. ir we act hercalter as we have acted hith erto we shall be continually changing old things, old laws, old customs, and even old Constitutions for new ones. Does any one doubt this! Have we not already a third Constitution in this State! Has any one of the) State's a Constitution older than twenty. live years iiut political progress, it not regulated with moderation, may move too fast; and if not wisely guided will lead to ruin. . it is tne people themselves, and not any power above or aside from them, that alone must regulati! and direct that pro gress. Re they ever so honest, they can not discharge so great a political trust wise ly, except they act on such generous impuls es, and with such lofty purposes, as only bold and independent men can . conceive. The people must be independent, or this Kepublic, like all Republics that have gono before it, must be ruled and ruined by dem agogues. I am far from supposing that we are sig nally deficient in independence I know that it is a national, a hereditary and a popu lar sentiment, that we annually celebrate, and always glory in our independence. We do so justly, for no where else does evens form or a shadow of popular independence exist, while here it is the very rock on which our institutions rest. ' Nevertheless, occasions for the exercise of this virtue may be neglected. We hold in contempt, equally just and profound, him who imposes, and him who wears a menial livery; and ynt, I think, that we are accustomed to regard wi h no great severity, the employer who exacts, or the mechanic, clerk or laborer, who yields po litical conformity in consideration of wages. We insist, as wo ought, that every citizen in the State shall be qualified by education for citizenship; but we aro by no means unanimous that one citizen, or class of citi zens, shall not prescribe its rwn creca, in the instruction of the children of others. Wo construct and remodel partizan formu la and platforms with changing circum stances, with almost as much dilligence and versatility as the Mexicans, and we at tempt to enforce conformity to them, with scarcely less of zeal and intolerance, not indeed by the sword, but by the greater ter ror of political proscription. We resist ar gument not always with argument, but of ten with personal denunciation, and some times ever) with combined violence. We dif fer, indeed, as to the particular errors of po litical faith, that shall be correctod by this extreme remedy; but, nevertheless, the number of those who altogether deny its necessity and suitableness in some cases u very small. We justly maintain that a Free Press is the palladium of liberty, and yet mutually proscribing all editorial independence that is manilcsted by 'opposition to our opinions, we have only attained a press that is free in the sense that every interest, party, faction, or sect, can have it owrt independent or gan, if it be still maintained, notwithstand ing these illustrations to the contrary, that entire social independence prevails, then, I ask, why is it so necessary to preserve with jealousyt as we justly dot the ballot, in lieu o open suffrage; for if every citizen is real ly free from all fear and Hunger, wny anouia he mask his vole more than his face! Believe me, fellow Citizens) independence always languishes in the very degree that Intolerance prevails. We smile at the van ity of the factory girl at Jjowell, who, hav ing spent the secular part of the week In making calicoes lor tho use of her unsophis ticated countrywomen, disdainfully arrays herself on Sundays exclusively in the tints of European dyes, and yet we are indiffer ent to the fact that besides a universal con sumption of foreign silks, excluding the silkworm from our conntry, we purchase in England alone ono hundred and fifty mil lions or yards or the same stained muslins. We sustain here and there a rickety, or at best a contracted iron manufactory; wbilo we import iron to make railroads over our own endless ore neldst and we carry our prejudices against our struggling manufact urers and mechanics so far as to fastidiously avoid wearing on oilr persons, or using on our tables, or displaying In our drawing- rooms, any fabric, of whatsoever material, texture or color, In the course of Us manu facture, has to our knowledge and belief, ever come in contact with the honest hand of an American citizen. In all this, we are less independent than the Englishman, the Frenchman, or even the Siberian. It is painful to confess the same Infirmity In regard to intellectual productions. " We despise, deeply and universally the spoiled child of pretension, who, going abroad for education or observation, with a mind des titute of the philosophy of travel, returns to us with an affected tons and gait, sure indi cations of a craven.' spirit and a disloyal heart. And yet how Intently do we not watch to see whether one of our country men obtains In Europe the honor of sn aris- tocratie dinner, or of a .presentation, In a Ohio, thdbsday morning, NovEiiBER 3, mi grotesque costume, at Court! How do we not auspeiid our judgement on the merits of . - 1.-1 J me uauye amsi, oe ue uancer, siujrer, actor, limner, or scuior, and even of the native author, inventor, orator, bmliop, or states man, until by fluttering thdse who habitu ally depreciate bis siuntry, be passes nfely the ordeal uf foreign criticism, and so com mend himself to oer own oljt cautious ap probation) How do we not consult foreign mirrors, for our very virtues and vices, not lest than for our fashions, and think igno rance, bribery, and Slavery, quite jutified at borne, if they can be matched sgainst Op pression, pauperism sud crime in other coun tries! On occasions too, we are bold in applaud ing heroic struggling for fredo-n abroad: and we certainly have hailed with enthusi asm every rep iblican institution in South America, in f iance, in 1'oland, in Germany. and in Hungary. And yet how does not our sympathy rise and full, with every ehanze of the political temperature in Europe! In just this extent, wre not only not inde pendent! but -a ai-s actually governed by the monarchies and ariitocracies of the Old World. You may ask impatiently if I require the American citizen to throw off all submission to law, all deference to authority, and all re spect to the opinion of mankind, and that the American Republic shall constantly wage an oppressive war against all foreign systemsl I answer, no. There is here, a everywhere, a middle end a safe way. I would have the American citizen yield al ways s cheerful acquiesence, and never servile adherence, to the opinions of the ma- jority of his ceuntrymen and of mankind, whether they be engrossed in the forms of law or not, on all questions involving no moral principle; and even in regard to such as do affect the conscience, I would have him avoid not only faction, but even the ap pearance of it. But I demand at the same time; that he shall have his own matured and independent convictions, the result not ofecy authority, domestic or foreign, on every measure of public policy, and so, that while always temperate and courteous he shall always be a free and outspeaking cen sor, upon net only opinions, customs and ad ministration, but even upon law and con stitutions themselves. ' What I thus require of tho citizen, 1 insist, also, that he shall al low to every one of his fellow-citizons. I would have the nation also, though moder ate and pacifici yet always frank, decided and firm, in bearing its testimony against er ror and oppression;' and while abstaining from forcible invention in foreign disputes, yet always fearlessly rendering to the cause of Republicanism everywhere, by influence and example, all the aid that the laws of na tions do not poremptorilyi or in their true spirit, forbid. Do I propose in tliis a heretical or evori a new standard of public or private duty! All agree that tho customary, and even the le gal standards in other countries are too low. Must we then abide by them now and for ever! That would bo to yield dur independ ence, arid td be false towards mankind. We will maintain that ihe standard estab lished at any one time by a majority in our country is infallible, arid therefore final! If it be so.wliy have we resei ved by our Consti tution freedom of Speech, of the Press, Si of Suffrage, to reverse it! q. we may change everything, first complying, however, with constitutional conditions. Storms and com motions must indeed be avoided, but the po litical waters must nevertheless be agitated always, or they will stagnate. Let no one suppose that the human mind will consent to rest in error. It vibrates, however, only that it may settle at last in 'immutable truth and justice. Nor need wo fe ,r that we shall be too bold. Conformity is always easier than contention; and imitation is alwas ea sier than innovation. There are many who delight in ease, where thero is one, who chooses, and fearlessly pursues, the path uf heroic duty. Moreover, while we are expecting hope fully to see foreign customs and institutions brought by the in Hue nee of commerce into conformity with our own, it is quite mani fest that commerce has reciprocating influ ences, tending to demoralize ourselves, and so to assimilate our opinions, manners and customs ultimately to those of aristocracy and despotism. We cannot afford to err at II on that side. We exist as a free people only by force of our very peculiarities. They arc the legitimate peculiarities of Re publicanism, and, as such, are the test of na tionality. Nationality ! It is as just as it is popular. Whatever policy, interest or Institution is local, sectional or foreign must bezeahusly watched and counteracted; for it tends di rectly to social dorangement, and so to the subversion of our democratic constitution. But it is seen at once that this Nationali ty is identical with that very political Inde pendence which results trom a high tone of individuality on the part ofthe citizen. Let it have free play, then, and so let every cit izen value himself at his just worth, in body and soul; namely, not a serf or a subjeot or any human authority, or the inferior of any class, however great or wise, but a freeman, who is so because 'Truth has made him free;" who not only, equally with all oth ers, rules in trie Republic, but is also bound, equally with any other, to exercise design ing wisdom and executive vigor and efficien cy in ihj eternal duty of saving and perfect ing the Stale. When this Nationality shall prevail, we shall no moro see lasiiion.weaith, social rank, political combination, or even official proscription, effectiv i in suppressing the utterance ol mature opinions and true convictions; and so enforcing for brief per iods, with long reactions, political conform ity at the hazard of the public welfare, - and at the cost of tho public viitue. - Let this Nationality pi evail, and then, in stead of keenly watching, ' not without sin ister wishes, for war or. famine, the fitful skies, or even the more capricious diploma cy of Europo; and instead of being hurried into unwise commercial expansion oy me rise of credit there, and then bark again Intoexhaustiing convulsions and bankrup tcy by its fall, we shall have a steady und a prosperous, because it will bean independ ent, internal commerce. Let this Nationality prevail, and then we shall cease to undervalue dur own farmers; mechanics and manufacturers, and their pro ductions; our own aclerice.and literature.and inventions; our own orators and statesmen; in short, our own infinite resources and alt competent skill, our own virtue, and our own peculiar and justly envied freedom. 'T'hert I am sure that instead of perpetual ly levying large and exhausting armies like Russia, and without wasting wealth in em ulating the naval power of England and without practicing a servile conformity to the diplomacy of Courts, end without cap tiouslv seeking frivolous occasions for mak ing th world sensible of our importance, we hall, hv the force of our own genius and virtue, and the dignity of freedom, take, with the free consent of mankind, the first place in the great family of Nations. . ' Gent emen of the Institute, from the earn - Mines with which lite theory of Fre- Trade I perpetually urged in some quarters, one mielit ilnrtn.iA ihit it th,.,iKi ik.t It.. - rr ..... ... . v. ,...., i. mna injurious io that 01 cardinal interest of the country lay in mere J other. This cannot be io any jul roa exchanging of merchandie. On th coo- j true, since tbe prosperity and vigor of each trary, of ihe three great, wheels of national dais depend is a fri dfgres on th pros prosperity. Agriculture U tbe main one, ' parity aqd vigor ol ell the industrial ela. Manufacture second, and Trade i. tha last, j es. But all experience show., thai If Gov Tbe cardinal in ereat of this and every cjun- ernment d Hoi favr domestic enterpri., try Is, and alwayt must be Production- It j its negative policy will benefit sums fur' is not traffic but Ubor alone, that convrts cign monopoly, which of all class logul. the resources of the country into wealth tion is most lnjeriom anl m it excusable. rie world ha yet loses any Stale tecum Once owe it i said that the present mjt great by mere trade. It has seen many Us- tem roust be rih, becaoo oreJidtiuns of come u by the exercise of indu.rv. Where there are diversified resources. nd industry is applied to only a few staples, three great interests are neglected, viz: nit ural resources, whisb are left unimprjve.l, labor that U left unetnaljeJ. and internal exchanges, which a diversity of Industry would render necessary. The foreign com merce, which is based on such a otrpow system of production, obliges the nation t Sell its staple at prices reduced by coinpeli- deeply from any caue, for it has great re lion in foreign markets; and to buy fabric ; cuperative encr!-. f t is not des ined to at prices established by monopoly in the .' n iimsediate fall, or even to early dtcline. same msraeis. This false economy crowds the cnllnre ol ; r,- ...la. I rendering labor dependent at home, while it brings the whole nj'.ion, tributary io the mo nopolizing manufacturer abrond. Wlirn all. or any ofthe nations of E-ope ilull as well as ourselves be round successfully compet ing with England irt manufactures, then.and not till then, will the free trade she rocont mends, be as wise for others, a dm now in sists. But when that timi ahall come, I venture to predict that England tvillcea9 to inculcate that dogma. The importance of maintaining such a policy a will result in a diversified application of industry, seems to rest on these impregnable ground, vi: lt. That the use of indigenous rri tterijlj dues not diminish, but on the contrary, increases the public wealth. 2J. T.iat S-iciety is con stituted so, that individuals voluntarily clas sify themselves in all, and not In a few, de partments of industry, by reason of aditrib utive congeniality of tates and adaption of ! lion or mmy Sutes.aai for the purpose of powers; and that while labor so dist.-ibutel securing acquieicence allow great paer is more profitable, the general contentment j to minorities. Although there is no real an and independence of the people is secured j tagonism of interests, the-s is, nevertheless, and preserved, and their enterprize is stim- a wide diverganes of opinion concerning ulated and eustained. I think it must be 'those interests, resulting frjm the diJerent confessed now, by all candid observers, degree or maturity and'development reach witliin our country, that mmufscture hsveied in the several States. MiSiachutctts become ia degree the exclusive employ- mentofthe citizens of the Bittern States; and yet they are precarious, and compara tive. y unprofitable, because our osrn pat ronage, so generously discriminating in fa vor of European manufactures, enables them to make the desired fibrics sometime t( less cost. That the citizens of the Middle and Western States, are confined chiefly to me raising ot staple uroaastuns, lur wnich, while they have a great excess above - the home consumption, resulting from the neg lect of domestic manufactures, they finds market alrriostotfer-stocked with similar p-o-ductions; raised id countries, as peculiarly agricultural as our own: and that ths citi zens of the Southern States, restrict them selves chiefly to tho culture of cotton, of which, practically, they liave the monopoly ' that the annual enlargement uf the cotton culture, tends to depress its price, and that they pay nvre dearly for (he fab rics, which they use, than wdiild be neces sary if our own manufactures could better maintain a competition, with th se of Eu rope. - These inconveniences woulJ indeed be come intolerable evils, if they were riot compensated in some measure by the great iucrease of wealth resulting from the im migration jf foreign labor; and for the es tablishment of a new and prosperous gold trade between the Atlantic States and Cal ifornia. Why should thoso inconveniences be en dured! Certainly not because we do not know that they are unnecessary. We jeal ously guard our culture of ureadstuSs and sugar against the competition of the foreign farmer and planter in our own markets. Practically our gold mining is equally pro tected. We also give and exclusive pref erence in our internal commerce to our own shipping. No one questions the advantage of these great departments of production. II at it is not easv to see how the equally successful opening of other domestic resour ces should not be equally beneficial. Why should it be less profitable to supply ourselves with copper, iron, glass and paper from our own resources, and by our own in dustry, than it is to supply ourselves in the same way with flour, sugar and gold! Why should it not be as economical to manufac ture our own cotton, wool, iron and gol l, as it is to manufacture our own furniture, wooden clocks and ships! If mining and manufactures generally were not profitable in England they would not be prosecuted there. If they are profitable there, they would be profitable here. You reply that manufacturing labor Is cheaper there. Yes because you leave it theie. If you offor inducements it will come here. just as freely as agricultural la bor now comesi The ocean is reduced to a ferry. If you must depend on foreign skill for fabrics, I pray you bring that skill here, where you can sustain it with greater econ omy. . . . j The advocates of dependence on foreign manufacturers, tell us that it is Well to sell gold and buy iron, as it would be to sell iron to buy gold. I reply, 1st; That to the ex tent of our rtPcessary consumption; haviug exhaustless resources and adequate industry or ability to procure it, we ought to buy nei ther. 2d. When Boultotl, the associate of the great VVatt, showed his iron manufacto ry, ne said, "i sen nere wnat an men are anxious to buy, Power." It has been prov ed that a nation may sell gold for iron with out gaining power, as many a nation has bought iron without securing it. But it is clear, that the nation that makes its own iron creates its own power. It eems td be understood by the advo cates of foreign manufactures here, that only those branches languish, which have not sufficient vigor to be brought to maturity) by never so muci protection. This is opposed j to the experience ot all manittnti. i ne re is not in France or in England, a successful culture or manufacture ' that ' has not been made so by the application of natural pro tection and patron ago. The manufacturers ol Englund are euBtained, even now, by the sacrifice of agricultural labor there. The decline of agriculture is proved by s rapidly Increasing emigration from the British Is lands. What England calls free trade, is indeed a new form of protection,, but it is protection nevertheless. . She finds it e qually effective and - expensive. British commerce and British manufactures do in deed flourish, but British empire dcclines.- Tbe decline is seen in the lameness of Eng land now towards Russia, France, bnd our own Country, compared with the different attitude she maintained against all offond- iug powers, in the ae of the elder Piu ani ! the younger Pitt 1 It i insisted, however, thai ana nr..'. j m-nt yUflJed M the lu.lu.try of one cUaaof ' I. j . '! disasters, thai hcild result from it. bars been falsified I do ,.( dwell on ths signs, to ponen ia fcarfu fu - iele, of those predictions. which Mem now nllmeiit, neterthelei n, of those pred L?t it suffice lt ,say, that it Is at common an error, to look prematurely for the blight which must follow erroneuu culture, at it is 10 expect propitiodifroiu from that which ii judii-ijus. Tli'u . nstiuq is youthful and vig-jruus: ' It canrt A b w nflcr Uni and illu lwnirt ofwunn. npvonhuU.. ..t to try how nia.'.h of erronejus tdminislrs- tion it can bear, but to adapt our policy al ways o n to favor the nV-t coraplete and laning success of the Republic. Gentlemen of tbe Iuetiiuie.l refrain from discussing the detail of policy. Cirtu n stsncfc; are hastening s necessity for an examination ?f them in aanair place, where action folldws debate, and is eflVct ive. I shall not be absent nor idii there. But I will not attempt t delude either ray self or you into the belief that the opinion I have expressed, which I trust io some de gree ccrreipond with your own, will soou become fully engrafted into tin policy of the Government. 1 shall perform my duty better by showing yod tint ii is nit wise to expect, n-jr even sbsilu'.ely necessary to depend on the exercise of a just patronage of our industry by the Government. This Republic, although e instituting one nauon, partakes ofthe Itrm of a con's iera t and Vimnia.New Y..rk and South Carulina. scarcely differ in their sgas; but, neverthe less, they differ in their industrial system.as widely as Pennsylvania and Arkansas. T. old free States have passed through tne stages at which the merely agricultural and planting States hare only arrived. It would practically be as impossible ti bring these latter States immediately up to our ' proper policy, as it would be to carry us backward to Die Bye tern which they are pursuing. They will resist all sdcU efforts earnestly and perseveringly, So loil 2 as they shall feel that tbey are unable, like ns, to distribute their industry, and so to share in the bene fits of that pjlicy. All that we can expect under such circumstances, from the Govern ment, is some occasional dnd partial moJi3 cation ot its financial policy, so as to favor the siccess ofthe effort of the friends of home industry in establishing it on a safe bai, without ths immediate and direct aid of Congress. And this will be suScient.- It is net yet forty year ince New York ap plied in Vain to theUuited Stated to con struct the Erie Canal; which was acknowl edged to be thencipienrfmeajure in a sys tem of Internal Improvements to be coex tensive with (he Republic. Now, not only that canal has been built, but the whole Sys tem is in a train of accomplihment,ahhdugh Congress has not only never adopted, but ha almost constantly repudiated it. Pri vate snd corporate enterprize, sustained by the States, has worked out what the Federal Government has refused to undertake. T.,e same agencies will establish ths American system. Capital, labor, science, skill, are augmenting lirre. Power is daily becom ing cheaper, and consumption more exten sive. New Hampshire, Massachusetts, Rhode Island, Connecticut, Vermont, New York, Pennsylvania, New Jersey .Delaware, Maryland and Ohio, have become manufac turing States. The advantages resulting from the policy are indicated not more by the universal impr jvement of the agricultur al districts in these States, than by the pros perity and growth of their Owns and citiel Here are Boston, Lowell, Lawrence, Spring field, Provider ce, New Haven, Rntland, Bennington, New York, Albany, Troy, Rochester and Buffalo. Philadelphia and Pittsburgh, Newark and Paterson, Wilming ton and Baltimere, Cincinnati and Cleve land, contrast with theni the town and cit ies of those slates, which practically adhere to the policy of employing foreign industry, and you see plainly the results of error. That ioritrast excites induiry, arid inquiry will go on, until it shall correct the great error; and introJuce universal emulation.' Persevere then, Gentlemen of the Insti tute, for while yoo are represented as hin dering the prosperity of the country, you, and nolle so much a you are securing it and rendering it universal; While you are, regarded as favoring privileges snd monop olies, you and none so much as yon are counteracting pauperism and class-legislation. While you are censured for oppos ing the interests of commerce, you, snd none so much as yoii, are laying the sure foundation for a commerce that shall be as broad as the limits of the earth, and lasting as tha necessities and the enterprise of mankind While you are represented as checking the rising greatness of ths nation, vou, and only you, by lifting Labor to its rightful rank, are elevating the Republic to true and laeting independence. . (fcrThe result ofthe general introduction of Americans into the cities on the shores of the South Pacific has been to infuse a spirit of enterprise among the people, and lend activity to every branch of trade. The breakwater at Valpa-iso is progressing rap idly under Yankee superintendence and tbe bonded warehouse are rapidly rising into grartdeiir under the auspices of that indefati gable American John Brown. AuotHer great enterprise attributed to Americans ha been ths procurement ol ice lor the citi zens, under an exclusive contract with tne GovermenU The appearance or a Yankee two wheel cab in the streets ot Valparaiso has created quite an excitement among the moustached hidalgos, and made them open their eyes with wonder. Sewing machines too are about being introduced there. 1 nere seems to be one thing moro-wanting, and that is a little wholesome Yankee compe tition with the e'uish British mail line, which plies on the coast. - v ft7-Durine September, there were 1,640 births, 676 marriage and J,95S deaths in New York city. ' ' . ' ' OrNovember 34 is thanksgiving day in Connecticut. . WHOLE NO 14C8 Salasrdiiy I'srising, Oct, 99 -IMS. Votb Foa Govsbiob. Th Sutssmia ha collected ihe vote for Gsversnr from all tbs counties except Anglais, Beluto anl Henry, and its footlags a follows: " ' ' Medill ' 144,935 Barrere - ,I70 60,150 Medill' majority over Barrere is. EQAii, and over tfafrers and Lewis 10,398. To show what an awful falling off there ' haa been, we append Ihs vote fives ia thi . Rtite last fall for President." Pierce, IGfJ.i I320; Scott, lJ3,5j(i; Hls, Jl.l .t t .. ..... tfiha, be '" th" '' ' OiX It will falls short of tfiat for Pbrcs by 3t.'i91,andhat ths sniti ed vote efBtrrsre and Lewi falls short ol Scott' vote by Si 7. The total vote last year was 353.43S. This year tt is only 274,454, being s falling off of 73,974. It U wall understood that twenty or thir ty thunnni Whigs votfrd (orlPnvis on the temperance question. This fully explain the incretse in hi vote. O. S. Jour, '' (TOn the evening of the 30th, between five and six o'clock, there was sa explosion of gas in the h de of Dr. Rifus VV. Gris wol I In New York, by which himself end wife were severely burned, , ( Dr. Griswold had Kisficeand neck bunt ed, bdt hi band suffered most from his ef fort to save the child, whose body for a mo ment was wrapped in fire. ' On being con veyed to the house of a friend In Fourteenth street, it was discovered that tbe skin was hanging loose from ths finger snd back of both hands, and that several of the nail must be removed. "Dr. Griswold Buffered ths most intense agony. The child who was nluch less seriously injured, wss csrried to her home in Nineteenth street. tt Meass S j:thiso. W. H. Webb.the famous ship builder in New York, tt is (aid, ha an order from the Emperor of Russia 16 build a hundred gun ships, furnished with a steam propeller, and to deliver her within s reasonable time at St. Petertburgh. It is to combine all the fleet nes of the clipper .with' the strength and power ofthe old liners. The Czar desires it a s model ship for his navy. . He say ho has been following infe rior Fnglish model long enough. Givx Tools to tab B jts farmer fur nish your ydringboys with light, neat and good toaN.an J ttich them how to keep them in good order, if you would have them love agricdllttre.snd give them s little lot for theif own use. tf you wish to di eourag them, and drive them off to tbe city, to sea or to California, give them rusty hoe, broken hovels, dull srytbes, c, to work with, and not allow them to plant a seed or tree for themselves. Hapfixess. Notting is purer than bori1 estynoititri !.. iaMit7-w-iiQih-. Iri brighter than virtue nothing warmer than love and nothing more steadfast than faith. These, united in one mind, form the purest, ths sweetest, tbe richest, ths bright est, the holiest snd tbe most slesdfast hap. piness. Tixas. By oar latest advices from Tx ss, ws learn that ths fever i os the decline at Galveston. On the 85th ult., ths battal ion of 5th infantry, from Phantom Hill, pas sed through Austin, en routs for tbs Rio Grande. Tbs Catrianchs express Strong desires for peace. SrcsxT. A Virginian speculsting on ths possibility of a division of ths surplus a mcngthe several States,say: "W should rejoice to tee every dime sunk in tbs Po tdmio, rather that bear sf ths reception of a solitary cent of it by Virginia." (Brit is staled that the Russian clergy sre ignorant and immoral. Tbe priestly of fice is regarded as s means of escaping slavery, snd the priests pass nearly half their bves in s state of intoxication.- - fjThe trial for ths slaughter of Thomas Collier, John F. Tallman and others, own - er 4. officers of the steamboat Henry Clay, is now before judge Ingcrsoll, of th United States Circuit Codrt. - . . . (7-Ats literary dinner in London, where Thuckerav and Ansus B. Reach were i-- ts at the tea-table, Thackeray who had never before met Mr, Resrb addressed hint ss Mr. Reach pronouncing the nsme as its erlhoffrsOhv would naturally indicate. "Re-ack, sir, Rs-sck, If you please," said Mr. Reach, who is punctilious Upon having hil name pronsunced in two syllables, a if spelled Re-ak. Thackeray of coarse appolo gtsed arid corrected hi pronunciation; but In the course of the desert, be took occasion to hand a plate of fins peaches scro the table, sayirtg, in a tons which -only he pos sessed. " Jlr. Re-ak, will yoti tske s pe-akl" StahD raoil Usdeb! Ths Cincinnati 8uH published about two columns of testimony In the Martha Washington rase. . .Tbi is la violation of the order, snd we presume is intended to try the power . and right of tbe Court to enforce its position. We presume a motion will be made this afternoon to r rest the publisher. We shall then hev warm times. So, prepare to see sights.--We shall keep our readere posted on thls new snd exciting ubject. -O. S. Journal Thankgiving and Prryr.The Governor bu estspart Thursday, the 1th day of No vember, ss s day of thsnkavlving and prayer throughout the State of Ohio, t . .. . ; fjirWe learn from a gentleman just frons Colombo, that two men were killed at the Railroad Depot at that place, last night, hf being tun over by the care... 07-The following appointments are ofli" eially announced; , . ' . 7 '..",' Robert M. McLaoe, of Maryland, as Cora' missiooer to China., - ' - ,vA '. fc Levi K.-Browtbf Maryland, bsmI Bordeaux. , , ; Oi7The Ohio and ' Pennsylvamay Pl..lnd and Piltabun Railroad CtV "i mrrmnani ia take aaasentrtT "P'