CHER AW GAZETTE. I
M. Maclean editor & proprietor.. CHERAW, S. C., TUESDAY, APRIL 26, 1836. vol i. ho m,
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FUNCTION'S OF THE BRAIN.
From Combe on Health and Mental Education.
Most physiologists arc agreed that the
different parts of the brain perform distinct
functions and that these functions are the
highest and most important in the animal
economy; but there is great discrepancy
of opinion as in what the function of each
part is, and as to the best mode of removing
the obscurity in which the subject is involved.
It would be useless to examine
here the merits of the respective theories
and modes of inquiry, as the attempt would
x lead us too far from the practical aim of
the work. Suffice it to say, that all physiologists
and philosophers regard the brain
as the organ of mind; that most of them
consider it as an aggregate of parts, each
. i _.
charged with a specilic tunction ; anu uuu i
a large majority, with Gall and Cuvicr at
their Jiead, regard the anterior lobe as more
immediately the seat of the intellectual faculties.
Further, by nearly universal consent
the brain is held to be also the seat of
the passions and moral feelings * of our nature,
as well as of consciousness and every
other mental act, and to be the chief source
of that nervous influence which is indispensable
to the vitality nnd action of every organ
of the body. There are so few exceptions to
the general belief of these propositions, that
i consider myself fairly entitled to hold them
Many animals possess individual senses
or instincts in greater perfection than man,
bat there is not one which can be compared
with him in the number and range of its
faculties; and, as a necessary consequence
there is not one which approaches him in
the developement and perfection of its nervous
system. No organ can execute more
than a simple function; and, accordingly,
even the Edinburg Review admits, that, in
precise proportion as we ascend in the scale
ofcreation, and the animal acquires a sense.
ti powcrj or tin uu iid iH'i i vd uiuiii"
ply and "its brain improve in Structure uml
augument in volume, each addition being
marked by some addition or amplif cation of
the powers of the animal, until in man we
behold it possessing some parts of which animals
are destitute, and wanting none which
they possess," so that " wc arc enabled to
associate every faculty which gives superiority,
with some addition to the nervous mass,
even from the. smallest indications of sensation
and will, up to the highest degree of sensibilitty,
judgment, and expression
It is extremely important to bear in mind
tiiis constant relation between mental power
and dcvclopcment of brain. It not only
explains why capacities and dispositions
are so different, but shows incontrovertibly
that the cultivation of the moral and intellectual
faculties can be successfully carried
on only by acting in obedience to the laws of
organization, and associating together those
faculties, the organs of*which are simultaneously
progressive in their growth. It is a
Jaw, for instance, that alternate periods cf
activity and repose conduco to the strength
1 J rwf\r\T nrfT.Hl .*111(1 til
anu m;vciuj>i;iij^uk v? ?^?w^ v.0~?.,
the easy performance of its function, an J
that excess in either is alike hurtful in its
consequences. If, therefore, in our anxiety
lor the advancement of a child in a favourite
pursuit, we urge it to incessant and unvaried
exertion of the same kind for many hours
a day, we violate this law in neglecting the
necessary intervals of rest, and thus run
the risk of injuring the health of the brain,and
entirely defeating our object. And, on the*
other hand, if wc withdraw the child altogether
from the pursuit, for weeks or months
at a time, as happens during the vacation
of the school, wc violate the law again, in
depriving the faculties of their nccessarv exercise,
and thus run the risk of sacrificing
the improvement already gained, and of diminishing
the mental power. In neither
case is the brain exercised in conformity
with the organic laws, and consequently wc
look in vain for the same amount of improvement
which would have followed their ful*
* ^ lt??nl/\lArPTr A(*
filment; ana yet, so tar is mu jmm aiuiv.
the brain from being considered as the only
60und basis on which the science of education
can rest, that very few teachers or
moralists are aware that the organic laws
havo any connexion with the operations of
mind, and still fewer have ever thought of
adapting their practice to the dictates of
these laws; although no truth in education
or philosophy can be more clearly proved, or
more beneficially applied, than, that 011 which
I am now insisting.
In thus treating of the brain as the indispensable
instrument or organ of the mental
faculties, I must not be understood as representing
mind and brain to be one and the
same thing. I mean only that the brain is
necessarily engaged in every intellectual
and moral operation, exactly as the eye is in
every* act of vision , and that, as the mind
cannot sec without the intervention of the
eye, so neither <;au j: think or feel, during
t Kuingburg Review, Xo. xciv. p. lid-3.
life, except through the instrumentality of
the brain. Consequently, u would be as
reasonable aud logical to infer, from the
former proposition, that the eye is the mind
or the mind the eye, ns to infer from the
latter that the brain is the mind, or the mind
it requires, however, to be distinctly understood,
that aotivity of mind and activity
of brain are inseparable,l# and that every
change in the one is attended by a corresponding
change in the condition of the
other. If, by the excessive use of stimulants,
the brain be highly excited, the mind will be
disturbed in an equal degree, as is exemplified
every day in the phenomena of
intoxication : and if, on the other hand, the
mind be suddenly roused by violent pas*
sions, the vessels of the brain will instantly
ta-keon increased action, redness will suffuse
the face, and excitement of the brain will
show itself in characters as legible as ifproduced
by a physical cause.
The mind and brain being thus inseparably
associated during life, it becomes an
object of primary importance to discover
the laws by which their healthy action is
regulated, that wc may yield them willing
obedience, and escape the numerous evils
consequent on their violation.
The brain being a part of the animal
system, and subject to the same general
laws as every other organ, the reader will
not be surprised that I should, as in the case
of the lungs, state a sound original constitution
as the first condition of its healthy
action. "If the brain possess from birth a
freedom from all hereditary taints and imperfections,
and have acquired no unusual
susceptibility from injudicious treatment in
infancy, it will withstand a great deal in*
after-life before its health will give way.
But if, 011 the other hand, cither it inherit deficiencies,
or early mismanagement have subsequently
entailed upon it an unusual proneness
to morbid action, it will give way
under circumstances which would otherwise
have been perfectly innocuous; and, ac
cordinglv, it may be truly said, that trie most
power lb 1*1 of all the causes whtch predispose
to nervous and mental disease is the transmission
of a hereditary tendency lrom parents
to children, producing in the latier an unusual
liability to the same maladies under
which the parents have laboured.
Even where the delect in the parent is
merely some peculiarity of disposition or
temper, amounting perhaps to eccentricity, j
it is astonishing how clearly its influence 011'
someone or other of the progeny may be j
traced, and how completely a constitutional
bias of this description may interfere with
a man's happiness or success in life. I
have seen instances in which it pervaded
every member of a family, and others in
which it allcctcd only one or two. When
the original eccentricity is on the mother's
" o 7 ? 7
side, and she is gifted with much force of
character, the ovii more widely
among the children than when it AO UJ* |
fat Iter's side, Where both parents are
descended from tainted families, the progen
v is of course more deeply affected than
where one of them is from a pare stock ;
and, seemingly for this reason, hereditary
predisposition is a more usual cause of nervous
disease in the higher classes, who intermarry
much with each other, than in the
lower, who have a wider choice.
Unhappily, it is not merely as a cause of
disease that hereditary predisposition is to
be dreaded. The obstacles which it throws
in the way of permanent recover}" are even
more formidable, and can never be entirely !
removed. Safety is to be found only in a- j
voiding the perpetuation of the mischief;
and, therefore, if two persons, each naturalIv
of an cxcitcable and delicate nervous tem.
I r .. .1 t
pcrament cnoosc 10 uuue kumu, un-\ ua>^
themselves to blame for the concentrated influence
of si.iilar tendencies in destroying
the health of their offspring, and subjecting
them to all the miseries of nervous disease,
madness, or melancholy.
Even where no hereditary defect exists,
continued excitement of the nervous functions
in the mother, from anxiety, grief, or
other causes, during pregnancy, has often
a striking effect on the future mental health
and constitution of the offspring. Many
authors testily to the truth of this fact,
which has not escaped the penetration of
some mothers. The Margravine of Anspaeh
observes justly, that" when a female is likely
to become a mother, she ought to be doubly
careful of her temper; and, in particular,
to indulge no ideas that are not cheerful,
and no sentiments that arc not kind. Such
is the connexion between the mind and
body, that the features of the face are
moulded commonly into an expression of
the internal disposition; and is it not natural
to think that an infant, before it is
born, may be affected by the temper of its
.mother ?'!?Memoirs, vol. ii. chap. viii.
'? " '
From the Sunday School Journal.
DENOMINATIONAL AND GENERAL UNIONS.
Since the institution of the American
Sunday-school Union, several other societies
have been formed for the promotion
and aid of Sabbath-schools. Some ofthese
have been established for the benefit of a
particular denomination throughout the
whole country; others for particular denominations
within certain limits. The Methodist
Episcopal and Protestant Episcopal
Unions, for instance, are in this sense gene-,
rid?tliey are designed to assist the cause
in their respective denominations in all parts
of the land, and are connected with their operations
as churches. There are other
denominational Unions, which are not connected
ofticially with their ecclesiastical organizations,
but are designed to promote
the benefit and increase of the schools of
: their denominations within certain limits?
; such as the Massachusetts Bavlixt Union,
ortiie Sabbath-school .Society of the same
State, which is Congregational. There is
a third class of Unions, which are not restricted
to any denomination, but are limited
in extent, as the Illinois, the South Carolina,
d:c. The list we gave in our last number
comprised only those Societies or Unions
which aie denominational. Our Society
took the title of Union to express the assocaition
of evangelical Christians, with- J
out regard to name. The other Societies t
have adopted it to signify the connexion of j
the members of their own body in a common
enterprizc. Thc genus and the species
have the same term.
Whilst we are making this explanation
lor the benefit of some who have not understood
the distinctions referred to, we would
add a few remarks, to remove some other
1. '.ftiere is no interference or rivalry be
tween the American and the other Unions. |
It was never the design oi' this societv to !
O & i
monopolize this department of benevolence. j
Its effort has been to encourage the formation
of Schools and Societies, whether con
nccted with it or ^10. Whatever tends to ;
promote religious education, furthers the j
main object of our institution?whether this :
be done for any one brancli of the Christian j
church alone, or lor all its branches collec- I
lively, there is so much accomplished for the '
great end in view.
2. The multiplication of denominational!
Unions, instead of diminishing, increases
the necessity for a general Union. The
main object of each of those is to advance .
and supply the schools of its own denomination.
These schools require comparatively
but a few books of a distinctive character?purely
denominational?and the rest
come within the scope of a General Society.
Of course, the more schools, the greater
must be the demand. Besides, in proportion
as teachers and other assistance arc rc
quired for such schools, tho greater defici- J
ency will be created in bohali'of thcmulti- i
tudes who cannot he collected into them, on I
oecount of the diversity of the opinions of
the parents, the want of accommodation,!
vtc. It follows, then, that the American is !
not superseded by local or denominational J
Unions, however numerous they may he, i
and that there should be no collision be- j
tween them. Each denomination or (lis- J
trict may support its own Union; hut it is j
no more reasonable to withhold aid on that [
account from the American Union than it;
is to refuse to support a Foreign or Domes i
tic Missionary Society, because every man j
has his own pastor and church to maintain..:
3. Therefore, the principles and opera-j
tionsofthc General Union must continue,
unchanged, whatever changes may occur
in the deLToc of favour in which it is regard
0 ^ W
ed by the several denominations. We sometimes
see assertions based on the supposition
of one or another denomination with,
drawing; from our Union; and the inference
made, that as each withdraws, it loses its r,.:..:u0
or nctnir comprencnaeu in our i nion
principles. This springs from inattention
to f lie fact, which we are weary of repeating,
that no denomination can withdraw
irom the Union, for the good reason that i
none is connected with it. It must go on
in its work of encouraging Christian education
and circulating moral and religious
books, on the principles of Christian Union,
so long as it 1ms friends of any church to uphold
4. It is, then, the reciprocal duty of the
general and special Sabbath-school Socicties
to regard each other as fellow-labourers
in the same field, and to avail themselves
ofcacii other's assistance. There is
probably no section of our country where a
denominational Union can meet the wants
of the whole population; and we suppose
there is 110 evangelical church that would
not laid great help in adding our publica
tions to those furnished by its special society.
On 'he other hand, it is the duty of the
missionaries of the General Union, and it is
nv.de obligatory by their commissions, not
to interlcre with any denominational schools,
by attempting to change the principles on
which they are established, or to disturb
their connexion with another Union.
5. Every motive of Christian benevolence
that leads any one to support local or
special institutions of religious instruction,
on the Lord's day, urges to the commensurate
support of the only Union in this country
in which Christians of all evangelical
denominations may and do unite. There
arc hundreds of thousands who can be readied
by the gospel in 110 oilier way. To meet
this destitution the friends of the study of
the Bible should vigorously combine, and
send forth by the instrumentality of the Sabbath-school,
the message of mercy through
the Divine Redeemer.
It t It Ali ECO.XUH V.
Extract from a Pamphlet giving on Account of
the Medical Properties of the Grey Sulphur
The great reputation which the Mineral
Springs of Virginia have of late years acquired,
cause then) to be resorted to, in great
numbers, not only by invalids from every
section of the United States and foreign
parts, hut also by individuals of leisure and
fashion, whose principal object is, to pass
the summer in an agreeable manner. The
properties of the Warm, Hot, Sweet, White
Sulphur, Salt Sulphur and Red Sulphur
Springs arc generally known. Those of
theGrevSulphur having been ascertained!
only within the last two years, have yet to |
be made public, and in order to do so, wo arc |
induced to give in this form, an account of j
the situation and medical properties, togcth-!
er with a statement of some of the cases j
benefitted by the use of the waters.
The Grey Sulphur Springs are situated j
near the line, dividing the counties of Giles ;
and Monroe, Virginia ; on the main road j
leading from the Court House of the one to
4ho other. Thev arc three fourths of a j
mile from Peterstown, 9 miles from the Red
Sulphur, and by the County road, 20 1-4 r
miles from the Salt Sulphur Spring. In
travelling to the Virginia Springs; by either, c
the main Tennessee, or Goodspur Gap roads c
and crossing the country from Newborn, by ij
the stage road to the Sulphur Springs, the
Grev Sulphur arc the first arrived at. They
are 30 miles distant from Newbern. The t
location is such as will admit of many and c
varied improvements, which when comple- ^
ted, will render this spot an elegant and desirable
resort during the summer months, in- t
dependent of the high medicinal properties r
of the Mineral Waters. <
The present improvements consist of a f
brick Ilotcl 90 feet long, and 32 wide; two <
ranges of cabins 102 feet long each, which,
with other buildings in connexion, allbrd ac- i
commodation for from SO to 100 visiters.
Tlirtw* rtrn fiir, Snfiiirr? nt thic ostflhlish- 1
menr, situated within five feet of each other <
and inclosed in one building. Although ri- t
sing so near Jo each other, yet they differ i
most materially in their action on the sys- ?
tcm. Moth appears to be peculiarly serviceable
in dyspeptic cases, and in such as <
originate in a disordered statate of the stom- i
ach?the one :n those, in which infiamation i
exists, the other in such as proceed from tor- <
pidity. They have hitherto been known as
the the Large and Small Springs ; but hav- <
ing succeeded towards the close of the last <
season in procuring a much larger supply <
of water at the Small Spring, than is atfor- '
ded by the Large, a change of names be- i
came necessary. The Large will hereafter
be known as the Anti-dyspeptic, and the
oc. flirt A rtrtvirtnt u'lur'li n:imG5 will I i
ft UIJKll u.5 IIIV^ IVIiif ...v..
serve to point out their peculiar characters- j
These Springs have been classed by Pro- j
lessor Shepard, as "Alkalino Sulphurous" j
a variety so rarely met with, that another is
not known in the United States. The waters
are beautifully clear, and highly charged
with gas, which render them light and
extremely pleasant, especially that of the
Anti-Dyspeptic spring, which produces none
of those unpleasant sensations so frequently
felt on the lirst drinking of Mineral Waters.
When first purchased, some of the water
was submitted to a chemist for analysis ; the
quantity, however, was too small for him to
ascertain all its ingredients. A more recent
examination has been made by Professor
C. U. Shepard, who has furnished us with i
the following abstract of an article which ap- i
pears in the April number (1836) of Professor
Sillimnn's Journal of Science and Arts. |
"The following is the most satisfactory j
views which my experiments enable me to
present of the condition of those Waters.
Specific gravity, 1003.
SOLUBLE INCREMENTS. I
1 Ivdro Sulphuric acid,
lli-Cnrbonate of Soda,*
A Super Carbonate of Dime,
Clilonde orCatciimi, |
- Chloride ofSodium,
Sulj)batc of Soda,
An Alkaline or earthy Crcnattyor both,
Sulphurct of Iron,
Crenatc of Per Oxide of Iron,
j Silicate of Iron.
My experiments do not permit me to point
out tiic differences between the two Springs
with precision. The new Spring appears
j to give rise to a greater amount of liydroI
sulphuric acid, as well as of iron and silicic
acid. Probably it may ditrer in still other
' respects, i have not examined it for Iodine
' or firominc."
As no regular analysis was attempted,
; tiie quantities in which these several ingredients,
exist, still remain undetermined.
That they are in different proportions in the
1 two Springs, is evident not only from their
\ deposites, but also from their action 011 the
! system. The action of the Anti-Dyspeptic j
Spring is diuretic and gently aperient, ten- j
i ding to restore the healthy performance of
: the functions, and reduce or diffuse the local
! irritations of disease. The Aperient Spring
- - - ... . . 1
while it possesses ail too aiKujine proponuw
ot the other, lias an aperient and alterative
action. Possessing more iron, (of wiiich the
| other has but a trace.) it acts more powerJ
fully as a tonic, while its other ingredients
i cati.se it to act in sonic eases as a very powj
As these; Springs have been visited by
l invalids, onlv during the two last seasons, it
: is reasonable to suppose that ail their }prop
crties have not yet been discovered, nor all
the cases ascertained in which they can he
beneficially used. In fact, owing to the
i small quantity of water furnished hitherto by
the Aperient Spring, its qualities have been
; hut little tested, and there can ho no doubt. |
(judgingfrom its constituents) that it will he !
; found equally salubrious as the Anti-Dys;
peptic Spring, aly better adapted to anoth!
or class of cases. To give a general ideal
? ? r..i . I
! of the properties of these waters, we nugui;
j say that they arc peculiarly serviceable in.
those diseases which originate in a disorded I
i state of the stomach and bowels, and also in
1 hepatic affections. It is proper, however,
j to enter more into details, and we therefore,
submit the following' synopsis of the medical
properties of the Anli-Dysprptic Spring.
i 1. It relieves nausea and hcadachs, ariI
sing from disordcdstomachs.
2. Neutralises acidity, and if taken at '
meals, or immediately after, it has a tenj
dcncy to preveut those unpleasant sensations
so often experienced by invalids, from |
indiscretion in dieting.
3. Is an excellent tonic, exciting appetite j
and imparting strength to digestion.
It cannot bo determined whether fr^ ".arl'o- #
nic acid exists in theso waters witliout going int j
a quantitative analysis.?lr. S.
4. Quiets irritation of the alimentary ca- all
lal. ' the
5. Controls and lessens the force of the mr
:irculation when unnaturally excited by dis- pr<
:ase, and often in this way, is remedial in bu
nternal inflammation of the organs. of
6. It tranquilities nervous irritability. tei
7. Is a mild and certain expectorant, of- up
en allaying dyspnata, and promoting recov- vii
;ry from chronic ailments of the chest or <--11
vind pipe. t;c
8. It alters the action of the liver where an
his has been previously deranged, in a man- go
ler peculiar to itself, und under circumstun- as
:cs in which the ordinary alternatives are so
.orbidden by reason of their excitivc, or pli
)thcrwisc irrelevant properties. fei
9. It is also sudcritic or diaphoretic; fo
10. \\ hon taken at bed-time, often proves vc
tself soporific : apparently stiling that indis- ba
:ribable, but too well understood inquietude, so
vhich so frequently and unhappily inter- er
upts or prevents the repose of the invalid, pr
ind'especially of the dyspeptic. it
Having thus briefly stated the properties e\
of this Spring, we submit the following state- to
mcnt of cases, treated at the Grey Sulphur, le
illustrative of the effect of the waters, and in n<
corroboration of what has been advanced, m
Except those which are noticed in their prop- S(
places, all are either directly from the pen ci
of the sufferers themselves, or were immc- to
iliately dictated by them in the form in which pi
they appear in the notes. The originals are a
in our possession, signed by the individuals, o!
whose cases are referred to. a
The Pamphlet contains letters, from some c<
of the most scientific gentlemen throughout tl1
the Union, recommendiug these Springs to n
the attention of invalids. si
From the (Jenriessec Farmer. U
AGRICULTURAL PIIRASEOLOGV. H
No publication, whatever may be its subject
or its merits, can be perused with ad- c
vantage, unless the language used by the a
writer is understood, and the terms made n
use of clearly defined. Even definitions ^
too frequently remind one of John Randolph ~
in the House of Representatives: The hero
of Roanoke, in one of his sarcastic and able s
yet rambling speches, found himself in the *1
midst of a sentence so completely-involved, ^
that extrication was impossible, unless by
cutting the gordian knot of words that h
inclosed him. " Mr. Speaker," said he, f(
" the subject we arc discussing, in the light J'
I have presented it to you, is as clear as?as *
?the light of that window,?and that is c
not very clear," added he, pointing to the *
dusty windows of the capitol. Johnson, "
when he defined "higgled? pigglcdy" by ^
" conglomeration," furnished a pregnant instance
of the common fault of definitions.
The labors ofChaptal and Davy, by show,
ing that many of what were formerly con- ?
ore merely com- '
binations of a few of the principal ones, in 1
different proportions, and by adopting an 1
improved phraseology, have done much to ?
simplify and render intelligible die language
of agricultural chemistry, and its kindred 8
subjects. Still there are many terms used
necessarily more or less teachuienj, or 1
belonging almost exclusively to the business
of agriculture, which wo have reason to t;
believe arc not by all precisely understood,
and as they tnusi be considered as part of 1
the language of every farmer in all countries 6
and are of importance in elucidating the c
practice as wen ns tncory 01 agriculture, we r
have supposed that a paper studiously plain v
on some of these terms, might not be altoget
her without its use. Another reason lias 1
also had its intlucncc in bringing us to this '
conclusion?the Genessee Former receives a
generally an accession of new subscribers
at the commencement ofthe yearly volume; 1
and besides, the Monthly Farmer we hope c
will find its way into the hands of multitudes c
to whom the weekly Farmer has been inaccessible
; and though the readers of the ^
latter may be in some measure familiar with
the topics here introduced, we trust they
will not be entirely useless to any. a
In accomplishing our object, it will not be 1
necessary to refer to more than three of the 1
primitive earths?Si/ex or flint, AJuminc or J,
clay, and Lime?since, though chemistry
has detected the presence of seven or eight v
others, they exist in such ininutc quantities, v
and are so sparingly distributed, as not to u
produce the least sensible Gleet on the great .
mass. Of these three earths, silex alone
composes one-halfof the globe, and lime
three-fourths of the remainder. Silex is ]
the base of till the granitic aud sandstone
rocks, and all soils formed by the disintegration
or crumbling of these, are composed ''
of gravel or sand. Ilcnce suclr soils arc c
termed silicious, or sandy. Aluminfe *is 0
rarely found in a pure state, hut in a mixed f
stated?is the basis of clay and several kinds !*
of rocks. Soil in which alumine prcdomi- 11
nates is called argillaceous or clay soil. ,
Limo is one of the most common eanhs,
and from the important uses to which it is I s
applied in civilized countries, is weli known. ^
It occurs most frequently combined with P
carbonic acid, in which state it forms lime- Si
stone, marble, chalk, marine shells, and the "
shells of snails. The immense piles reared *
from the depths of the ocean by the coral ''
insect, are also firmed of lime. Combined
with sulphuric acid, it forms that substance 01
so all important to the farmer, gypsum or 01
plaster of paris. The soil in which this
earth prevails, is called calcareous, or lime- ?'
stone soil. Thus the principal soils from di
their composition arc termed Silicious or
sandy?Argillaceous or clayey?and Cal- tu
careous or limestone; and it is the com. gr
bination of these original earths in different ar
proportions with each other, and with le<
i-cgetable mold, that forms the varieties of sp
soil, different as they arc in kind and fertility, in
Some writers formerly have spoken of loam
one of the original earths, but exumina- he
ion has showed it to. be th< primitive earths, ke
imino generally in the greatest |9tp0|tM% <Bk
jroughly mixed with decayed yegetatie
lttcr. -To determine which kind
jponderates in a soil, generally mpftW I
t little attention or skflh The presencef y
lime or calcareous matter in soils is de- _J
mined by drying some of it and pouring
on it some acid?sulphuric acid, or strong
legar will do; and the violence of the *
'ervosccnce or foaming will" bo in proper. ^
?n to the lime in the soil. Clay and sand,
d their respective proportions, nga in .
ncral so easily distinguished by the fSnner J
to need no remark! Marl howeveria ^
mctimes mistaken for clay, but the apioation
of an acid instantly shows the dif- jjm
rencc. Perhaps the best soil that'can.be -'4
and is a true sandy loam, containing lime %
lough to ensure the decomposition of ail M
?getabI6 matter, cir.y enougn iu p
iking, or hardening in the sun. SucV ail
is adapted to the production of a jreat- *
variety of vegetables than tiny other and
oduccs them in greater perfection, since
is generally of a first rate quality. ^Itis
ident therefore at first sight, that in order :
cultivate a farm successfully, some know.
age of the constituent parts of rts soil is
cessary. Experience has proved that the
>e of lime lias a great effect in ibrtilizing
>me soiis; but to sow lime on a thoroughly
ilcareous soil would be like carrying coals
? Newcastle, and to lavish gypsum or..
aster upon wet heavy clay soils, would bo
waste of both time and money; yet how
[ten do we see farmers, from the want of
little knowledge or attention, pursuing a
Mirse ofhusbandry equally absurd. Where
ie Quantity of sand is so great as to
* ~ m
irider the soil porous ami frtabie, way
noulJ bo iucori>orateil with it, and where
ic clay is in such quantity as to make it
?nacious and liable to bake bard and crack
1 the sun, sand should be put upon it uotii
ic evil is removed. Upon soils purely coluroous,
sand and clay united should be put,
nd uj>on aff, vegetable mold or animal
)anure should be liberally used, if the.
ighest degree of amelioration is our object*.-larl
is another important ingredient in' the ;
nf en;ic jt la a substanco con
.'llUUUWll V/? UVI1U.
i sting of lime mixed with a greater or less
uariiitv of clay and sand, and freqtiently
*>ntaiuing marine and animal remains.
Vliere it can be applied in considerable
uantitics to a sandy soil?and nature seems .
j have wisely and kindly placed them in
axta-position, (witness the sandy plains of "
-.ong Island, Jersey, and the south,);?it
.'onverts such from being comparatively
vorth!ess, to the richest and most productive
;ind. It is by the judicious use of mail .
tnd manure, that Judge Buel of Albany has >
rough 11 lis sandy pitch-pine knolls to such
in astonishing state of productiveness and >.
ertility. . .
We shall bore give the definition oF?a?*fe?r
>tlicr words and phrases, in addition to
hose above, as by long use, or appropriateness,
they have become a necessary part of."
in agricultural vocabulary.
T .. j_ i- \ II .
r cgci(j,oiv ;uc?jcr.?an Tt.gw.iwrw ??
taru-es, in decomposed or rotten states
Animal Matter.?All animal substances n
the same situation*
Organic Matter.?Both nnimaland vegc
[tblc substances in a decayed state.
Long Manure.?Is barn-yard manure *
icforc it is rotted, as fresh cornstalks or *
traw. Circumstances may justify the use
if manure in this state, but experience has
iroved that it is not the most profitable -
<Short Manure.?This is a manure tho- *
oughly decomposed or rotted in tiie yard.
n this state it may be cut will) a spade and
hoveled as common earth.
Fossil Manure.?This is principally com- >osed
of lime, marl, shells and plaster, and*
.n ?nil< ??j verv valuable, a heavy
'? A lutiuwiw ^Vlisr ?vr - ?- ,
Iressing lusting for years.
Compost Manure.-r-TI?is is made by
nixing various substances such as leaves
iom the forest, mud from the brdok, weeds
rom-tjie field or garden, the wash of roads,
md iu general any vegetable, animal, or
nincral matter, that can assist decomposiion
intoa common mass, and when possible,
urning them frequently until reduced to a
ine rieli earth. This manure is most
aluablc for the gardener is those operations
rliere nothing not perfectly rotted can be
Soiling.?Is the feeding of cattle in a
iarn or yard during the summer with fresh ^
;rass or roots. As a grass for soiling the *
jcerne is highly recommended, though the
ommon clover is generally used. Of roots,
lie mangel wurtzel is,often preferred, since
:s large fleshy leaves arc ready (or picking
arly in the season, and provided thp young
nd crown leaves are undisturbed, may be
epeatedly stripped for food, until the rpof
self arrives at sufficient maturity for food?
Holation of Crop*, is a change from onoind
of vegetable or plant to another in
uccession on the same ground. Its use- jlness
depends on the fact, that different
Iants do not take from the soil the same
ubslanccs in the sumo proportions. Thus
heat does better after peas, barley or corn
ian after rye or wheat; and plants whoso
>ots run near the surface ought to succeed
ic tap. rooted kind. Much of die excellence
f the modem system of farming depends
a a skillful rotation of crops, ^
White Crops, ore such as bccoipg^Iry
id white while ripening their seedSs; the
Ill-rent kinds of grain are of this das*.
Green Crojis.?The carrot* cabage, j?ca,
rncp, &c., those plants which continue
een until ready to take pff* the grouud,.
e called green crops. Such are much*
ss exhausting than those that ripen their*
ed on the soil, and are therefore excellent:
rotation with such.
Green Fallow.?When land intended to
; sown with wheaf in the fall has been
pt mellow nr.d dear of weeds during thed
* ?*- J? * * '
fTr " ^
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