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Cheraw gazette. [volume] (Cheraw, S.C.) 1835-1838, July 19, 1836, Image 1

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Pu blishcd every Tuesday. ]
If paid within three months, . . . 3.00
It paid withinthrec months after the close
ot the year, 3. f?0
I not paid within that time, . . . . 4. 00
A company of six persons taking the paper nt J
the same Post Otfice, shall be entitled to it at ?l.~>,
paid in advance, and a company of ten persons 1
at ?20 ; provided the names be forwarded togeth- <
er, accompanied by the money.
No paper to be discontinued but at the option .
of the Editor tiii arrearages are paid. .
Advertisements inserted for 75 cents per square i
the lirst time, and 3? J for each subsequent inser- (,
tion. >
Persons sending in advertisements are requested
to specify the number of times they are to be
inserted; otherwise thev will l?e continued till
ordered out, and charged accordingly. !
r> " *
ITPThe Postage must bo paid on all coinmu- j c
nicutiona s?ut by mail. -i
The thirtieth annual meeting of this So-| t
ciety was held at Exeter Hall, on Satur- 'j
day, the 7th of May. The Rt. Hon. Lord
Teignmouth, one of the Vice Presidents
of the Society, presided in the absence ol
the Marquis of Cliohnondeley, who is the 1;
President. The report was read by one 1
of the Secretaries. i
This is, in my opinion, one of the most 1
important Societies in Great Pritian. r
The object of the institution is to give a ci
Scriptural education to the people of Ire
land. Alore man uuu,uuu persons nave v
been taught in its schools. It has now a
1962 Sunday, day, and adult schools, and
115,323 scholars.
Of its schools?1011 nre day-schools,
536 Sunday schools, 407 adult-schools. li
132 new schools were established last o
3*ear, 114 schools ceased, 40 through op- s
position, and the others from want of funds;
17 schools have been the actual increase. 1
Nearly 40.000 children of Catholic pa- 'J
rents attend these schools, and are instruct- n
ed in the Scriptures. The Society has 1
distributed 369,800 copies of the word of b
God among its schools since its organiza- e
tion. Tlie receipts last year were T10,- li
4129s. 10jd., including T1000 which
were borrowed. The expenditures wore (
T9835 5s. lOd. j I
I ought lu add that this is not the only u
Society which is labouring to extend Scriptural
education in Ireland. What is called
the Kildare Place Society, which is protestant
and employs religious teachers and tl
uses the Bible as a school book, lias more (.
than 100,000 scholars in Ireland, and has r
undoutedlv done great good in that coun- tl
try. In addition to this the national schools
use the Scriptures or selections from them, t
And still more, the Sunday-school Socio- s
ty of Ireland has man}* schools under its |
care, in which the holy Scriptures arc a
carefully taught to the children.
? i
This Association, whose object is to *
maintain the doctrines and principles of the s
Reformation in opposition to Romanism, ('
held its meeting on Wednesday, the Utli *
of May, at Exeter Hall. This Associa- r
tion has been lormed mainley to promote s
the reading of the sacred Scriptures. It s
is not sectarian in its character. The f
Marquis of Winchelsea presides and ad- I
* < - rv l r * r
dresses were made by uio uukc oi new- *
castle, Lord Roden, Henry Pownell, Esq., 1
31. P., Captaiu Gordon, Mr. Rlanchard, and
several others. There was a delightful *
spirit prevailing at this meeting.
The following is the substance of a part r
of Captain Gordon's Speech. (
He exhibited to the meeting a map of )
England and Scotland on a large scale, f
which was marked with black spots or cros- 1
ses in every place where a Roman Catho- 5
lie chapel or college had been established 5
in these countries. (
The number of those colleagues and J
chapels had been regestered by the Reformation
Society, and in one county alone *
(Lancashire) they amounted to eighty-seven,
and in another (Inverness) to seven- 1
teen. In 1798 there were not twenty 1
Catholic chapels in England and Scotland; 1
at the present time they amounted to up- 1
ward of five hundred (hear;) there were I
forty more, the building of which had com- 1
menced since the map he held in his hand '
was drawn up, and it appeared from a 1
ctafnment n the Dublin Review: anublica- '
lion the sole object of which was to assist 1
Mr. O'Connell's line of policy (hear;) that ;
forty more were in contemplation, so that
they might be said to amount to a total of
fxc hundred and eighty ir England and
, Scotland alone. In the former of those
kingdoms there were nine Roman Catholic
colleges, and in the latter one. To
these were attached schools, and the sisters
of Charity, as they were called, were
daily to be found at the bedsides of the sick
and the dying?(hear.) He would not
enter into very full details on the present
occasion, but he was prepared to prove that
tlicre were shoals of unprotected and unfortified
Protestants caught in the Roman
Catholic not in our large towns, and even
in our small country parishes. The Roman
Catholic machinery was working to
the conversion, or rather perversion of
iliousauus of poor uneducated Protestants,
in a manner the most deplorable and fatal.
But Popery was not only doing this, but
what was worse than any thing he had yet
stated was the fact, that the professors of
that religion had entered into an alliance
with another class of persons who were at J
the very antipodes of a belief in its tenets
?(hear, hear.) Liberalism was the link
vliich unfortunately had connected the
frofessors of tho pure faith with the pro-!
lessors of no faith. Popcrv and liberalism i
^replaying a deep and a dargcroj-j game
Popery extinguished reason and liberalism
Jeified it?(hear.)
The fortieth annual meeting of this important
Missionary Society was held on
Thursday, the 12th of May, at Exeter
[iali. Thomas Wilson, Esq., the Treasu r
of the Society, presided. The report,
>r rather, an abstract of it, was read by the
iev. Mt. Ellis. It gave a very interestng
account of the Society's Missions in Inlia;
in South Africa; in the Society, or
'outh Sea Islands, and in the West Indies.
The following is a brief summary :?
172 stations; 111 missionaries; 28 Euroman
assistants; 105 native assistants; 74
:hurches; more than 5000 communicants;
148 schools; 20,(it >0 scholars; 15 printing
'stablisbments; 104,507 books issued last
t:i r
Receipts last year, T-35,86-3 ~s. lid.,
Deluding .?3000 from the government for
he erection of schools in the West Indies.
Hie expenditures were ?G0,G?7 8s. .3d.
This is the oldest Bible Society in FngundjUnd,
i.i the world, if we except Frankill's
Bilde Institution ut Ilalle, which was,
11 some respects, a real Bible Society. It
icld its fifty sixth annual meeting at Freemason's
Hall. The Marquis of Cholmonlely
'Fiie receipts of this Society for last year
cere about ??:*.300, and its expenditure
bout the same.
The annual meeting ofthis Society was
icld at Hxeter Hall, on Friday, the 13th
f May, Mr, George Finch, in the abenceofHord
Ashley, presided. ...
i .. ai r '
X iit; oujeci ounis meeting is iu
tomanism in all its shapes and operations,
riie report was read by the Kev. Mr. Seylour.
The Society has circulated 400,000
iV.tcts, and employs a large number of Bile
readers in Ireland, who have cxperinced
no little persecution from the Catlioc
Addresses were delivered by Captain
lordon, Kev. Mr. Seymour, Kev. Dr.
lalloway. Dev. Mr. Marry. l)ean of Arab,
Kev. Edward Tottenham, and others.
This Society held its annual meeting on
lie evening of the same day, at t insbury
'liapal. Edward Baines, Esq., M. l\,
:-l ?1 'Pi... .....-wv..f U !,^ rii:nl hv mu1 ot I
IIX'SIUCU. X JIU ll.|'Uil ?? uo S?_v
lie Secretaries.
The object of tins Society is to show :
hat the voluntary principle is the best in |
upporting churches. Ii draws its most
Kjwcrful arguments from America. It is
ilwavs an interesting meeting.
This society held its annual meeting at
dieter I!;?U. The Bishop of Chester preided
and opened tho meeting with an adIrcss.
The report was read by one of the
Secretaries. It was far from being such
i document as Dr. Edwards produces. It
fated that there are 630 Temperance,
ocicties in England and Wales, which
'mbracc 200,000 members. The num>er
for Ireland and Scotland were not giv;ii.
Tho progress of the cause in the Britsh
colonists was represented as very good.
The present is regarded by the com
niltee as an important period of this Society's
operations. The past has been a
rear of unusual prosperity. Tract visitaion
has been attended with the most grailying
results. .More than three hundred
;ouls, it is believed, have through this in.trumentality,
been gathered into the fold
)f Christ, in a single city; 1(50,000 voltmes
and more than 3,000,000 of Tracts
inve been circulated; and $35,000 remitcd
to foreign and Pagan lands.
The present and daily increasing openngs
abroad have induced the Society to
?solve to raise $35,000 for foreign disrihution
the present year. Tract visita:ion
promises much greater good than has
yet been experienced: and ibe demand for
:he <Society's standard evangelical volumes
tias compelled the commitee to enlarge
of Divine Providence, and in attempting
to meet the expectations of the Christian
public, the Socity has not only exhausted
its treasury, but it appeard at a meeting of
the Committee, June 17, that the treasury
was short of meeting bills for paper, printing,
and other current expenses, by the
sum of 511.739 85.
Notwithstanding these claims, the com
mittee have felt it to be their duty to an- [
swer, in a small degree, the pressing ap- j
plication of the American Seamen's and!
the Sailor's and Poatinen's Friend Socie- j
ties, bv appropriating to each $1,000}
worth of books to commence seamen's j
and boatmen's libraries. They have also
resolved, as soon as means can be prornroil
fn nnnrnnri.itp & 1.000 to nrint J'il
r r??--t -- , prim's
Progress in raised letters tor the !
blind-, and to remit $3,000 to Russia.
The committee feel that they have hut :
heen advancing slowly in the work to j
which God has called them. The deep '
interest which has been awakned in the j
various departments of the Society's operations,
and especially of late in the circulation
of its standard evengelical volumes,
has created a demand which the Society's
means are wholly inadequate to meet.?
They have no other resort but to state the I
case to the Christian public, and ask their J
immediate and vigorous aid in carrying on
this great enterprise, which they believe
God intends to make a powerful auxilary
. i it
in evangelizing tne woria. i
Volumes embraced in llic Society's Famihj j
Vol. I. Doddridge's Rise and Progress.
2. Wilberforcc's Practical View.
3. Edwards on the Aflfectious, with Fla-!
vel's Touchstone.
4. Banyan's Pilgrim's Progress.
5. Baxter's Saint's Ilest.
6. Baxter's Call, with Chalmer's Preface;
Baxter's Dying Thoughts; Baxter's
Life, chiefly by himself.
7. Life ofBrainerd, by Edwards. ?
8. Life of Henry Martvn, by Sargent.
9. Allicn's Alarm, with Pike's Religion
and Eternal Life.
10. Pike's Persuasive to Earlv Piety.
J *
11. Pike's (?aide to Young Disciples.
12. M cmoirs of Dr. Pnyson.
13. Ncvins' Practical Thoughts; Xevins j
Thoughts on Popery.
A nnmlmr of fitllor WilliniC llV tllf? 1\! n?5- !
srs. Abbotts, Galluudet, &c. have been
Some of these volumes have been in extensive
circulation for more than a century,
and if any works of uninspired men
have been blessed to the salvation of souls,
thosv- doubtless are nrtn?r.g the number.?
The Society's object is to make them accessible
to all our population on the land
and water.
A numerous meeting of Protestants was
held on the 10th and 19th days of May
in the Canal street church.?The design
Association who called the meeting, was
to induce a larncr and more energetic co
c w
operation among all the friends of the
" ever blessed Reformation in order to
resist with more efficiency, the augmenting
influence of Romanism in the tnited
States. After mature deliberation it was
resolved that it is the incumbent duty, as
well as the privilege, of all Reformed
Christians to combine their energies to illumine
the public mind on the various and
most important topics controverted by the
the Protestant Churches, and the followers
of the Roman Pope. Able speeches
were delivered by Messrs. Dunbar, Stockton,
of Montgomery, Winslow, Rurgess,
of Ohio, Wilson, of Milton, Pennsylvania,
Le Roy Sunderland, and Dr. Rrownlce.
The delegate from the Baltimore Protes?
tant Association was necessarily absent.
By a unanimous resolution, a national i
Protestant Association was formed, by the
name of The American Society to promote i
thr principles of the Reformation; u constitution
adopted, and officers appointed.
The following articles ii. arid iii.
The sole objects of this Society arc
tiicse :?To diffuse correct information
concerning the distinctions between Protestantism
and Poperv?to arouse Protestants
to a proper sense of their duty in
reference to the Romanists?and to use
? ->
all evangelical meinoas 10 cunven mc
Papists to Christianity, by lectures, public
discussions, and the dissemination of suitable
tracts and standard books upon the
Itomish controversy.
Any person who consents to the principles
of this Constitution and who contributes
to the funds of this society, may be
a member, and shall he entitled to a vote
at public meetings.
The Rev. I)r. Brownlce was elected
President, Mr. Alexander Martin, Treasurer,
Rev. Mr. Bourne, Secretary.
There are already, besides the New
York Protestant Association, one in Boston,
one in Washington county, New
York, one in New York, one in Baltimore.
Numerous auxiliaries are about to be formed.
Invitations from fifty ministers in
Massachusetts have been received to
send on an agent to receive subscriptions
i and form auxiliaiics.
The good work is going on extensively
in Great Britain and Ireland. There is
in London a numerous and most respectable
society,' called The Reformation
Society.''?And Protestant Associations
have been formed in Dublin, in Liverpool,
j in Manchester, and Birmingham. At a
late numerous meeting in thd city of Edinburgh,
Scotland, a most respectable and
influential Protestant Association was
formed. The Marquis of Tweedale in ihe
chnir, supported by several of the nobility,
(heir plans, and increase their efforts to
secure the necessary means for supplying
the community. This object is but partially
accomplished, and needs special attention.
Preparations are making in different
parts of the country to circulate
books much faster than the Society has
the means of preparing them. Within a
few weeks subscriptions have been made
for enlarging and establishing depositories
as follows, viz. Charleston, S. C.
81,500, Savannah, Ca. $500, Augusta
$500, Macon $500, Columbus $400,
Montgomery, Ala. $400, Mobile $1,500,
New-Orleans, including Bible and Sunday
School depositories, and other religious
books,$4,000: St. Louis, Mo. $500,
Lower Alton, 111. $3,000 in part to erect
m . _ . , i* _ nu.i. 'I* i I O I
a L raci iiouse mr i>iuie, 1 ihci, aiui ouuday
School depositories,and the accommodation
of other benevolent institutions.?
The Yirgiuia Tract Society, at Hicbmond,
has resolved to raise $5,000 for a depository,
one half which is already pledged.?
Besidesthis, arrangements are making for
large depositories at Louisville,Cincinnati,
Cleaveland, Detroit, Buffalo, and many
other places, which will probably require
an equal amount of books. The Society
indeed must expect to be called upon within
a few months for at least $20,000 worth
ot hooks, to enlarge and to establish dopositones,
besides the ordinary course of
sales which it is hoped will not require a
less amount. In following the leadings'
and the leading ministers, harons, and I
magistrates of the kingdom.
It is not to be forgotten that The Sew
York Protestant Association, which has
for years, been quietly pursuing the noiseless
tenor of its way, has thus far taken
the lead in rousing our fellow Christians
and fellow citizens to the appalling dangers
of Popery, in its fatal influence on morals,
on religion, and on civil and religious liberty.
That Association calls earnestly upon I
all the friends of the cause of God and oft
truth to give them their hearty co-operation
and prayers. Come dear brethren, " to the
help of the Lord, to the help of the Lord
against the mighty."?Chr. Int.
From Combe ou hoaitli and menial education.
In the first number of the "American I
Annals of Education," the reader will find j
an instructive article on the necessity of
combining bodily with mental exercise.
" For twenty years and more," says the
writer, "the unnatural union of sedentary
with studious habits, contracted by the
monastic system, has been hilling in the
middle age. The Register of Education
shows, in one year, 120 deaths. Examine
into the particular cases, and these will
be found the undoubted effects of sedentary
habits. Look at one name there.
He bad valuable gifts, perfected by two !
years' academic, four years' collegiate, |
and three years* theological studies. ;
He preached, gave much promise, and then .
died of a stomach disease. He contracted
it ichen a student. lie did not alternate,
bodily with mental labour, or he had lived |
nrwl hnnn ;i blessing to tllC church. When |
he entered on his studies, he iras growing j
into full size and strength. He sat down '
till h is muscles dwindled, A/s digestion be- I
came disordered, /us r/ics/ contracted, his j
lungs congested and his head liable to peri- |
odical pains, I !c sat four years in col-!
lege, and three years in theological appli- j
cation. Look at him note. lie has gain- j
ed much useful knowledge, and has im- j
proved hif? talents; he has lost his health. '
The duties of his mind and heart were
done, and faithfully so; but those of his
body were left undone. Three, hundred
and seventy-five muscles, organs of motion,
have been robbed of their appropriate action
for nine or ten years, and now they have become,
alike tcith the rest of his frame, the
prey of near one hundred and fifty diseased :
and irritable nerves."?" Look at another j
case. Exposure incident to the pastor
or missionary has developed the disease in j
his chest, planted there while fitting him- '
self fur ::r.cfuhies?. lie Contracted a |
dentary, while he was gaining a studious j
habit. That which he sows, that also
shall he reap. The cast winds give hini1
colds; a pulpit effort causes hoarseness!
and cough, oppression and pain. lie be-i
comes alarmed and nervous. Ilis views
of usefulness begin to be limited. He ,
must now go by direction, and not so murfi j
to labour where otherwise he would hare ;
been most wanted, as to nurse his broken j
constitution, lie soon adds to the number i
o(mysterious providences, to the number of }
innocent victims, rather, of cultivating the ,
mind and heart, at the unnecessary and \
sinful expense of the body,?to the number
of loud calls to alternate mental and j
corporeal action daily, for the reciprocal j
sanity and vigour of both mind and body."
To remedy these evils, and introduce a
better svstein of training, so as to make
bodily health and mental and rational cultivation
go hand in hand, an establishment
called the Manual Labour Academy was
opened near Philadelphia in 1829, and
has already proved the soundness of its j
principles by the success of its results. 1
The usual branches of study in classical ;
schools, with the addition of the Bible, are
pursued : and "the hours of recreation!
are employed in useful bodily labour, such j
as will exercise their skill, make them dcx- ;
terous. establish their health and strength, j
enabled eacli to defray his own expenses, |
and tit him for the vicissitudes of life." ;
From this systematic union of bodily la- |
hour in gardening, farming, carpentry, >
and other work, with the usual academic ,
i studies, many comforts are said to have j
arisen. The health of the inmates has !
been uninterrupted, except in a few who '
were ill when received; and at the date !
of the report, in 1830, " cveru invalid rc- ;
maining there had been restored to health.'''' |
Young men thus trained to practical obc- ;
dience*to the organic laws are much less '
likely to run into excess in after-life, than ]
those who have been left in ignorance of j
the constitution of their own bodies. I
" When thought shall nerd no brain " the J
report continues, " and nearly four hundred
organs of motion shall cease to consti- '
* * 7 />< tho lnitnnn hr\rln
lute tnc princijxii jjvruun (// irits in'//niii
then may the student dispense, with musculur
exertionbut, till then, let him beware'
what he does, and look to the laws which !
the Creator has established for his ?ruidance,
and seek his happiness, not in denying
their existence, but in vic'ding
them willing and cheerful obedience.
In early and middle life, fever, with an
j unusual degree of cerebral disorder, i< a
common consequence of the excessive
and continued excitement of the brain,
which is brought on bv severe studv, unC
? * '
remitting mental exertion, anxiety, and
watching. Some very marked cases of
| this kind have come under my observation,
but that of Sir Humphrey Davy is
so strikingly illustrative of the dangers alluded
to, tliat I cannot do bettor than lay
it before the reader. lu November, 1807
Sir Humphry Da**v vat seised with
very severe fever, in consequence of the |
excitement and fatigue which he under- i
went when engaged in his splendid dis- t
covcry of the alkaline metals. "The
laboratory of the institution was crowded t
with persons of every rank and descrip- 1
tion ; and Davy, as inay be readily sup- ;
posed, was kept in n continued state of l
excitemerft throughout the day. This 1
circumstance, co-operating with the ef- 1
fects of the fatigue he had previously un- *
dergonc, produced a most severe lit of ill- '
ness, which, for a time, caused an awful 1
pause in his researches, broke the thread J
of his pursuits, and turned his rellections c
into different channels." Davy ascribed
his illness to contagion caught in experimenting
on the fumigation of hospitals. ^
"Upon conversing, however, with Dr.
Babington, who, with I)r. Frank, attended c
Davy throughout this illness, -lie assured "
mc that there was not the slightest ground
for tfiis opinion, and that the fever was r
evidently the effect of fatigue and an over | J
excited brain. The reader will not feel ^
much hesitation Jn believing this statement,
when he is made acquainted with '
the habits of Dav\ at this period, llis (
intellectual exertions were of the most inju- ,
rious kind, and yet, unlike the philoso- |
phers of old, he sought not to fortify him- J
self by habits of temperance." "Such
was his great celebrity at this period of his s
career, that persons of the highest rank
contended for the honour of his company s
at dinner, and he did riot possess sufficient s
resolution to resist the gratification thus c
afforded, although it generally happened c
that his pursuits in the laboratory were not t
suspended until the appointed dinner hour v
had passed. On his return in the evening, u
he returned his cliymical labours, and com- a
monly continued them till three or four ^
o'clock in the morning and yet the servants jj
of the establishment not unfrcquent/y found ?
that he had risen before them." Such was g
the alarming state of Davy, that for many ?
weeks his physicians regularly visited him c
four times in the day; and the house- ^
keeper, Mrs. Greenwood, never retired to ?
bed, except one night, during eleven ,|
weeks. In the latter part of his illness, a
u he was reduced to the extreme of weak- j,
ness, and his mind participated in the de- (|
bility of his body."* n
Instances occasionally occur of persons n
exhausted by anxiety and long attendance g
on others, being themselves attacked by 0
fever, and dying, more from the unfavora- u
blc state to which previous exhaustion had s'
reduced them, than from the intensity of ti
the fever itself. o
Nervous disease front excessive mental ^
labour and exaltation of feeling sometimes
shows itself in another form. From neg- tl
lectiag proper intervals.of rest, the vascu- 'i
lar excitement of the brain, which always h
accompanies activity of mind, has never c;
time to subside, and a restless irritability of t\
temper and disposition comes on, atten- b
ded with sleeplossuess and anxiety, for a
which no external cause can be assigned, c;
The symptoms gradually become aggra- k
vatcd, the digestive functions give way, a
nutrition is impaired, and a sense of a
wretc hedness is constantly present, which d
often leads to attempts at suicide. While tl
all this is going on, however, the patient a
will talk or transact business with perfect u
propriety and accuracy, and no stranger s
? -? i t n... n
could ten thai any tiling aus mm. i>ui m r
liis intercourse with his intimate friends or Is
physician, the havoc made upon the mind 11
becomes apparent; and, if not speedily ^
arrested, it soon terminates, according to v
tlte constitution and circumstances of the e
individual case, in derangement, palsy,
apoplexy, fever, suicide or permanent s
weakness. a
As age advances, moderation in mental
exertion becomes still more necessary [
than in early or mature years. Scipion s
Pinel, in adverting to the evil consequen- c
ccs of excessive moral or intellectual excitement,
acutely remarks, that while in c
youth and manhood the wear of the brain j"
thus induced may be repaired, no such
salutarv result follows over-exertion in the ,
decline : 44 what is lost then is lost for rrcr.
At that period we must learn to wait for
what the brain is willing to give, allow it
to work at its own time; to attempt to force f
it is to weaken it to no purpose ; it becomes (
excited and quickly exhausted when
forced to vigorous thinking."?"Men of
w" - i- i ? -L-:. L?(
exalted intellect perisn uv men uiau?,
and such is the noble end ot' those whose
genius procures for them that immortality
which so many ardently desire."f
Who can peruse these lines without the
the fate of Scott instantly occurring to his
mind, us a practical illustration of their '
truth 1 In the vigor of manhood few ever
wrote so much, or with greater ease. Hut
when, on the verge of old age, and adver- J
si.ty forced him to unparalleled exertion,
the organic waste could no longer he re- j
paired, and perseverance only 44 weakened
the brain to no purpose," till morbid irrita- j
bility became tlio substitute of healthy j
j power, and he perished by that brain
: which had served him so faithfully nnd so
efficiently, hut which could no longer withi
? ^
; stand the gigantic efforts which he continued
to demand from it. * j
Paris'* Life of Sir II. Davy, p 183.
1 t Physiologic do l'Hommc Alienc, p. 177.
A great number of different modes of
| grafting are practised, and minute directions
i are given in Looks on gardening for performj
ing the work. The young beginner is generally
more bewildered than instructed by
the multiplicity of these directions, unless he
j understands the rationale. By reducing the
I operation hi all its modifications to its first
principles, it will become greotly simplified* .
ind the necessary particulars for sucocsshe
it once understood;' .
In order to cause nn adhesion between
he graft and stock, it is requisite, first, thai I
he sap which flows upwards through the
vood, should be able to pass uninterrupted
it the place of their junction. Hence Aft
oarts of both must he cut so as to be placed -A
h'close contact Secondly, it is necessary
hat the juices, in returning through the libel* '
or inner portion of the bark,) should pass
minterrupted from the graft to the stock.
Hence these parts also must be placed ctKthj
in contact. Thirdly, it is . necessary
hat the newly formed woody fibres whicli
lesojnd from the buds of the graft, ami
vhicn serve to connect the two parts togeth;r,
should pass freely from one part to the
>ther; and also that the cambium, ot soft
ubstanee between the bark and the wood,
vhich serves us food for these young de- ,
:cending fibers, should be continued at this
\oTnt'of junction. Hcncc the line ef separaion
between the bark and the wood, should,
- / . * r . * *
mn in stock ana graft, oe accurately aajutcd.
On the accuracy with wliich these
hree parts of the operation are performed,
he success mainly depends. A nd if these i
ire attended to, it itf immaterial how great
i variety of modes . arc adopted. The
nost inexperienced and unskilful hand, if
:are is taken in these, particulars, could
careely fail.
Although any mode of grafting would
iueceed if tlie above precautions were oberved,
yet convenience generally points
>ut some particular ode, adapted to tlie cif- g
:umstanccs of the case. The most expediious
method of performing tlie operation
t hen small stocks arc tn be grafted, is by
:hip grafting. This i3 the mode generally
dopted in nurseries. It is performed thus.
Fhe stock and the graft arc both cut offot>~
quelv, or sloping, so as to leave a cat suffice
of about an inch in length. TIk? decree
of slope should be the same in both, as
icarly as the operator can guess. If the
ut is made by u single stroke of a sharp
nife, the parts may he brought together
iiere closely. Next make a slit in the mid*
le of the cut face of the stock, downwards,
bout half an inch, and a corresponding one
i the graft, upwards. Now bv pressing
!iem together the tongue and slit in each will
lutuully lock togother. Then,-Inking care
ot to displace them, tie them closely toother
with bass matting, corn husk, or
ther soft ligature, apply the .plaster, and tho }
oik is done. When the graft begins fo
well from growth, remove this ligature to
> prevent its cutting in. Where this mode
f grafting is adopted, it is desirable that the
lock and the graft be of nearly equel size.
But where the stock is much larger than
ie graft, cleft grafting is most convenient.
'his is done by first cutting off tlio stock
orizontally with a large knife or saw, and a
loft is then split downwards in it an inch or
i .t. Ti r..i? ??r * J
iu in it;iKjui? xiic^Kiuia men eui uu vu
oth sides in the form of u wedge, of such
shape as to fit as nearly as possible this
left. The cleft is then kept open by ji
nife or wedge placed the opposite side,
nd the graft, prepared as above, carefully .
djusted in it, and then the wedge is withrawn.
The plaster is then applied and
ic operation is complete. This, mode has
n advantage over the former in not needing
ligature, the pressure of the jaws of the
lit being sufficient to hold the graft to its
lacc. It may be observed, that os the cleft
> made lengthwise with the wood, the sap
l passing from the stock to. the graft flows
iteraflg from its vessels, which it will do
k ith nearly the same facility as from tho
nds. 4 ,
Asa sliarp knife for cutting the joining
urfaces is absolutely necessary, it is generllv
most convenient to emolov two knives.
?one lor doing the chief work and in shading
the wood; and the other, exceedingly
harp, merely for paring the surface* Tor
fn order that the ascending sap may aft
,ro to the nourishment of the gritty and not
tin to waste in other channels, it is fropor*
ant to rub or cut off the buds and spouts on
he stock, especially those near the grafts
Many grafts will never grow wijhout it.
Where standard trees have been headed
lown for now tops, the grafts should be set
>n the thriftiest shoots, and as near the body
>f the tree as these can be foucld; nod strict
;are should be taken to cut awtrjr nfi overdiadowing
brandies in their immediate
Mnrtv. As the grafts increase in size, the
>ld top should be gradually and finally renoved.?Genessct
Of the last summer, should be cut off X,
lbove the bud early in spring, and all other
buds except the inserted one, carefully rub.
tx.d off, so as to direct the whole energy of
he plant to' that alone. This boost be doaw
wo or three times afterwards if new shoots
should appear where minute buds have es
:aped tiie operation, as commonly Happens,
[f tho trees are apricots, plums, or peaches*
Lhe young shoots from the inserted buds arv
likely to be broken otT by the wtod, To
prevent this, three or four inches of the
stock above the bud should be left, to which
these shoots may be tied. By this treatment,
these, as well as other kind of fruit
trees, may also be made to grow more
upriglit and straight at this poipt, and with
less of the usual crook, than is the case in
budded trees where tiiis precaution is not
Nothing protects young turnips, cartages,
and other cruciferous plants, so cftoc^
tuallv from the depredations of the fly, as
the operation of rolliFor when the
surface of the grouo? is thus rendered
smooth, the injects are deprived of a lodging piacc
under the cJtas oto^hi tfisjetsa.

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