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Cheraw gazette and Pee Dee farmer. [volume] (Cheraw S.C.) 1838-1839, February 13, 1839, Image 2

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handsome flight of steps lending from ihe j t<
Birdcage walk, Sr. damn's Bark to the j b
Duke of York's Column ; this making thu ; -i
fourth or fi.h experiment within a few hun. 'g
drcd years of each other.?Nat. Lite\ jo
Gkadcation Biu/?Mr. Calhoun's 'Re- i ?
masks. j ft
In Senate January 13, 1839?On the en. j
grossrient ot the bill lbr graduating the e
price of public lands. j w
Mr. Calhoun said; i have no desire,:''
Mr. President, to retard, in the smallest de- i u
gree, the final action of the Senate on this 1
bill; and in order to avoid unnecessary *?
consumption of time, I intend to state, as a
:ki.. ,.;,MVsi of t!m* u
concisely as possiu.c, my .~ ~ !
proper policy to be pursued in reference 10 j11
the public lands lying within the liini s of j d
the now States ; and my reasons for voting '
ag:ihist the engrossment of this bid. j n
1 shall begin with premising that I am . s
under strong conviction, both from obser- i ti
va.ion and reflection, that we have arrived | J>
at the period when an en ire revolution of;t!
our land system, as far ns it is applicable ; 1
to those States, is unavoidable. They have,, d
' in fact outgrown the system. Since iis first s.
adnp ion, they have come into existence. C{
have passed through a state of infancy, and p
have now arrived at manhood. The system j v
whicli was wise nnd just at firs', is neither v
wise nor just applied to them in the ir chan- n
.ged condition. ?
YVe have heard much, Mr. President, in c:
the present discussion, about the growth w
of the new States; but, if I may judge from ! fJ
1 .!. ! Vi
the various measures proposou uu mu j?n?a- ent
occasion, we have neither realized its I C1
rapidity, uor the unavoidable changes in our; 1"
land system which must follow hi its train. ;P
Their aonderfull growih is, i idced, one of i 01
.those realities almost beyond the grasp of ai
imagination. When I go back twenty-seven i if
years, to the period when I first became a el
member of the other House, and compare j a
what the new States then were, to w hat,
they are, I am lest in wonder and amaze- \ in
meut. Their growth is without example. c<
There is nothing like it in his'ory. At that tt
time there was but a single new Sta'e, ?
(Ohio ) I exclude Kentucky, Tennessee, w
and Maine, all of which have been admitted ! e
since the adoption of the Constitution, and | n
limn ir?y remarks to those which have since o
sprung up on the public domain. ! If
Ohio had then but one Representative in e
the other House, Jeremiah Morrow, an ?
honest and sensible man, who was at that o
time at the head of the Committee on I'ub. j ft
lie Lands, and had the confidence of the , n
House so completely that his voice was the n
law on all subjects connected with them.? r<
So little interest did they, a: that time, excite, ti
There were then thirty-two Senators in all, t
of which Ohio had, of cojrsc, two; that is, t(
the one s.xtecnth of the wtiole. In tho tl
electoral col ege she had three votes, which o
made her weight about the one-fiitieth in tl
that body?a weight scarcely fell or esti. 'i
mated in tho political movements of the n
day. Ih
Such, at that time, was the infant and fee- v
ble condition of the new states. Since then, n
in a period but little exceeding that allotted n
to a single generation, to passover the stage h
of life, how wonderful the change! Instead , w
of one, as then, there are now nine new j o
States ; and in the place of two Senators 1 ft
in thirty.-wo, we now have eighteen in fifty. | T
two ; making, instead of one-sixteenth,; n
more than a third of the whole; and already , n
three Terii'ories, Florida, Wisconsin, and , n
Iowa, are struggling for admission. When ii
admitted, which must be shortly, there will! n
then U> twelve now States, with twenty-four J tl
Senators in fifty-six, which will ii.creaso :tlieir
relative weight in tilts body to three- j i
sevenths of tin whole. j r
But as wonderfuias 1 as been the increase j t
in this body, it will be still more so, after s
-the next census, >n tiie other. It will be I
taken next year, and ? new apportionment t
of the members will bo made under the s
Constitution; wiien, instead of a single i
member, being less than one in a hundred t
as was the case twenty-seven >ears ago, i
representation of the new States will t
* ? / . ,
lOTfe stand to ftlte old, at least, as ioriy 10 v
six*y, or two-fuhs ofthc hole, as calcula- ?
ted by a friend familiar with the subject, c
and in whose accuracy I have entire confi. a
donee. The new Sates having, as tie*}'
wilt then, titre*:*sevemits ;u this,anu two-fifths t
in the other Louse, will, ol'course, haw a c
relative weight in the electoral colU g-, or a
the same thing in a choice of a President, c
compounded of the two, tiiat is, five-twelfihs v
of t:?r- wuoie So much for the past. r
Now if wo turn to the future, we shall I
find because of amazing growth so far s
li- )'. o-.ng exhausted or weakened, is act- a
mg a h i increased torcc, and urging' for- t
ware the grow th of those States wit., ac- t
celerated, instead ofa decreasing, velocity ; d
dj much so, mat the past changes in the I
lav.. vet.:;, -seven years will appear as noth- p
he, compared with what wi.l take place in *i
t;,c next ,t n:y seven, unless some unfore- d
a occu rence should intervene to uetard d
their progress, lfmy memory serves me, t
our population, twenty-seven years ago, t
was about seven m.lhons ; and our annual :
ui r?*dse then, that is, the excess of births (
over deaths, including emigration, about a
two hundred thousand, estimating our t
growth at three per ctnt. compound. Since t
then, our population has increased not less s
than nine millions, making the present i
probably about sixteen; which on the same i t
data, will make our annual increase at this j
, time but little short of half a million ; the j n
fc grower purt of which will find their homes j 1
iu the now Slates. I ^
1 will not enter into a m'nute calculation j d
as to the elf els of ths great increase on the j 1<
nh live weight of the now and old Slates at j c
the next succeeding census, in IsiO. It is c
auffioientto say, that it will given decided j p
major ty to the former, both in the House of. t<
ilepresen:atives and in the electoral college, n
and of course, i:i the Government ; and r
thus, in the short space of one generation i t<
and a half, the centre of political power, as j s
between the o;d and new States, will have 11
passed from the former to tiie latter. t f
New nithjuese unquestionable rcsu.ts he- I
.... 2 ash, no: wb*;h: r woul i be w.se I
no. sir! a far . <
o'dcr question. zsill it be practicable ? And , <
' not practicable, would it be vise to shinf i
le to continue if, tVl overthrown by th: force j
f unavailable and irresistible causes j ! t
sk, what would be the tiK ets of sue!) a ; 1
rueri;!e ? Would it not be to excite, in the ;!
rst instar.ee, animosity and discord be. |;
Acen the old and new !S:a cs, and. i.i the j <
nd, to overthrow the entire land sys eni, |'?
nil the certain loss, ul.irnatel v. of the pub- !;
o domain? I shall no', on tuis occasion, ! '
t tempt a forma! discussion of these points, j <
propose in order to 1iiustr.it0, simply 'o j
ln)w how vaiti and dangerous would he the ;'
. n
ttempt to hold on to the fire so in sys'em, j 1
nder these great and growing changes, by j.l
acting its operation under U single aspect, '
s bearing on the Presidential (pies: on. 1 ?'
To have a clear conception of this, we , t
v.tsi bear in mind, that after the next cen- j !
as the new States will have live-twelfths ot j J
u electoral college ; and, of course, corn- ' 1
ared to either of the other sec tions, a cno- 1
oiling voice in the election of a Presidens v
le who keeps this in mind, and understands I
le workings of the human heart and of our 1
ystein, must see, that in the Presidential
onlc^t, (for such it must ever be,) the great <
oinr, hereafter, will be to secure their fa. t
or; and that this can best be done by fa- s
oiing their peculiar views and policy in 1
Terence to the public lands. Now one 1
f two tilings must follow : either all the t
mdidates will enter into this competition, in j t
iiich case the struggle will be who shall go ! t
? 1
irtnest, and its consequence to give the t
Dte to him who may bid highest. It t
isy to see how this would end. The pu r
3 domain, the noble inheritance of the t
eople of tiiis Union, would be squandered, t
r rather gambled away, in the con'est; *
ad would thus be made, at the same time, *
le means of plunder and corruption, and of t
levatmg to power the most profligate and t
udacious. 1
But if, instead of all the candidates seek- *
ig the favor of the now States, a part should I
ourt their interests, an ! the others that of s
te old atcs, the train of evtn s would, <
tdee.J, be varied, but the ultima e result 1
ould be the same. On this supposition ?
/? 1 t- l ? t
acn oi tne canaiuaies would resort to 1
leans nest calculated to secure the section <
n whose support iie might rely. Those I
)oking to the new States would push to the
xtreme the favorite policy of those States
1 reference to the public lands; while the
tliers woulJ take the opposite extreme n
ivor of the old Stales. Now, when we
sflect that the new and the old Stales mnst
eci-ssariiy, from their different position aud
elation to the public lands, enterlin
vcrv different views of the policy
hat ought to be pursued in relation
) them, in almost every poire?so much so,
liatthe other shall regard as nothing short
f open plunder, as we have witnessed in
lis discussion?we may form sonrvconoep.
on of the violence of the conflict which
lust ensue in the case suppose*We have
ad, even in this early stage, and on this
ery question, some indications of w! at we
lay expect. The most violent animosity
nd hatred would follow, and every man.
e his motives ever so pure and patriotic,
ould be regarded the friend or theeivmv
f the new or the old S;ates, as his opinions
ivored the policy of the one or the other.
iMie final termination of the conflict would
ot be doubtful. Whatever turns of fortune
light occur, in its progress, the new States
iust, in the end. prevail. Their relative
ncrease is far more rapid than the old ; so
nuch so, that after 1850?that is, after the
bird Presidential election from die n?*xt
?they would be left, as I have shown, in j
indisput-ed possession oft he fi.-ld. In the I
nean tun , wnne tne struggle is going on, 1
he animosity would daily increase on bot.. ?
ides. The longer it continued the more 1
Kter it would become, and the more cor. 1
ainly and completely would the present (
yslcm be overthrown, if, indeed, th- Union <
tself should be strong enough to withstand '
he shock. Such must inevitably be the <
ate of the present system, should we have
he folly, I might say the madness, to at- i
empt to continue it as it is, so far as the re.v i I
States are concerned, regardless of he great 1
dianges which have already taken place,
md the stdl more mighiy in progress.
Having now pointed out the danger, I
urn next to the d> eply important question
>1 mined), winch demands ihe most prompt
ind solemn consideration, both of the Govrnment
and community. The question is,
vhat means shall wo adopt to avert the
nischief which I have shown to be so rapidV
approaching, and which must inevitably
oon arrive, if not prevented by some speedy
ind efficient measure ? Already one has
>een proposed, originally brought forward
o relieve a distended Treasury of its burlen,
but which its author (die Senator from
Kentucky, ilr. Cla)) has renewed on the
ires^nt occasion, doubtless with the view,
a part, at least, to meet the growing disorlers
of the system. His proposition is to
tvide the proceeds of the public lands am jng
no States, with the double view, I suppose,
o a more equal participation in the advanages
of the public domain by the members
>f t. e Union, and to preserve the pre.scnt 1
lystein hy a more vigilant guardianship of'
he S:ates. I Jo not now intend to discuss
he met its of this measure. My object is
imply lo state, in general terms, my opinon
in relation to it, without eivering into
he reasons on which it is grounded.
There appears, then, to ine, to be great
ind decisive objections to the measure.?
Hie right to adopt it may, in the fir?t place,
ic fairly questioned. We hold the public
lomuin as a common property or fund, beanging
to the S.ates of the Union in their
oufetlerated. and not in their individual j
haracier. They were acquired either hy j
urchaso, out 01 common lunds belonging j
3 the Union, to be held as a fund in com- '
ion ; and I am at a loss to conceive what j
ight we have to make that which belongs I
j the whole Union as a common fund, the j
eparate fwnd of each State. h seems to : 1
no that ;t cannot be done without a mani- , :
est breach of trust and a violation of the
onsthu'.on. VI..< is no jinv opinion,
or mod for 'fio : ,;- '* a?<-. >?
mmtammu Bin p? i i
lontrnrv, for:no?J when its author first in!ro- I
iuccd the measure, and when he and my- !
self thought ai.ke us to the necessity of re. j
ievingtho Treasury ol its surplus, :n order ;
0 avoid t!:c difficulties and the dangers i
tvliici) have since followed. Believing, then,
hat it would be (floe.ml for that purpose j
ind more easilv mo-ped than any other, I j
ixaniined it v. uh an mcl nation to o.nibra 'ft 1
t as -a temporary measure of relief pgainst !
1 pressing evil ; but it was impossible for '
nc to bring tnv tnind to assent :o the ri^bt
. O !
)f adopting it.
But suppose this difficulty surmounted, j
hero are others, which I regard as insur. !
countable. Among theru tiie fiscal ob
ecliou is very formidable. The revenue i
rem the lands cannot be spared ?t present, '
ind if distributed, as.pro|M)sed by the mens. ;
ire, would necessarily in row the wliole ex- !
lenses of the Government on a single {
source?the duties on imports?and which 1
mist be followed by their increase. This
vouid neither be fair, nor equal; and" to j
vhieli I, representing in part, a portion of"
he Union, on which the increased burden j'
vouIU m?uiiy (ail, cannot assent. i
But as formidable us is this, there are 1
)t!iers far more so. -It would not meet, or 11
ivert the approaching danger, h would I
.till leave the public lands in the new States, I
inder the operation of the present system, j
md the subject of violent conflict between j I
hem and the old States, with all the c dam:- j <
ous consequences to wlii'h I have a ver- |
ed. Iust-ad of preventing the danger, it i
vojlJ, in fact, hasten and aggravate it. It i1
nay be laid down as a maxim, that no \1
Measurecan avert it, which is not adopted t
villi the approbation and consent of the
lew States; for the simple reason! 'hat they 1
nus: soon become the predominant power ; i
vhen that whicii was established against I
heirconsent would he certainlyoverthiown.
such would be the case well the mcas- I
ire under consideration. If adopted, it i
nust not only be without the consent of 1
hose States, but with their strenuous oppo- i
;ition, of which we have had the most condusive
evidence on the present occasion.? i
iVhen moved by its author, ns an nmendnent
to this bill, it was violently opposed
it the threshold from that quarter, and re eived
but a single vote from the new States.
It is not necessary to inquire whether this
jpposition on their part is reasonable, or
lot; whether it is the result of mero prejulice,
or of deliberate conviction that it is
losnle to their interests. The fact itself,
liiat there is an almost universal and determined
resistance to the measure on tneir j
jart, right or wrong, is, of itself, sufficient j
sroof that it cannot be relied on to avert the
hreatening danger. On the contrary, its
tecessary effect must be to acclerate and
lggravate it. I s adoption would, at once,
Drin/? the old and new States into violent
:onflict, in which the former would be arrayed,
almost to every man, in determined
effort lo overthrow the arrangement, or j
iome more hostile measure. Add to this j
hat the Presidential contest would not fail :
o run into the controversy, and thus re. J
Jouble the excitement and'animositv, wiih all j
. io fatal consequences which I have shown
nust follow from blending the two.
Assuming, then, that the scheme is both
)i)jectionable and inefficient, the question
igain occurs, what ought to be done ? My
nind is made up, after the most serious and
ielihcrate reflection, that there is, and can
3t% but one remedy ; to cede?yo : that is
not trie proper, the constitutional word?to
dispose of the public lands to the States with, j
in the limits of which they respectively lie,
on such terms and under such conditions
is shall, at the same time, be just and liberal
to the new Stat<'9 and safe ?o the old. We j
mus:. in a word.part with the ownership and
idministmt ion of the lands lying within
'he States, leaving those in the Territories,
tnd beyond, under the operation of the pres.
em system. The evil lies in ownership and
idministration, and without parting with
them nopcrmanent or effectual remedy can
be applitd.
Bat whast hal. the terms-what portion ofthe ;
proceeds of the sales of those lands shall be
left to the States to rcnumerate them for the
expense, trouble, and responsibility of their
administration, and what portion shall be
paid over to the Government annually as 1
a compensation for the land ? I am not .
prepared to answer this question. Itsde- j
cision, must depend on a careful and mm- I
ute examination of alt the facts and circum. |
s ances of the case. Hut I am decidedly j
of the opinion that the portion to be left to
the new S.at^s ought not only to be ample
to cover the trouble, expense, and respon- i
sibiiity of management, but very consider. :
ably beyond, so as to unite their interests ;
with ours, in order to give stability to the ar- i
rangement and insure care and fidelity in |
the management. Resting my estimate of j
the-compensation on these principles, I have j
supposed that the new States might pay j
over annually one half of the gross pro- j
ce?;ds of sales to the Government, and have t
an ample sum left for their compensation. \
Bat this is a tneie estimate, without sufficient
data, and is, of course, liable to be increased
or diminished after a careful calculation
founded on facts.
With these suggestions as to the terms,
I next proceed to the conditions on which
t ut lands ought to be disposed of. I propose
to suggest only the most prominent,
without pretending to a full enumeration.
In order to give stability to the arrang
ment, it will bo indispensable that the whole
.11 t ~ /
transaction stiouiu ussuni i me torm 01 a j
cempact; and for this purpose, that Congress
should pass an act containing the ]
terms and conditions of the transfer; and!
that each of the new States shouiJ pass one, |
011 their part, to bo irrevocable, assenting to
tli same, before it is made. The act of |
Congress should ol course, determine what i
part of I ho proceeds is to be paid annually :
to tiie Government, and the time and man- j
tier of payment; and also to provide for |
keeping regular books of accounts, to be j
open to the inspection of ike Government, |
so that the exact state of the account be- |
Lwt.cn it and the States, may, at a:! times, i
li?.' ascertained hy the former.
I A'i- ,t.'i ' Ggress shou o nisti ur; ;
all tlio prospective provisions which may J
become necessary in liie future ndministra
tion of tiio lands under the arrangement; j
and should then provide that the land laws,!
as modified by the act, and as far as they i
are applicable to the now s:ate of tilings, j
shall remain unchanged, without the con-j
sent of Congress. A provision of this kind j
would be not less essential to the States, j
than to the Government. Without there i1
could be no stability nor uniformity. With- j1
out it the Siates would, in a short lime, enter ' <
into a competition to turn the current of:1
emiaration, each towards itself, which!
would commence by a reduction of price, ; i
and end by a loss of the lands. But with j I
the provision proposed, the system would '
retaiun its uniformity, and become more : i
stable than at present. J t
To enforce the faithful execution of the''
compact the act should also contain a pro- ::
vision that, in the event of the violation of '
ilieconditions of cession, all gran's iheroaf j I
ter made by the S ate should be null and : I
void. Tilts would place the compact un-!?
Jer the protection of'the courts of the Union,!?
and make it the interest of the State and : t
its citizfcns to obiLM-ve it. In this connec- t
tion, the liberal allowance proposed to be ^
made to the States, in order to unite their! t
interests wi*h ours would be important.?
The revenue which they would derive lrom !
tlie find would be applied to roads, canals, '
ar other improvements, that would create a ! >
powerful interest in favor of the arrange.! i
m-'iit; which, with the conditions proposed, |
and their sense of justice, would ensure, 1
trust, on their part, a faithful execution of' 1
the compact.
Such, as it appears to me, should be the ; |
leading conditions; but, doubtless, there are ; !
many others which would be suggested bv ; i
full and careful examination of the subject, j 1
This, Mr. President, is the general out. j i
line of the measure which I propose as a j *
remedy ; and which brings up the important,
question, would it accomplish the object in.!'
tended ; that is, would it arres: the grow., j t
ing conflict between the new and the old t
Suites? Would it prevent the public do. t
mam from being converted into a found to t
make Presidents, and to be squandered t
away in the struggle? And, finally would |
it substantially, and moro effectually than I
any other measure, secure to the Union tr.e I
benefit of the public lands lying within the j |
new States. It is the conviction that it is | <
belt t calculated to secure these important; {
resulis, than any other measure that can be ! <
devised, which has induced me to present j'
it for consideration ; a.id it is on that issue,!'
exclusively, I intend to rest iis fate. All I |!
ask is a culm and impartial investigation,
confidently believing it will bear the t st, 1
and willing to abide the result. Without
attempting to enter on such an investigation
n0w?for which I have not the necessary
information, and, if L had, it woulJ not suit
the occasion?I propose io limit myself to
a few very brL-f remarks in support of my
That a measure, such as I hnvo suggrs
ted, if it should be adopted with the hearty I
consent of the new Suites, would arrest the !
growing conflict between them nd the old, '
and take the public lauds out of the votex |
of the Presidential co test, must be obvious j
on h little reflection. It would remove the
cause of conflict, the on y effectual mode
ofproventingthe threatened danger. Trans,
fer tho lands, and the administration of them,
on just and liberal terras, to the States, and
close our land offices wi-hin their limits, and
you will, at once, place the States beyond
the reach of the action of the Government,
and influence of Executive control, and
would thereby leave both the new and old,
as far as the land question is concerned, 1
free from all improper bias in the elec'ion 1
of the Ctiiof Magistrate. The only point
of conflict that could possibly remain be- I
twecn them in reference to the lands, would (
be as to the conditions of the cession ; but '
it may be easily shown, that if the terms 1
should be liberal and satisfactory, in the '
first instance, to the now States, as I have
proposed, that they would neither have the 1
disposition nor the interest to disturb the J
compact ; or if they should, the hazard of 1
losing the lands in consequence woold be 1
fur less than it would be should the present '
system be continued. But there may bo i
some who may admit this to be (rue, and
yet object that the advantages which I an. 1
ticipute from the measure wou'd be pur- j
chased, on the part of the old States, at too j
:c? t. ? f
great a gucnucc. n wuuiu uc piuumium i
to undertake to answer this objection before i
it is ascertained what portion of t'neproceeds I
should be left to the States, and what paid
over to the Governmedt; and this cannot
be done till after a laborious investigation,
as has been stated. All I maintain at present
is, that the portion all >tted to theSiates
should be not only just aud liberal, but such
as would inteiest them in preserving the
arrangement. Thus far it would be ob. I.
viousiy the interest of both parties, as bas j
been shown. In the meantime, I have]suggested
an equai division of the proceeds, i
under the belief that it would be satisfactojy |
to the new States, and probably not far from
the division which a rigid investigation !
would establish.
But of one thing I feel assured, tbaf,!
when the subjecfis fully examined, it will
he ascertained that an apportionmont of the
proceeds may be fixed on which wi 1 g'.ve
10 the Government a sum per acre in la rue,
or not much less, on all the lands which
*_!.? .1: i r _ _ .. I
mijp'i Kiciuaiirr ue uispose i or, as u iiud j
rcce.ved tor, what has been disposed of|
since the present pric<* was fised ; and i
which would leave, at the same time, to the !
States a liberal and satisfactory allowance If
this should prove to be the fact, the inter,
est of all parlies, even in a pecuniary point j
of View, wouid bo reconciled. But that |
would t.e taking too narrow a view of this
important subject. To determine correctly j
the true interests of the parties in til's ar^ i
rangemonf, we must raise our eyes above
pecuniary considerations, to the far more
interesting view?the political bearing of |
the measure. Thus viewed, the gaiiuto |
both, anJ to the whole Union, would he ih- \
f.ihiahM'. The new Sta'es would 2am tltc
rwri'Ts^piU'H a'!:>?,.pi,'!r"vio?i wfio'o
'I P mi?
domain?a g.va r.ot more csscn in! to their
own independence then (o the convenience
of their citizens, who would thereby have
their cliiins, connected with the public
lands, adjusted by heir own Legislature,
instead ol being dragged to a great distance
frem home to await the tardy and uncertain
action of Congress. But their grca.cst gain
would be, that they would be elevated loan
equality with the other States in all respects,
n Vfktvl r\hiri fltn *?,#% r? * 111 % /# ^ fl ? o r> r*. *
UIJU II VUII lulling IliUU^IlV*^ |
of the Government aiising from a widely'
expanded system of land offices.
To the Union :be gain v oulJ be not less
important. Congress won! i be relieved
from an immense and increasing mass of;
business, which i ow consumes at lc st one-1
third of its time, and be left free to turn its ,
ittentionto otlier subjecs of deep interrstt;
which it is now compelled 10 neglect. The
sessi ns would bo greatty shortened?a materof
importance, not only in a pecuniary,
but st II more in a political p lint of view.?
But these, though important, are hut minor
advantages. 'I hero arc others immeasurib!y
greater. It would close our land
)ftices in the new S ates, and, with them,
he door to the vast pa rooage an I influence
vhicli they place in the hands .of the Execuive.
Who can estimate this advantage?
Who h th? ro, that lias a particle of patriotsmor
love of Republican institutions, who
v uld not rejoice at the reduction of such
immense patronage, made not o ily without
injury, but with advantage, ;o tho.public?
When we add to tins that it would remove
ill causes of conflict between the old and .
acw flatcs that it would withdraw from the j
['residential contest the public lands, th.it |
irolific source of corruption in the hands of!
he.profligate ; and, finally, th:rt it would j
jave our vast and noble domain itself from j
jeing squandered in the s ruggl *, i' is hardly j
n the power of calculation to estimate the ;
idvauta?cs that would result.
Having now suggested what I believe to i
jo the proper pol.cy to be pursued in rdaion
to the public lands vvi bin :hc new States,
md hastily traced the advantages of the
neasure I have suggested for sonsideraiou,
thonex quest on is, h ive we the right
o d.spose of the lan Is in tin manar prooosed
? 1 would not have ' supposed that
mere could have been a doubt on til s po nt.
nd not tho Senator from Massachusetts
WpdctcbI micf>fl !i on tbis. as Well as
I I *? a M??vvw v
in a former occassion. Tiie Consti u ion
jives to Congress, expressly, the right to
Jispose of the public lands ;and why may1
;hey not dispose of them to the Slates as
well us to individuals ? I cao see no re
ion, and never hive heard one assigned.
Wo are in the dady habit of making grants
to the Slot' s for public purpose s ; and if we
may gran', may we not also soil or dispose
of t em, as I have proposed ? The lands
belong to the States, in their con fed rat
character, as has been sta ed : and Congress
is thi trustee to dispose of them for
tiie common benefit. They are 1 o ind, in
the fultim.ni of ihe trust, to dispose of them
to the b st aJvantage ; and tf the disposition
proposed be the best for all concern, d,
Congress lias not only the right to make
it, but would be bound by tne trust so to
Entertaining these v,oi.vsi it may be asked
why I have not brought forward tiie mca.
sure this session ? My aaswer is, ilierc is j
not time, at tliepresi nt short session, to d:. ;
gest and carry through a m asuro of so
much importance, and involving so many:
and such conflicting interests. But I j
pledge myself, if present at the next session, j
to introduce it ut an early day, and to use I
my best eflforts to press it to a decision, ll j
I can prevent it, no other measure relating j
to the public lauds shall take precedence ol i
I have no presentcJ my views as to the !
policy which ought to be adopted in refer-!
s<icc to the public lunds within the new '
States , and it now remains, in conclusion,
to assign my reason for voting against the
engrossment of this bill.
Believing ilmt nothing short cf a radical
change of policy, such as that proposed, can
arrest the evils apprehended from tho present
system, I am of the opininion, that till
some permanent remedy can be applied,
mat ihe proper course is to vote against all
partial and temporary expedients i.kc the
present;and I shall,in conformity to that
opinion, give my vote agiinst tins bill, I!
believe it to be the course, not only the bosf j
calculated to insure, in the cad, the npplica- \
tion of a permanent and efficien' remedy. {
but also to prevent, in the inu rmedtale per-'
iod, the mischiefs naturally resulting from I
the present system. Bat in addition to these j
-i ? ...t
general reasons, mere aio umeis ..guua ;
tills particular measure, sufficient to induce!
me to vote against it. Passing others by, j
I shall only notice one.
T(lis bill is pressed on the Senate, on the
ground, among other reasons, that it is a
financial measure, it is stated that lite
Troasuty is deficit, and liiut one of the i
effects of the reduction of the price of the j
public lands would be a present increase!
of the revenue from that source, I am noi
prepared to say whether such would be the
lac/, nor having examined the point sufficiently
to form an opinion ; buiifit should I
beso.n would to ??e constitute an objection,
instead of a recommendation, if is!
admitted that the iucrou c of the revenue
would be temporary, and bo followed in a i
short lime by a corresponding reduction.!
Now, ii I am nor mistaken, the income ol
tins and the ensuing year will, without
further addition to the revenue, be sufficient
* 1- d.?.v
to msct ill.! l.'XjJ-fJJ'JHUrerf, Willi uuo VVW..W
my, and iimcly and judicious retrenchment.
Tne pinch will be in the uo subsequent
years?'41 and '42?when siv.cnllis of the
entire reduction under the compromise act
will uke place. Tne diliioul.y will be in
passing though those two years, and this
b'il, considered as a measure of revenue,
insiead of passing now, ought to be postponed
until then. l:s passage at this time would
but increase the difficulty twe years hence.
Whatever it might add to the income of
this and the next year, wouIJ serve but to
increase their expenditures to the same ev.
tent. Experience lias taught us thct our
T'urcs increase with onr income, that if
- ? LJg
ihere be money in the Treasury, it will be
spent, regardless of consequences. The
result would be tint, instead of aiding the
Government to meet the fiscal crisis of'4l
and '42, by increasing its income then, it
would compel it to meet it under the great
disadvantage of increased expenditures with
di inis'ted means. Under this belief, if
there were no ohor objections, I would feel
myself compelled to vo'c against the bill.
(From the Mississipfy Sun.]
Through tnc exertions of John J. Smith
and Mr. hi e, sheriff of Scott county, tho
murdeivrs of the unfortunate Silas D. Rives,
which occurred on the 19lh of September
last, have been detected and ono of them is
is close confinement. Jahn W. Carter,
calling himself John \V. Collins, was taken
a few days ago in Lauderable, county, and
brought to this place on yesterday by Messrs.
Smith and White. It seems that Carter
and Cool; had been a short time previous
to the murder cf Rives, prowling about Hills.'
borough, in Scott county, seeking employment
as well-diggers ; that for a week preceding
the murder, they absented themselves
wuh provisions* sufficient .to last
thorn olg; t or ten days. These provisions
were found i;i the swamp where Rives was
ktlle !. Suspicion resting upon'them, they
were immediately pursued, and were not
hcar i ol nut 1 Cook, culling himself Johnston,
gotjwiihm ten miles of home,and gave
$30 io rule en miles. Ccolc, with h:s wife
and children, set out that night for Mobile,
and l.o n tl?- nee to Tea as. Carter was pursued
and taken at his residence in-Lowndes
county, where his property had been
previously levied upon by the sheriff, and
on liis return he paid exccu* ions and released
it. Some of the money he paid the shrrifT,
has since bvon identified to be Rives'. It is
unknown what amount of money Rwshad
at the time he was killed, but it is supposed
ho had about $10,500. Cook, who is pro.
bubiynow in Texas, has, no doubt the major
part of this sum. From the character
Carter gives him, he is as bad or worse a
robber than John A. Murrel, now in the
Penitentiary of Nashville. Ho once lived
hi Florida, but was compelled to leave for
h crlm s. Tin following are sumo oflho
cranes he committed according to Ins confession
to Car or, who related them to me
in me presence of Mr. Smith, at whose reI
urn i? them down, and send to VOU
-J , . .
tor publ.ca ion, so that the good citizens ol
Texas m iy be on their guard und if possible,
bring this demon to justice. From this
short history of Cook, ho was, no doubt,
one of the main* ins1 ig??t? ri of the
ino!e war iii Florida. Carter does not re *,
olkc t ie precise da'.<- t ?c.se murders and
roubencs were epmmiueJ, but said it was
about the commencement and during the
Seminole war. Carter states that Cook
and a man by the name of Bryant, who lives,
at Lake Pon chartrain, killed a mnn by tho
name of Allen, in T<ilJuhnssef, Florida, and
robb d him of 81,350 cash.
Cook painted himselfliko nn Indian, and
he; d d a targe number ol S aninoles, an t
butchered one of the most wealthy families
of white people on the frontiers of Florida.
After killing the whole fainilv except *i
young man, who stood ov?-r and fought for
his sistt-r until he was \vouud? d by a shot
from an Indian?Cook then stuck an axe
in his head, and left it there slicking, rob.
b .'J the house of SI 100 in paper money, and
70 or $80 in specie, lie kept tho paper
himself, and gave the Indians the silver.
Cook then went to Apalachicola bay .and,
from thence to Cambridge, Decatur county,
(Geo.,) and, in company with a Virginian,
with whom he h<ad been travelling in the
stage, and supposing he had money, at
Cook's instance, walked to the spring, there
killed the Virginian, threw him in ilio river,
and robbed him of $1,119, two $J6 pieces
of gold, and three smaller picois This
crirn^ was committed in Dec., 1936. From
Bainbridge he returned to Columbus,
(Geo,) his rcsilence.
In Tallahassee. Florida, he saw a travel.
I? i.:- k:ii rv l_ i I ....
icr j'i,v ins urn. i/istuvviiiijj ur uau muuc^
lie told the stranger he was ti availing his
route, as it was a dismal rond, he would
be gi.id of his c xnpany.. Tiic stranger
: hanked him, and they travelled about s??v
ente.-n mil s, when Cook proposed they
should drink together, and while the strango.
was drinking out of the bottle, Cook shot
him through fie back of the h<-ad, ar.d rol.
bed him of about $6G*2.
Cook and his brother in 1 .w. Charl s
Hollis, killed the ferryman of St. John's
river on the St. Aligns1 ino trail, a French.
. - -v
map, and robbod him of 17 or ?1800, and
turned t' c flat loose to nvoiJ the possibility
of j>; r-.ua.
Cook murdered a man not far from Tai
ilahassee, and robbed him of ?2,400, and
?13 in casli.
He then went into he Indian country, and
purchased a poney, and stole 17 more, and
hired an Indian to ass'st him. When he
got in o the white settlements, he then made
the Indian drunk and cut his throat.
Cook and Capt. Mirny [a celebrated pir.
? * ? I ? -I
atc.J went 10 SnaKo isianu, unuereiauum^
that ti vessf t was coming from Key West
i ?murdered the crew consisting of 7 or
I 8 men and three ladies?plundered the
1 bout of $17,000 in specie, scutiled and sunk
| the vessel.
f Cook was tiien taken in irons to Talla
Iwssce; but was released, by force, from
the authorities, and the irons knocked off.
riie names of his friends oro Augustus and
Willis Austin of Texas.
Cook and Cap:. Minny came ocrcss &
vessel going front St. Marks to Almony
Lake, laden with provisions.; murderedthc
white persons on board, sold the provisions
and seven negroes which were on board,
and sunk the vessel. Capt. Minay died
at Sr. Marks last winter.
Cook then left for Columbus, Ga. his
residence, where he saw a traveller pay hie.
bill, headed bim took deliberate aim at him ;
his gun snapped, which the stranger heard
and fled.
Cook met with .an acquaintance from
Texas in May or June last, in Clarke county,
Alabama whoso name was Wm. Green.
Green told him thnt his old frien's, Aug

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