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Cheraw gazette and Pee Dee farmer. [volume] (Cheraw S.C.) 1838-1839, July 19, 1839, Image 1

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inserted fbr one dollar the first time, and fifty
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OTThe Postage must be paid on all commu*
CnteVing on Rural Purs wit*.
Greenfield, Mass., April 2, 1839.
Mr. Editor?In speaking of the induce*
moots that present themselves to young
men* for embarking in agriculture, we can
Dot forbear saying a feiv words with regard
to the pecuniary profits that are held out.
We do this, not to feed that love of money
making and money getting, in which most
ofourcilicen3 seem all absorbed, tyld which
we are almost ready to pronounce bur coun* (
try's greatest curse, but ruther to obviate ,
an objection that is often urged, that but a
Very scanty and uninviting livelinood is to
be obtained from agricultural pursuits.? 1
And on this point, let not the profits result- ,
iag from the present system of farming be, j
by any means, taken as criterion. The ig. ,
no ranee of our farmers, and their prejudices ,
against improvement, preclude them from
reaping more than a tolerable subsistence, ,
and we think we do not exaggerate when
we say, that our present agricultural pro* :
ducts might be more than trebled, by a
more enlightened and liberal system of cul. ,
m.q Ducifluo llinea rii*A^nn,j Hrilt nlnrara
UK" Wvoivjvb) niugv |<IVUVVW > lit umu^d |
find a marker. They consist of the neces. ,
caries of life, and so much greater, at the j
present moment, is our consumption than
OUT production, (bat we ate obliged to go ;
abroad to find werewithal to feed our clii- (
zens. In this, as in every other pursuit, the j
profits must be in proportion to the kkil), in* j
dustry and intelligence of those engaged in ,
H. The gains of the farmer cannot be |
rapidly acquired from the nature of his pro* (
fession; they are generally not inordinate, ,
as more capital required for extensive agri- |
cultural operations than most men can com* j
man 1: but they are sure, and are amply ,
competent for tbe wants of life, and ail the ,
luxuries and gratification*, that mind or <
body need demand. They are uninfluenced t
by tbe changes, that are engendered by the (
speculations of business men, and politicians, j
and, when restricted at all, are so by the j
ignorance or blunders of those dependent
upon them.
But we wish to view the subject from
higher grounds than those of pecuniary in.
tereset. We find one of the greatest charms
of an agricultural life is its perfect mdepen.
dence. The farmer's prospects stand unaffected
by the many fluctuating relations
of society, and dependent, in a great measure,
upon bis single energy as directed to the
the operati os of nature. His hopes and
fears are not gauged by every breeze that
blwws in the mart, and the political arena.
Ho feels, or ought to feel, that his pursuit is
tbe corner stone of all others. He creates
what tbe manufacturer works, the merchant
barters, and the ship mas er conveys to the
different quarters of the globe, tie draws
from the bosom of the earth the very food
of commerce and manufactures. And hence
the dignity of agriculture. Its powers are
creative, while most other professions are i
merely constructive. It elicits ten thousand
products, that otherwise might n^ver
have existed, and which are remodelled in
the hands of the mechanic, and converted
Into cash by the merchant. And this great
independence of other pursuits cannot, we
think, but create a corresponding independence
of character in those engaged in agriculture.
It must engender a freedom of
thought and action, so desirable for mental
deveiopement and which is so often crushed
in other callings, by their subserviency to
each other.
We particularly admire the character and
influence of rural pursuits. Very many, we
know, view the farmer through the medium
of the plough, the harrow and the spade,
and make the most drudging details of his
pursuit a criterion by which to measure his
prolession. ror this, u must be allowed,
there is in many instances too much cause*
But we are urging the choice of an agricul.
tural life on different grounds. It is the
character of the men engaged in it, and not
the profession that gives a dignity and
weight to it. * The most noble pursuit may
be degraded by the ignorance and baseness
of its votaries, and the mo9t humble may
be elevated and dignified by education and
intelligence. The culture of the soil is a
Bcience, and one of the noblest of all scien.
ces. Study and discipline are made its
ground work, and the structure is raised
on the mo6t liberal principles, united with
taste and refinement. Natural science in
all its departments is made subservient to it.
Chemistry, mineralogy, botany, vegetable
and animal physiology, mechanics, &c. &c.
are constantly in action in all its operations,
and their practical application developes
every energy of mind or body. New won*
ders are ever being disclosed, and the bar.
mony of nature brought to view, and thai
excitement and interest, so necessary in its
pursuits, ia constant, high toned, and heal.
| thy.
i We have already spoke of the unadul
terated pleasure to be derived front rural
pursuits, and we appeal to those who have
had the advantages of experience, to cor*
rect us if we have advanced any thing beyond
the truth in urging the choice of an
agricultural life. We offer these imperfect
considerations at this time for various rea*
sons, and among others because we see a
due sense of the importance of agriculture
is beginingto be . felt by the public, and a
strong desire manifested to elevate its char,
acter, we should regret that this desire
,J Tlio? ia a want
8IIOUIU UC uiaap|w>uieu> ? nviw w - ???
of pioneers in the cause; of those who may
disseminate th< discoveries of science and
the observations of others in the culture of
the soil, and impress their utility on our
whole farming population* H. V
> i
From the Monthly Genesee Farmer.
One of the missionaries of the South Sea
Islands, in speaking of the tardy results for
some years of the efforts at civilization and
chns'ianization of the natives, stated that
the gn at difficulty lay in convincing the
inhabitants of those islands that they had
toants. When this was done, the way to
improvement wa9 open. We think it has
been a good deal so with the farmer. The
great difficulty in the improvement of agrL
cul ure has arisen from the fact, that the
great majority of farmers imagine that they
had nothing to learn. They had no wanti.
Their system, in their estimation* was per*
feet, and there w <s of course no room for
improvement. With many, it is still the
same; but there are thousands* and tbe
number is daily increasing, who feel they
have wants, and have set about supplying
them in the best manner they are able.?
The spirit of inquiry is clearly abroad;
farmers no longer deem the method of
their fathers, or tbe system of their own,
perfec'ion, and they are anxious to adopt
the best modes,-?those approved alike by
science and sound sense, whethersacctioned
jy age or a modern innovation*
The breeding of cattle, sheep and swine,
8 on* of the things in n/Kir?h u?p*ria*co-|ro?
iemonstrated the possibility of making great
mprovement. FormakiugJw?f, ? yinlrl
mg mitfc ana barter, it is proved that some
mimals are from 50 to 100 per cent better
than others; and it has also been proved,
that these peculiar qualities may be perpetuated,
and by becoming constitutional in the
beast, not liable to deteriorate or wear out.
So with the sheep. Only compare the form
of the Bakewell, or the wool of the merino,
with the ungainly carcases and coarse wool
' ? ? J .ml tlin mrtKf hiffnlftd mils!
Jg UiC V y V|?VW?f auu ??rv ? w?
idmit the improvement in these respects.
And if any man persists in rearing or feedii
g the long, lean, ever-squealing swine of
former days, in preference to the short legged,
thick bodied, and easily fatted, such as
the quiet Berkshire or Chinese, or some
valuable crosses with these and other im.
proved breeds, why he is unworthy the
name of farmer, that is all.
The rotation of cropd is another thing,
which has given a vast impulse to modern
husbandry, and may be regarded as one of
the greatest improvements which the wants
of the community have yet suggested. The
former method was to cultivate a piece of
ground till it was worn out, and then leave
it to recruit its energies as it best could. A
meadow was mowed annually, and the crop,
unless in uncommon cases, soon became
of little value. Alternating, ploughing and
mowing lands was not thought of; but experience
shows that this system, when connecting
with pasturage, is the only one that
can improve and enrich, instead of impoverisbing
and ruining a soil*
Feeding in licit Cows.
Natural grass is the first and best of all
food for cows; and where this can be ob.
tained in sufficient quantities, nothing fur.
ther con be desired. Sweet and nuiricious
grass gives a richness and flavor to milk,
nttainnhlA fmm nn n hftr Kniirr.e : and which
milk produced from grains, distiller's wash
or roots, can nover equal. Of grasses, lucerne
is considered the best, and clovers
next; and as lucerne cannot with propriety
be considered one of our cultivated grasses,
perhaps we have nothing in this country that
excels white clover for imparting a peculiar
richness and even fragrance to milk- The
grasses ere best for the cow when fed green;
but the best method of feeding the grass to
the animal has been matter of some dispute.
The common method of turntng the cow
into the field at once occasions the least
trouble, perhaps, but it is also the most wasteful
; and where economy is to be consulted,
some other method of feeding may be
found preferable. Cur wen found by experience
that three acres of good grass, cul
and fed to the cows, supplied 30 milch
cows with 23 lbs. each during 200 days.
Their other food was, hay of which they
consumed little, and their health was excellent,
and their milk superior. Mr. Curwer
observes, "that to have supplied a similai
number of cows with alike quantity for the
same period, would, in the usual way ol
management, have required 75 acres ol
land for its production. And to have
grazed such a number of cows at liberty
that length of time must, it is obvious, hav*
, taken a very considerable number 01
, acres."
i If such is the saving that may be made
, by substituting labor for land in feeding
cows, we think the subject well worthy the
; attention of dairy men and milk men espei
daily in the vicinity of our cities. If by
employing the labor of one man through the
summer months in carrying the grass to the
cows instead of allowing them to gather or
! trample it down for themselves, twenty
i cows could be kept on land that now supports
only ten, we think there can be no
question as to the profit. Only the best aod
sweetest grasses can be used for carrying;
but where meadows of this kind exist, and
by proper attention to draining, manuring,
and seeding, all may be made such: the
quantity of grass that may betaken from '
them by successive cuttings is great. Be.
cause our medows, the grass standing till
nearly ripe before mowing, does not spring
up at once, it by no means follows that
when cut green, while the circulation is ac.
tive and the roots vigorous that such Would
' not be the case. Indeed, the rapidity with
which the grasses spring up in our rich pastures
after being fed down by cattle, is suf.
ficient proof of what nature is able to ac.
? ~''-L .AtMlta ..a nn? nkaAlra/t
CORipiHIi WIICIJ llIC DUUIM hiw uv? vm?vb?u|
but aidtd, by the skill of the husbandman.
Genesee (N. Y.) Farmer.
The AfricnltiMl Interest.
We are happy, says the "Genesee (N ,
Y.) Farmer/' in giving the following extract
from a letter to us. from Mr. Triplet!,
of Kentucky, on the important subject to ,
legislative aid to Agriculture. We have
the more pleasure in doing this as the sen~
timents are just, and forcibly expressed, and <
agree with the opinions so often expressed j
by us in the Farmer, and which we are confident
will ultimately prevail. It is but ,
a few days since an honorable Senator, in j
his place at Albany,declared, that the project j
of aiding agriculture by legislative enact* j
ments was "titt most arrant quackery V If ,
quackery in this case, why is not aid from j
the same source quackery in other cases? ,
It was this legislative quackery that incor* ,
porated our colleges and endowed them; ,
that surrounded the profession of the law ,
with exclusive privileges and numberless ,
ways of acquiring wealth and power, that ,
are forbidden to the people; nnd by so doing (
placed that man in a situation to sneer at j
and injure those who aided his rise. When ,
what are termed the profession ask for aid, i
>*.? ? vf the treasury are thrown open j t
when those who cosir s
ilinni ?ti rtrrrTm" use of a few thousand dol- j
lars of their own money, they are repulsed .
with taums and sneers. The evidence is ,
daily becoming more clear, that farmers j
must see to their own legislation, or it will |
be left undone. But to our correspon*
"Considering the vast importance to our I
country of the Agricultural interesb?it l}e- ^
ing the very basis of aft othar??without ilw <
prosperity of which atl others dwindle; it is t
strange that it is so overlooked and I
neglected in the legislation of our 1
country. Manufactures, commerce, and
navigation, are all found to be bene- i
benefitted by a little legislative aid; but ag*
riculture is supposed not to need it. I am I
- t. +
against too much legislation. 11 is one 01
our errors, and ever will be in a republic.-*
But while their is too much on other sub* i
jects, there is too little on agriculture. 1
will illustrate the evil felt in some instances, i
and show how legislation might remedy it.
We see accounts m the journals of the day
ofimproved farming implements and labor
saving machines, dzc. A farmer purchases,
say, a reaping machine?it does not answer.
He curses the impostor, and forswears all
humbugs. He is told he did not get the
right article. But how is he to know the
right one 1 Certificates have little value ;
we believe in none of them. In the course
of time, perhaps a neighbor gets the right
implement, and when he sees its operation
he will buy one. I have had myself a
knowledge for several years of various im.
provements, which I have been anxious to
adopt, but have waited to see them intro.
duced and improved by others, not wish,
ing to be humbugged myself. How rapid,
ly would our prosperity advance if the march
of those improvements could be expedited,
and how much could that be done if each
State would have a modelfarm, where all
reported improvements could be fully tested,
and reported on by authority that could
be confided in and where the operation of
the thing itself could be seen. There, too,
manufactories of the most improved articles
could be established, and the implements
and machines furnished at the most reason*
able rates. Pure seeds, plants, &c., could
also be had at such a farm ; and what would
be the expense ? $6000 per annum would
1 O i f\n nr\n ? - l t i 1.. ?..f
Borrow ?iuu,uuu, wnicn would ampiy a?ifice
for tho establishment, including u large
farm, which would bo annually increasing
in value, and the income from which might
i be made, by good management} much, if
i not all of the interest on the cost; for the
implements, seeds, &c., would all be con;
sidered or proved, and the demand for them
i would be almost unlimited. There, too,
could be demonstrated the best methods of
agriculture in every branch. Much specu.
. lation would be put to rest. Any improve*
i ment, when shown to be such, would be
? quickly adopted, and agriculture advanced
> with rapid strides. I do not pretend to say
f there may not be more advisable modes of
f advancing the agricultural interest; but 1
5 am well convinced that euch a plan would1
? render it a great service. The best stocks
> of domestic animals cei^d be concentred on
wese iarma; au grams, seeds, implements,
machinery, &c. &c., and an agricultural
school might be attached to it.
Such plans, or similar, ones, have been
repeatedly suggested ; but it seems, that as
the public mind has not been sufficient,
ly enlightened to be ripe for it. I think,
iowever, that every agricultural journal
ought to urge it, until the subject is taken
ap, and somo such plan adopted."
Planting Too Viudk Land,
The following is extracted from that a.
musing publication, The Clockmaker:
u The bone of this country, Squire, and
hdeed, of America is bavin* too much land ;
tlpy run over more ground than tliey can
$5tand crop the land 40 severely that
(hay run It out* A Very large portion of
land in America has been run out by re.
peated gram crops: and when you add that
to land laterally too poor to bear grain, or
too broken for cultivation, you will find
this greit country in a fair way to be ruin,
ed. Tie State of Vermont has nothing
like the ixports it used to have: and a plaguy
sigh of young folks come down to Bos*
ton to lire out as helps. The two Caro*
olinas aod Virginia are covered with places
that hare been given up as ruined, and
many ether States. We hav'nt the surplus
of wheat and grain we used to have in the
United States, and it never will be so plenty
again. That's the reason you hear of folks
cleans* land, raakin* a farm and sellin' off
again, and goin* further into the bush.
They'/e exhausted it, and find it easier to
clear ae?v lands than restore the old. A
groat ceal of Nova Scotia is run out; and
if a wam't for the lime, raarsh-mud, sea
weed, salt sand and what not, they've go;
here in such quantities, there'd be no cure
for it. It takes good farming to keep an
upland location in order 1 tell you, and make
it eusain itself. It takes more to fetch a
farm Do that's had the gizzard taken out of
it than it's worth. It actually frightens me
wheal think your agriculture in Britain is
progress in' and the land better tilled every
Jay, while thousands upon thousands of
teres with us are urned into barrens. No
traveller as I've seed has noticed this, and
}ur folks are not aware themselves of the
extent of the evil. Squire, you and I
.vun't live to see it; but if this awful robbin'
}f posterity goes on for another century, as
t has progressed for the last hundred years,
we'll be a nation of paupers. Very little land
America, even of the best, will carry more
ban one crop of wheat arter its cleared
msrv u wants manure ; wueu uo cieorexrscr
ast, where'a the manure to come from it
puzzles me! (and 1 wont turn my back on
my man in the farmin' line) the Lord
snows, for I don't; but if there's anything
[hat scares me it is this. * * *
Yes, too much luud is the ruin of us on
[his side o' the water. Afore I went to Eng.
land I to used think that the unequal division
af property there, and the system of lanlord
SJv?.au'"v?M a curse to the country; and
that there was more dignity and freedom to
the individual, and more benefit to the nation
for every man to own the land ho cul.
vated as with us. But I've changed my
mind ; 1 see its the cause of the high state
of cultivation in England, and the prosper,
ity of its agriculture. If the great men had
the lands in their own hands there, every
now and then an improvident ono would
skin the soil and run it outj bein let to oth.
era he can't do it himself, and he take pla.
guy good care by his lease his tenant shan't
do it neither. Well, then there he is, wiih
his capital to make gr.jat improvements,
substantial repairs, and so on, and things
are pushed up to perfection."
Fruit Trees*
The new method of raising fruit trees
by planting the scious, is a great desideratum
in the art of obtaining good fruit.
It has many advantages over grafting,
because it is more expeditious, and requires
no stock or tree. They may be planted
where they are required to stand, and the
labor for one day will be sufficient to plant
out enough for a large orchard, after the
scions are obtained. The method of preparing
the plant is as follows : Tuke the
bCion as for grafting, and ot any time after
the first of February, and until the buds
begin to grow considerably, and dip each
end of the shoot in melted pitch, wax, or
tallow, and bury it in the ground, the buds
uppermost, whilst the body lies in a horizontal
position, and at the dep h of two or
three inches. We are informed that trees
obtained in this way will bear in three or
four years from the time of planting. We
have no doubt of the practicability of this
method of obtaining fruit. A gentleman in
this vicinity tho last season planted twenty
acres of different kinds of pears, which np.
pear to flourish. The composition he
used was melted shoemaker's wax.
Whether the method of propagating fruil
trpaa ahnva nr<red be an imDrovement 01
-.-WW ??* - ?o-- -- ? ? r
not may admit of snme doubt, but of the
advantage of sealing the cut end of scions
ntended either for planting or grafting, we
havo no doubt whatever. Every one whe
has observed the difference in the season
ing of timber from which the bark has beor
removed, and that on which it is allowed tc
remain, is sensible that very little, if anj
moisture escapes from wood through th<
| pores of the bark, while it readily passes of
through the minute vessels of the wood. I
cannot have escaped the notice of most o
I readers that timber with the bark on be
gina to shrink first at the end which is cu
! cfU^and that through this wounded pai
! the moisture nf other parts cf the tre
gradually escapes. It will hence be evident,
that if the wounded ends be carefully
scaled so as to prevent the escape of mois*
turef the native and vital sap of the plant
wilt be retained much longer than it could
otherwise have been; and consequently the
graft or cutting has a much more extended
opportunity to find nourshment and subsistence
in us new residence than could be the
case if the sap have full opportunity to
But the preservation of tnis internal and
vivifying moisture is not the only advantage
of sealing the wounded ends of cuttings. It
is we are confident, a fact, that ttie admis8ion
of water into the circulation of trees
without passing through the assimilating
process of permeating the rind of the pi nt
is certain death to all the*parts of the shoot
which it touches. This belief is founded on
strict observation and careful experiment.
In many instances buds have been inserted
in young trees during a rain, and in every
case, so fur as we recollect, in which a drop
< . i . . .t j* _
or waier insinuated ltseit imo me incision,
the bud failed to grow. Grafts inserted in
wet weather have commonly been far from
exhibiting a pleasing success. And on
taking up a growing cutting from the ground
it will be generally found that the lower
extremity exhibits a portion of dead wood.
These facts induce the opinion) that by
sealing the ends of cuttings the natural
moisture and life are not only preserved
from evaporation, but injurious and deadly
influences are prevented from access to tbe
heart and life of the shoot.
If the above remarks and facts are cor.
rect, the sealing of the wounded ends of all
grafts, cuttings, and even brandies of
pruned trees, is entirely philosophical, and
highly conducive to safety in their transportation
and planting.
New Orleans Observer.
From the Brunswick Advocate.
Silk Culture.
Mr. Editor The following particulars
iu relation to the culture of silk iu Georgia,
will no doubt b* interesting to such of your
readers as arc engaged in the business of
silk growing in this State. The silk of
Georgia is allowed to equal in quality and
beauty to any silk produced in other climes,
winch assertion I can establish from many
works on silk culture in the United States,
and particularly in Georgia. In 1732, the j
culture of silk .became an object of attention
in this part of tho State?the lands
were granted to settlers, on condition that
uiey wouiu piaiii
berry trees for every ten acres whon cleared
; and ten years were allowed to grow
the trees. Trees, seeds, and eggs, were
sent over by the trustees. An Episcopal
clergyman, a native of Piedmont, was sent
over to ins'ruct the people on the raismg of
worms, and winding the silk. Every exertion
was made to stimulate the people to the
culture of silk, even the public se^l of tho3e
times has the representation of silk worms
in their various stages, and the motto, Non
Sibi Sed Aliis.
In 1734, eight pounds of silk was exported
from Georgia, and made into rich brocade,
and presented to the Queen?the cost
of the manufacturing and dying the piece
of goods wus twenty pounds. From this
time until 1753, large parcels of silk was
annually exported To Europe. From 1750
to 1754 the silk exported amounted to 8,?
880 dollars. In 1759,1000 pounds of raw
silk was receivsJatthe filature in Savannah.
in i/oo tnis ouiicting was destroyed By nre
with a quantity of silk, and 7040 pounds of
cocoons, but another was erected. 1q the
year 1759, the colony exported upwards of
10,090 pounds of silk, which sold ,rom
two to throe shillings higher per pound than
that of any other country, and the commis.
sioners on trade and plantations, consisting
of about 40 eminent silk throwsters & weavers,
declared on examination that the silk
of Georgia is in its texture truly good, the
color beautiful, the thread even and as clear
as the best Piedmont, and will be worked
wi'h les9 waste than China Silk, and Sir
Thomas Loiniee, an eminent silk ntanu.
focturcr, pronounced the silk from Georgia
equal in strength and beauty to the best 1talian
silk. According to the official statement
of William Brown, Comptroller of
Customs at Savannah, 8,829 pounds of silk
was exported from that city between th<*
years 1755 and 1772 inclusive. In 1769
; an act was passed in Parliament, granting a
bounty of 20 pounds on every 100 pounds
value of raw silk raised for the next 7 years,
j The last parcel bought in Savannah fores.
ITOft u/hi/?h ?r?M ? 1 9 tn
|JUiim<UII IIU< 411 4 I VWf ninvii uv>u uk < v IV
25 shillings per pound. The silk raising
business was entirely broken up by the re.
volution, and after the war, the more ready
way of making money, by the culture of
indigo, rice, and co:ton, ana cane, superseded
it entirely, and by many persons it is
deemed a new thing, and we venture to say,
that there are many native Georgians in
manhood's prime that know it not, or who
1 have never heard of silk having been cultiva1
ted in their native State. Some aged per*
sons there are, however, who can still give
) some instructions on the winding of silk, and
' a few white mulberry trees that are now
} flourishing in the country, bear record that
} Georgia has been a silk growing State.
f E. H. P.
3 imm i
f From the New England Fanner,
t Fond mad*
f The mud from ponds, when they ait
cleaned out, has always been an object o<
it attention to farmers, so far ae regards in
t collection; but it must be presumed that ita
o, different properties, and consequently thj
[ most judicious mouos o? us application 10
the land,(are either but little understood qt
neglected ; for some cart it directly on the
ground and plough it in, either for turnips
or for com crops; others spread it updo
old leys; and many lay it out in thin heaps
to dry, after which; mi*, it with Hmd or
dung. Upon this it has been remarked,
by an eminent agriculturist that in reason*
ing with formers upon the cause or pjriotit
pie by wnicb they arc guided in those d'fferent
proceedings, the reply is generally
"that it has been their practice to do iO-W
that it has answered very well?and thai
they know of no better mode of treating it.1'
It may bo observed, that ponds, being usu.
ally placed at the lower parts of the ftelffoi
receive after every hard ruin, a part Qf the
soil, as well as of the substances, wjtb
which they have been manured^ Jf the
ponds be large and deep, they may also
acquire much decayed vegetable matter,
arising from the aquatic plants with which
such pools usually abound ; and if near the
yards at which ca tie are commonly ivutfer*
ed, they must likewise receive a portion qf
their dung; such mud is, therefore, pafih,
cularly applicable to light soils, both ascdn*
taining nutritive matter, and adding to the
consistency of the land. 1*110 molt cdm~?
mon time of mudding ponds, is during Hie
summer months, when it is usual to let the
slime lie near the edge of the pond, until
the water is drained from iu A spot if
then marked, either upon a head land of
the held upon widen it is to be laid, or as
near it as possible; of a size to raise a corpf
post of either lime or dung.
If dung can be had, the best mode of
preparing this manure, is to lay a foundation
of about a foot or a foot and a half in
nlilnna form, and nnf moire
uvj/llif vi nil vw'vug f ? ?"f" than
eight feet in width, upon which thfe
freshest yard dung is la:d to about double
that depth; then a thin layer of mud ; after
which, alternate layir* of mud and <Jdl&
until the heap be raised to about five of
feet in height; keeping the sides and ends
square, and coating the whole with ffityd
at least twice at different periods.
If quick lime be used, and 'here remains
any moisture iu lite mud scourings it wig
be sufficiently fallen for turning, in a few
days ; bat if the compost be made *ith farm
yard dung, it may require to romaio sig or
; eight week9 to ferment and decompose, be.
i fore it is in a proper state for turning. To
form thcrtt, in the first instance, with belli
quick lime and manure, is injudicious : the
former ought never to be brought in
-tail wUU itic manures
-b? advantageously incorporated with an oli
compost, in which a little lime hasppoq
used. It appears the better mode to Mpply
it in the latter end of autum, or the early
! part of winter, aod to bush.barrow it well
after it has been hardened by frost.-r-^ril,
ttill Husbandry.
' T
From the Philadelphia North Americ&m
Letteri bj the Way*
I had h' ard so much about the beauty
and fertility of the inter'or of Kentucky, that
I could not deny myself the pleasure of an
excursion of two or three days from Louist
villc to Lexington. The weather was op*
prcssively hot and dry, and on that account,
I did not enjoy the ride of 76 miles over
one of the finest Macadamized roads in the
country, so much as 1 should have'done
under different circumstances ; but upon the
whole, this flying visit was highly interest*
ing. The first part of the way is through
Jefferson County, which is quite too level to
please my eyo, though the soil Is extremely
rich. Finer fields of hemp arid corn it
would I presume, be difficult to find In any
part of the state. The forest trees, espo
cialiy the tulip, the ash and the black wal.
nut, are of prodigious size. Besides these
varieties, the berch and the sugar maple
di>a fho nrinrinal. Vhero to ennm hirirnrtl.
but it does not seem just now te be very
popular io Kentucky.
The first town of any importance if) rough
which you pass, is Shefbyville thirty miles
from Louisville. It is an old town, and
judging from its general appearance, ratlv r
on the decline than nourishing. 22 miles
more bring you to Frankfort, the present
seat of government; it lies in a deep valley
on the Kentucky river. On every side the
hills rise abruptly to the height of a hundred
and fifty, or two hundred feet, and were
all once clothed with a fine growth offorest
trees. On the south side these have been
mostly cut down, I suppose for firewood,
leaving the declivity bare and sterile; and
I dare say, the rage for this kind of
provetnent, will in a little time reach tha
other primitive and lowering occupants of
these hills. You have a full and somewhat
romantic view of Frankfort just before yon
enter the town. There it lies at your feet
with its state-house, its penitentiury, and its
two or Three small churches. It does not
contain more than two or three thousand inhabitants,
and there is but little room k ft
in tlie valley for new streets and new hou.
ses. The hotel at which we stopped, has
a large bar and poor accommodations; at
least they would be pronounced so in any
eastern town of the smallest pretensions.
What can be the policy of roofing up the
legislature ofthe noble state of Kentucky in
this little poorly built town, her wise men
ooght to know, and if they are satisfied, why
should .stringers complain.
About Shelby villa and ail the way thence
) to Frankfort, 'he surface is uneven, and the
f soil is comparatively poor, Midway be.
i tween Frankfort and Lexington, and aboyt
i thirteen miles from each, is Verw'lfa, eu
3 oM- town but having huh to gratify the

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