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L PASO HERALD
Tuesday, October 11, 1910f 1 HI VA'Lt a aaaa POWDER Absolutely Pure The only taking powder made from Royal Grape Gream of Tartar Mo Alum, Ho Lime Phosphate EL- PASO ACTOR XOW SHINES AS AN AUTHOR Earle Mitchell, the El Paso actor, has broken into print. Mitchell, who has been playing a number of big parts in the east with some of the headline companies' had a Sunday story in the New York Telegraph recently. Its ti tle was: "In the Seminary of Drama," and is based on Mitchel's experiences on the far side of the bright lights. The story is an illustrated one filling one complete page in the Telegraph. Chamberlain's Stomach and Liver Tablets do not sicken or gripe, and may be taken with perfect safety by the most delicatet woman or the youngest child. The old and feeble will also find them a most suitable remedy for aiding and strengthening their weakened di gestion and for Tegulating the bowels. For sale by all dealers. ASSAYERS & CHEMISTS Independent Assay Office ESTABLISHED 18S8. D. VTf Rtciabt. B2L. Proprietor. Agent far QrhQhippers Assayslaht Chcialccd'AttttiySls. Mines Examine and Reported Upon. Bullion Work c 8tecla.fi,. p.0.Pox88. Office aad Laboratory: Cer. Sa Frauitcs k CTiiMlmSte. .L FA?0- TEXAS. Custom Assay Office CRITCHETT & FERGUSON, B successors to Hughes & Critchett, .-vssayers. Chemists. Metallurgists. Agents for Ore Shippers. 222 San Francisco St. Phone 321. Ef Paso Pasfeur Institute Per Preventive Treatmea OF HYDROPHOBIA. ZZT, SAX AXTOMO STREET. IMionc 2340 R. 1. RejB 3457 Artistic Embossing at Lowest Prices Ellis Bros. Printing Co. Ellis Buildine. 110 S. Orec Crawford & Gottwald Planing mill and office, 1200 Mo. St Low prices on Sash. Doors, and Win- I dow Glass: Cabinet Work; Bank, ! Store and Office -Fixtures. aSSX' aaaSii To Kansas City and Return account of the American Royal Livestock Show at Kansas City the El Paso & Southwestern announces the above low, round trip rate. Tickets On Sale Oct. 8, 9, 10, 11, 12 m lik Richard Progress of the "Save the Babies" Campaign In EI Paso Following is the report of the fifth month's work of the Woman's Charity association School for Mothers, cooper ating with the oity health department and the El Paso county charities, cov ering period from September 1 to Oc tober 1. 1910: Number of cases in charge.. ..ISO Number of new cases HO Number of old cases.. 70 Number of visits to homes 225 Number of first visits . 86 Number of revisits 125 Number of reference and sanitary visits .......... .. 12 Number of. purchase visits 2 Also visits to the Woman's Charity association, El Paso county charities, city health department, county health department, county judge county dis pensary (baby clinic, milk and ice depot). Cases reported to county dispensary 69 Eye, ear, nose and throat (Dr. Stark) . . 5 Diseases of children (Dr. Kluttz).. 32 Diseases of skin (Dr. Smith) 7 Diseases of lungs (Dr. Emanuel)... 15 General medicine (Dr. Lynch) . . 7 Gynecology (Dr. White) 3 Cases reported to health depart ment .... - 29 Typhoid 1 Tuberculosis 16 Insanitary conditions 2 Cases referred for relief 5 "Woman's Charity association 2 El Paso county charities 3 Amount of relief dispensed: Number supplied with milk.. 32 Number quarts of milk supplied. . 500 Number pounds of Ice supplied. .. .1100 Supplied with meat for broth.. 3 Supplied with crackers....... 20 Supplied with alcohol and liquors. . 2 Articles of clothing supplied 173 Consumers Ice company donates all the ice. J. H. Nations meat market all meat for broth, and Henry Pfaff the alcohol, whisky and brandy. Donations of clothing received from Mrs. H. M. Connor. Mrs. Rue Jackson and Mrs. G. W. McKle. Keport or worK aone in department of children's diseases, El Paso county dispensary. Dr. W. C. Kluttz's class, Tuesdays, Thursdays, Saturdays, Sep tember 1 to October 1: Number of cases seen.. ..401 Number of dispensary days 13 Number smallest attendance (Sep tember 15) .- S Number largest attendance (Sep tember 24).. 55 Number average attendance ... 31 Number of prescriptions dispensed from dispensary stock.. ....487 First visits to dispensary. 110 Number of revisits to dispensary. .291 Number of new cases . . . . . 110 Number of old cases. 70 Number of diseases represented.. 41 Principal diseases represented: Adenoids -- -. 6 Apepsia 7 Anemia t ..13 Bronchitis S Conjunctivitis IS Eczema --.. 9 Gastroenteritis 31 i IiUes( Venereal diseases) 50 Ring worm -...--..--.... 5 Baby Clinic. Since Mav 1, (5fi4 cases have visited the babv clinic, 70 diseases represent ed, 1S40 consultations and 202S pre scriptions have bem dispensed. County DiKnenmry. Excellent work is being done at the countv dispensary. 671 individual cases visited the dispensary, 1261 consulta- j tions were held, 49 surgical dressings uune iiiiti xooo ui escrivitjun dispensed during the month of September. Dental Clinic "We are to have a dental clinic; in this we are away ahead of some of our large cities. Dr. G. H. Mengel has kind ly consented to take charge of this service. Dr. F. W. Lynch (our new assistant county physician) is doing excellent work. The county dispensary I has taken over the tuberculosis work and all cases applying for free med ical care will be handled here. This is not new, as the county has main tained, since .Tune 1, six tuberculosis clinics, weekly, and the county char ities and the "Woman's Charity associ ation have furnished the other relief recessarv. Judge Eylar's decision to i "vag" all indigent tubercrPosis vic ! tims is commendable. El Paso has her own problems and spending money in ( food and medicine for the paupers of otner towns is not "tilling out tu berculosis on the south side. PlayKTonntl on South Side. By the way, what about that play SfJf W RETURN LIMIT OCTOBER Warren, H. D. McGregor, General Agent. City Passenger Roberts-Banner Building. ground? Zack White has offered his share in the baseball field. Cannot a committee be organized to take up this work? We don't want a park; we need a playground. Let the city trans form the canal into a city park and let us convert the old baseball park into a playground. Somewhere there is $600, raised about a year and a half ago, to equip a playground. Who has the money? Won't they cooperate with the Woman's Charity association in establishing this much needed prevent ive measure? Organized Charities. Last December I drew up plans for the social betterment of El Paso and I still believe that that work is needed. The establishment of a department of charities embracing a city hospital, poor farm, tuberculosis camp (for resi dents of El Paso), day nursery, ser vants training class for Mexican girls, lodging house, laudry. wood yard, sew ing class, training school for nurses, dispensary, social welfare department j and relief department. All of this is needed in El Paso, yet I feel that which is most needed is a settlement house on the south side. A "Settlement" Needed. To better El Paso we must improve living conditions on the south side, and the surest and best way is to es tablish a settlement house, which be comes an essential element of the peo ple of this part of the city. "We have examples before us of what the set tlement has done. Toynbee hall is call ed the Mother of Settlements. Other well known English settlements are: Oxford house, Mansfield house, Ber mondse3r settlement and Newman house. In America we have the nurses settlement, college settlement, Union settlement and the university settle ment of New Tork. You can have no idea of the work accomplished by the nurses settlement and of the many branches maintained. Wherever there is congestion there is a branch settle ment, and these settlements are main tained by some particular family, such as the Stillman branch on "West 63rd street. Do not confuse the settlement with the mission. A mission has for its object con version. A settlement has for its object mutual knowledge. Organization, insti tutions and machinery of a settlement are primarily for social service, and not for propaganda, while those of a mission reverse this order. Clubs for men and women, boys and girls, classes of all kinds can be car ried on in the settlement and results will be gained which cannot be gained by one going from the north side to visit the south side. The settlement worker has the amplest opportunity of seeing the individual weakness and faults which have their necessary re sults in the increase of social misery, but at the same time the worker has the fullest knowledge of the conditions which account for them and just be cause the worker's aim and purpose is to share the life, he enjoys an inti macy which is denied to those who are merely investigators or inquisitors. The "Baby Work." Baby work is fundamental work. It means the community. Families are reached that could be . reached in no other way, for a trained social worker does not confine herself to the case in charge, but is ever alert to the need of the community in which she visits. Not long since I heard- Dr. C. T. Race (El Paso's statistician and a man who knows) state that one-third of all fu nerals in El Paso are the funerals of babies. Three hundred thousand babies, un der one year old, die every year in the United States out of an infant popula tion of 1,500,000; 300,000 American citi zens are cut off at the very beginning. It ds not alone those who die, but what about those who live handicapped? Enough babies die in one year to es tablish six cities the size of El Paso. Enough Babies die in one year to make up for two years of tuberculosis deaths. If we could save one-half of these babies we could offset the tu berculosis death rate, as the num ber of deaths from tuberculosis (year ly) In all ages, is about 160,000 or about one-half of the infant death rate. Baby work is year round work and to accomplish most good should be car ried on in the winter ai well as sum mer. . H. Grace Franklin, Director. All work above outlined has cost ?S52.S0 for five months, an average of only 170.57 per month. 19 Ageat. THE STATUS AND FUNCTION OF MANUAL TRAINING IN AMERICAN SECONDARY EDUCATION (By E. A. Ross, director of Manual training in the El Paso Public Schools.) v "We now have good manual training courses in all the elementary schools of El Paso, including, in addition to the primary work, courses in shop work, mechanical drawing, domestic art, domestic science, laundry, knife work and cardboard construction. We have made a small beginning in the high school. The work there is handi capped by two unfortunate circum stances. First, the work cannot be given in the same building, which causes a waste of time and makes perfect unity more difficult of attainment. Second, we have not adequate equip ment for full four year courses, which prevents some students from electing this course and causes others to drop out of school entirely. However, Ave have suitable equipment for all courses attempted, and all work done is excellent. The first year's work was entirely satisfactory in its re sults and provision has been made' for the second year's -work. The courses cannot be developed beyond the second year of the high school until a new high school building is provided. Work in Other Cities. The object of this paper is to show what is being done in other cities with the reasons therefor, and to indicate what El Paso must eventually do to keep her place in the front ranks of educational endeavor. There are 150 manual training schools of secondary grade in the Unit ed States. Of our 1300 city school sys tems almost exactly one-half offer courses in manual training, which is a very satisfactory showing when we consider the short time during which the introduction of this work has taken place. Kansas City spent upwards of $200,000 to build and equip its manual training high school. Saginaw, Mich., spent $242,000 for a similar building, and Cleveland spent $555,000. Los An geles already has Throop Polytechnic institute and a first class technical high school, but is now building an other manual training high school at a cost of 3,00,000, making the investment in manual training for that city alone above $1,000,000. St Louis, Chicago and New York have invested far great er sums in this field of education. Chi cago alone spends $300,000 per year for salaries, supplies, power, lights, etc., for manual training. In all schools giving adequate courses the following subjects are taught: Joinery, woodturning, pattern making, forging, machine tool work, mechanical drawing, applied design in textiles, leather, clay, wood and metal, domestic art, millinery, domestic sci ence, food chemistry, etc. The equip7 menis in many schools are elaborate and of high grade. As one of the best, I willx mention the new manual training high school of the borough of Brook lyn. In this school every machine is driven by an individual motor. "There are forty class rooms in the building, four shops for elementary wood work, one shop for wood turning and pattern making, one for sheet metal work, a printing shop to accom modate thirty workmen, a machine shop, a. blacksmith -shop, a book bind ery, four shops -for plain garment work, j ruumiy ior tne stuoy oi domestic sci ence, including two kitchens, laundry, bedroom, diningroom, pantry and in firmary. There are four mechanical draughting rooms, four freehanr drawing rooms, two zoological labora tories, one chemical and one advanced chemical laboratory for the study of assaying and metallurgy: one laborato ry for the study of advanced physics, including steam and electrical engin eering, and an electrical laboratory." This building and equipment cost $857,673, almost a million. Increases the High Schools. The introduction of adequate man ual training courses increases the num ber of pupils in the high schools. In Kansas City in seven years the attend ance of the manual training school in creased from 842 to 1736, the faculty during that time having been increased from 15 teachers to 72. "What a properly equipped high school has done for one small city is shown in a statement by Supt. J. M. Frost of the public schools of Muske- gon, Michigan. Mr. Frost says: "Without exception, we believe the high school teachers feel that the aca demic work is better done, by reason of the fact that the manual training relates the work more closely to life than it appears to be in high schools where there is no manual training, and further, to many boys to whom a pure ly academic course does not appeal, it makes the course seem worth while. "By reason of the instruction in man ual training the attendance at the high school has increased frcm 9 per cent of total enrollment in 900 to 19 percent of total enrollment in 1909, thus doub ling the attendance in nine years and this, too. in spite of the fact that the total number of school age in the city has decreased from 7S14 In 1900 to 6583 in June, 1908. In fact, the work is so attractive that nearly 50 percent of each graduating class return to the high school for postgraduate and nor mal work." No Displacement Results. It has been the experience in every A FOOD DRINK Which Brings Daily Enjoyment. A lady doctor writes: "Though busy hourly with mv W. affairs, I will not deny myself the pleas ure oi tailing a lew minutes to tell of my enjoyment daily obtained from my morning cup of Postum. It is a food beverage, riot a poison like coffee. "I began to use Postum eight "years ago, not because I wanted to, but be cause coffee, wnich I dearly loved, made my nights long weary periods to be dreaded and "unfitting me for business during the day. "On the advice of a friend, I first tried Postum, making it carefully as directed on the package. As I had al ways used 'cream and no sugar,' I mixed my Postum so. It looked good, was clear and fragrant, and it was a pleas ure to see the cream color it as my Ken tucky friend always wanted her" coffee to look 'like a new saddle.' " "Then I tasted it critically, for I had tried many 'substitutes' for coffee. I was pleased, yes, satisfied, with my Pos tum in taste and effect, and am yet, being a constant user of it all these years. "I continually assure my friends and acquaintances that they will like It in place of coffee, and receive benefit from its use. I have gained weight, can sleep sound and am not nervous." "There's a Reason." Read "The Road to Wellville" In pkgs. Ever read the above Tetter A new one appears from time to time. They are Renuluc, true, and full of human interest. city that has given the subject ade- 1 quate trial that manual training does not to the least degree crowd out oth er subjects, but by bringing in more pupils to the high school it greatly in creases the number of students receiv ing the benefits of the older branches. This is an exact parallel to the history of higher education. In response to a definite demand, schools of science, law, medicine, en gineering and other branches have been created. At the time of its incep tion each of these schools was opposed by those who thought the new school would partially crowd out or infringe upon the field or the rights of schools already established. The newer schools have all found their place in our scheme of education, the older branch- es of learning have not suffered in the least, as the new schools minister to the needs of those who otherwise would not be interested In the educa tion, and the best feature of the entire situation is, that all of these schools, the old and new, , following a definite line of development, are combined in the great, progressive state universi ties. The operation of the same law is apparent in secondary education, and the modern type of high school is the large school in which first class courses of instruction are offered in every branch of secondary education. Courses are offered to meet the needs of every student. Nothing is neglect ed, neither the extremely cultural, as music and the classics, nor the ex tremely utilitarian, as household eco nomics, machine shop practice and ar chitectural drawing. The recently completed high school of Cincinnati is of this type. This is the most economical, logical and satis factory method of fitting industrial training into a unified scheme of uni versal education. Educational Function. The function of manual training can be considered under four topics, name ly, its intellectual, practical, esthetic and ethical values. In the realm of intellect, experience with concrete things is the basis of all abstract thought. The man whose ex perience is small in material things is lost and helpless when he attempts the abstract. Like the giant, Antaeus, who in his struggles with Hercules renewed his strength whenever he touched the earth, so the strength of the intellec tual giant is dependent upon experi ence with the so-called "mater'aL" The aeroplane in its graceful flights is supported, poised and propelled by power drawn from the interior of the earth. Newton and Laplace were ena bled to pursue their wonderful courses through the realms of higher thought because thefr lives were "rich in experi ence with material things. The same is true of all leaders of thought at the present time. Why this fact is true is apparent when we reduce any 'abstract thought to its first principles. This truth is further illustrated by the fact that the value of sight is, in the final analysis, largely dependent upon impressions received through oth er senses; thus are gained ideas of di mension form and texture, which ex perience has taught us to judge by op tical impressions. A report published by the Kansas City board of education contains the following: "The intellectual quality of the man ual training exercises is of a high order, and supplements the academic exercises. It means a great deal to make and to read a working drawing, to be able to see in it the outline of something which is to be wrought from the crude wood or iron, to hold in the mind's eye a perfect image of the thing to be made, to think out the processes of shaping it, to finally test the result by careful measurements and calcula tions. Such a process involves a series of mental activities fully equal to those found in the pursuit of any other high school staidy." Practical Valne. The practical value of manual train ing Is self evident in an age when in dustry is the predominant factor of life, when we know that 90 percent of our pupils will find employment in in dustrial pursuits. The better provision our schools make for industrial educa tion, the more democratic our schools become and, therefore, the more nearly ideal. As we follow tjie general law of evolution in developing from a sim pler into a more complex civilization, an ideal democracy demands that we train not only leaders, but that we train every man and woman as a use- ful, efficient citizen. jicinuiii ii tuning in tne nign scnoois aids in the selection of a vocation. Dr. Eliot says, what we teachers already know, that "The perception or discov ery of the individual gift or capacity would often be effected in the elemen tary school but more generally in the secondary: and the making of these discoveries shculd be one of the most important parts of the teacher's work." Manual training in the high school gives a greater variety of vocations for the pupil to "sample" and choose from, furthermore it partially trains for some vocation and develops general in dustrial intelligence and the power of initiative. In the industrial courses an effort is made to give the pupils a broad view of the entire field of indus try, including not alone industrial pro cesses, but organization and adminis .......w tration as wen in their various interre- . lations. Protecting the Home. In the field of household economics is taught how things should be planned and executed to gain tjie best results with the least outlay of money, time and energy. The factory has largely re placed the home kitchen and the neigh borhood mill in the production of foods and food materials. In spite of all ef forts to the contrary, the ratio of city dwellers is constantly increasing. These two facts bring new problems which must be solved largely by wo men. Modern industry has given the factory as an aid, but it has not taught how to use it to the advantage of the home. This duty devolves upon the school. The home must be protected by the enactment and enforcing of pure food laws. The unhealthful conditions aris ing from the smoke nuisance in manu facturing centers must be combated. Measures must be taken against disease bearing flies and mosquitoes. Sanita tion must receive Its due share of at tention. Constant study, constant vigi lance and continual, conscientious ef fort are required in the solution of the thousand problems that the human family meets at the present time. Ola methods and old solutions will not an swer. The new conditions must be met by new methods. The individual life must be broadened, the -welfare of all must be considered as this affects the welfare of the Individual and the home. Ethical Training. To illustrate the ethical value ol manual training, we must note that ethical training is such training as Grandfather Clause In Oklahoma Bars Many rfses? mjr - vNaK-""? V'"5?S SW- At left, J. W. McNeal, Reoublican cratic nominee. Guthrie, kla., Oct. 11. Oklahoma nominally is Democratic, the primary vote on August 2, 1910 being 125,000 for the Democrats and 81,000 for the Republicans. The bugaboo of the Republican par ty is the "Grandfather clause," which threatens to disfranchise 14,000 ignor ant negro Republican voters. Fred P. Branson, of Muskogee, who marshalled the "Grandfather clause" to victory, says that the purpose of the suffrage amendment was not to remove fear of Republican victory, or even to dis franchise Republican voters, but to "relfeve the state of Oklahoma of the obnoxious results of wholesale voting of ignorant negroes by unprincipled politicians." The state organization of the Repub lican party stands for all that is "stand pat," "regular" and the tariff. "Sun ny" Jim Sherman made a trip through the state recently making speeches to bolster up the organization. The Re publicans are fighting primarily to re tends to induce the choice ofthe bet ter, when opportunity for choice af fers, also that for all practical pur poses the good and the bad are distin guishable by their ultimate efects on other human beings, I. e., ethical prac tically means social. The -work in the manual training classes Involves social interests and offers not only opportu nities but incentives to choose that which is socially valuable. The work properly taught develops more desira ble relationships between pupils and their teacher, the school and the world of which that school is a part. The making of beautiful things for the home increases the students inter est and participation in that home. Further, it gives him?a feeling of kin ship with those creators who with work of brain and hand are making of this world a pleasanter and a more beautiful habitation. All this has eth ical value. Social endeavor called work, to use a homely term furnishes a good op portunity for the development of char acter. No high ideal of manhood ig nores vocation. In order to live up to a high character Ideal a man must do something that is socially valuable. Talking about the good is helpful, but for desirable results not to be com- ; pared with active, purposeful partici pation in the good, namely in the so--cially helpful. Along the lines merely suggested above, manual training has exceptional opportunities to aid in ethical devel opment. Esthetic Development. One of the chief functions of man ual training is in the realms of the esthetic. The lack of development of the esthetic sense is the worst feature of American life at the present time. Nine homes out of every ten are ugly In exterior and fitted with ugly, in congruous furnishing Walls, ceilings and floors are one .aedley of unhar monious designs and colors. The bulk of the furniture shows no unity, either iri Its color scheme or its de sign. The individual pieces, with Tare exceptions, are ugly, and there is ap parent no attempt even at a harmony of ugliness. The worst feature of all is that many people do not know the beauti ful when they see it, and so are unable to understand or appreciate it. This is a sad fact when -we consider that beauty is the greatest power for good ever created. In their quest for cash, men have lost sight of the real val ues in life opportunities. Industry has given man the machine, but It has. not taught him how to use it. Night and day the ugly, black machines are fill ing our American homes with their offspring of ugliness. The machine can and should be made a useful ser vant. It is certainly an undesirable master. The pace is strenuous, every thing is moving rapidly onward. We carnot retrace our steps and return to the days of handmade things, thus ftilfllUno- VA Viaolltlflll iTAomo rt T?tte l.Ullliltlt5 .S U,tfeU I.A4.14 Ut bUlUO VT. JS..J kin and Morris. We must take and use all the re sources of modern scierfte and invent ive genius, and we shall find them powerful aids in beautifying our en vironment and uplifting the character of our people. Our boys and girls must be taught an appreciation of the beautiful and an understanding of its underlying principles. This is not only the opportunity but the duty of the public schools. They must make avail able the value of the beautiful and give some insight into ihe deeper, spiritual meaning of the things about us. In the words of Browning: "So may you paint your picture, twice show truth, Beyond mere Imagery on the wall So, note by note, bring music from ' your mind. Deeper than ever e'en Bethoven di vined So write a book shall mean beyond the facts, Suffice the eye and save the soul be side." INTEEIOR DEPT. LOOKS AFTER THINGS fContinued from previous page.) ficial maps of the country is full of in terest. One of these maps is a com plete one of the United States, and when the work is finished it will have cost the. nation 3,000,000. In addition to this topographic map there is one being made of the geologic formation of the country. It will be many years I before these two maps are worked """ ?5 " - 3 ?SSK,aaa '-ft& H f j0fflBm &.. SS.T. ?3yy v$MBBajaaB c , - -- . JMmpxwKx'amam& iK5- mk 53 yHH & ssijawt . -Sfs ""v-t&OTiaaaaaa SSs-ir? . ' HK&K&'diHHSK&V n ominee; at right, Lee Cru se, Demo- turn to congress McGuire, Morgan and Creagor so as to get as much federal patronage as possible. J. W. McNeal, born 53 years ago in Ohio, was once a buffalo hunter, but for the last 20 years has been a na tional banker. Since entering the cam paign as the Republican candidate ho has been making three speeches a day to the ruralites denouncing "Haskell ism" and charging Cruse with being a Haskell candidate. Lee Cruse, of Ardmore, born in Ken tuckj and also a national banker, an swering McNeal's charges of being Haskell's candidate says that if he la elected governor he will be governor and will not represent any private in terests, and countercharges that Mc Neal is a tool of the railroads. The Republican party committee are quiet ly raising money to apply for an in junction two or three days before elec tion against making the "Grandfather clause" operative at this time, in an effort to save what voters they can- in detail. The whole country already has been surveyed in a general way, but these maps bring It down to a min uteness seldom undertaken by any gov ernment . Reclamation Service Iaaportast. The reclamation service, another branch of the interior -department, has charge of the irrigation of the semi arid regions of the United States and the drainage of the swamp lands of the country. Its labors promise to have an increasing importance as the years go by. As these lands, when properly ir rigated or drained, are the most pro ductive in the United States, the in creasing population of the country will make it essential that this work bo carried forward with great -apidiry. The government reclaims the land and sells it to those who expect to farm it, at a rate sufficient to pay all ex penses of reclamation. In the irrigated country the big water projects are turned over to the users of the water, who mutually share the expense of the upkeep. The reclamation service is spending many millions of dollars a year, and is handling almost as much material as is being taken out of the Panama canal during the same time. 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