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EL EASO HERALD
Cable News and Classified Section Cable News and Classified Section Saturday, January Ninth, 1915. British Women Organize Volunteer Any Hf LAND IS UNIVERSITIES N EKLH a Ml Nil W Thin Strip Sacred to All Christendom May Be a Battleground. CUSTOMS UNCHANGED BY THE CENTURIES WjHlNGTON, D. C, Jan. 3. The atcst land brought within the apidly expanded war area Is that thin strip upon the eastern coast of the Mediterranean sea. the Holy Land, sacred to the believers of three world-religions, to Christians, Jews and Moslems, and ground wherein were cradled ideals which have made almost all civilization tributary. It is a bridge between the Moslem power In Asia Minor and the Moslem power in Egypt, and ho assumes strategic Importance in the war of the nations Yet the Holy Land is a land embalmed in the spirit and customs of 3000 years ago, according- to a description of village life there as prepared by John D. Whiting for the National Geographic society: lnnnor and Custom Unchanged. "Manners and customs which pre x.uled in Palestine in Biblical days are atill unchanged. While the towns people are losing their ancient customs and quaint costumes, the villagers aijp, in those things, as they were 3000 j ears ago Three distinct classes in habit the land, the Bedouin, a nomadic war-loving race, the Fellaheen, agri culturists, shepherds and village dwellers. and the Madaniyeh, who live jn the towns and cities and are ar- "The present day villages are lo cated, as a rule, either on the tops of hills, originally for protection, or near some spring or source of water. Many are built upon the foundations of buildings whose origin dates back thousands of years. There does not exist a single example of a peasant vil lage that has been founded in modern times "Village streets are crooked, narrow and unpaved. The farmers houses are crowded close together for protection. These houses consist of one large room, usually square. About two-thirds of the space within Is devoted to a raised, masonry platform, same eight to ten Teet above the ground, and this la the kitchen, store-room bed-room and living-room of the family. Below this platform, the cattle and flocks are ' housed, goats and sheep, a few work cattle, and perhaps a dsnkey or camel. Each Village Hi" Social Center. "Each Ullage has a guest-chamber which is the social center for all the Milage men, who love companionship and are great gossips. Each day, by turn, one of the villagers furnishes the coffee, beans and sugar to be served to the men who gather at the guest chamber. They are, of course, great respect ers of para so tfcat If a common man happens in, a couple of fried eggs with bread and olives will do for htm. If a more Important personage arrives, a pair of roast chickens is provided for Ins supper, but if a s'ill more honored one or a company of men appear, a lamb or kid is killed. The village guest-chamber is a club of the village men. , , Bom Are Children, Glrla ot Trlied. "Children in the peasant families are always welcomed. The father prides himself on his boys. Kven the mother prefers them, and when questioned as to the number of her offspring, she will say she has five children and two girls, or whatever the numbers may be This is the more strange since the would-be husband must pay his father-in-law a handsome price for the girl, while boys are a heavy expense and their wives an weddings are costly affairs 'Women ara looked upon as some thing inferior. The woman may never call her husband by his first name, but 'Oh father of Ahmed,' or whatever the eldest son's name may be The wife likewise takes the name of her first-born son. The husband will never say 'my wife' or mention her first name, 'jut will say either 'the ,niwr of Ahmed' or 'my family,' "the relative in my house.,' 'the forbidden, or the daughter of my uncle. The reason for this last title is that the village man in the Holy Land marries ins first cousin in preference to anyone else, and in fact she cannot marry an other if he wan'i her. Babies RougMy Trented. When the fellah or peasant child is born, its tender skin, withaut being washed, is rubbed with olive oil and salt For seven consecutive days It is re-oiled, and when a week old gets its first bath and is again oiled. In some localities they consider It unsafe .unit -..- - - . .,! o bathe the baby before it is forty ""- - . rr." ..,- !.., ... dars old. Mortality amon me uau.es great and it is not to be wonaerec, im for in view of the rough treatment they receive. It jecomee ft question of the survival of the fittest "The wavs of these village folk, their methods of aKrictilture, of administra tion of household and community, and Drummer Ml Rescues Gets Man tke at LONDON, Ens-, Jan. 9. The coveted Victoria Cross has been awarded to drummer Spencer John Bent of the First East Lancashire regiment. Here is how young Bent modestly de scribes the gallant exploit for which he was honored: "We were as usual taking our turns alternately watching for the enemy, and I had snuggled down Into my hole. We had no officer in our trench and mv platooon loader had gone to visit a post, when someone paused the word down to the line that the battalion was to retire. I started to follow them, but remembered a French trumpet which I had found, and had carried with roe for some time. I did not want to lose it. and went back for It, chancing a bu'let "When I got into the trench I saw someone just coming round the corner. Thinking it was a German, I waited for him till he had crawled up to me, and then poked my rifle into him and asked him who he was. It was Sergt. Waller, who had told me that it was a wrong order. I at once jumped out of the trench and ordered the men back. "We all got back to the trench safely ami waited. In the early morning tha Germans e idently thought we had left the trenches, for after a bombardment the attacked The Germans came on, do'ng a sort of goose step. Our of fi lers kept our fire back, and in the GEHTERSOFWAfl Cambridge and Oxford Are Drawn Upon Heavily For Army Officers. BOTH HAVE LARGE HOSPITALS IN USE T ONDON, Eng., Jan. 9. No one I place in England, probably, has "" the war wrought such changes as , upon Oxford and Cambridge. Neither university had been "militarist' In tone, though each had its officers training corps. Cambridge taking hers perhaps a little more seriously than Oxford. Yet. no sooner had war broke out than each headquarters was rife with applicants for commissions for past and present members Hundreds of commissions were obtained before term began; and there have been some enlistments, although enlistment Is .dis couraged among men who could serve their country better as officers. Of those who should have come up as freshmen many went from their pub lic school O. T. C. into the army; and one arrived at the Cambridge base hospital as a wounded officer Just about the time that he should have reached his college as a freshman. The result was that both universi ties began term with less than half the usual number of junior members; nnd that quantity has been steadily shrinking, as the war office granted more and more commissions. Cam bridge has lost 230 men during the term. Many more will be drawn away during the vacation; and .next term Tembroke, Cambridge, expects to have soma BO men in residence out of 230, and Magdalen. Oxford, will have per haps 25 out of 150 ThoBc Left Are Drilling. Of those v. ho are left, at least half are drilling full time and waiting for commissions. There remain only the unfit, those who, like students from neutral countries, natives of India, and Indian civil service probationers, are prevented from taking arms, students who have come to Oxford and Cam bridge because Germajiy is closed to them, and the medical students who have been recommended to finish their course that they may serve the army medical corps to tho best purpose. There are also a few whose religious beliefs or principles bar them from military service, and theirs is not the least heroic of tasks at the present moment. Of mere "slackers" there saeci to be none. 'The he generous youth of England has rushed to arms: and the effect upon Oxford and Cambridge Is strange. At 11 or noon the street is not now a flut ter with, gowns hurrying to lectures; at 1 o'clock the groups in the gate ways are scanty or none. The motor bicycles are all at the front, carrying dispatches. By night and by day there Is a hush over the colleges, where set upon set of empty rooms seem to stare at the empty quadrangle in surprise. Then there Is the hospital work. Tho military hospital at Cambridge began with the cloisters of Nevile's Court in Trinity, now the Kings and Clare gro. (1 is covered with an openair-base hospital, the first of Its kind, a place of 1080 beds, whence many of the con valescents are taken to a Red Cross 16 s t h 0U S At Oxford the new schools and the town hall have been turned Into hos pitals; and New College gardens are full of convalescents. Work for Bel gian refugees, for the relief of dis tress for the Red Cross, has been ef ficiently organized and is actively car ried on. The women of Oxford and Cambridge are playing their part as eagerly as the men. of sanitation are primitive reminis cences of the days before Jhe coming of Christ. The refuso of their villages are piled in great heaps around it, and there left to fester. Their plowing is a bare ;;ratehing of the ground with wooden v'ows, while they thresh their grain by flailing and treading, and mill it in stone mortars. No Courtships Permitted. "The marriage customs of these peo ple are interesting. Young men marry at about 20 and girls between 12 and i 16. The son, on coming of marriage able age. picks his wife by choice of sight no courtship is allowed when his father arranges all other details. The girl has no voice In the matter The price af a bride depends on her age, beauty, usefulness and family connections. It ranges. In our money, from 3100 to J400" CANAL ZONE EXODUS TAKES MORE THAN 20,000 WORKERS Panama, Jan. S. The total net emi gration from the Isthmus through the terminal ports of Balboa and Colon in -TnW- ism. has been 20.404. unis HIIICC dUl), J?l, . u-.... --,.--- .lcure doea not represent a correspond- inir reduction In the canal force, for in June, 1913. there were 42.I62 employes on the rolls, while on November 25. 1914, there were 26.937, a difference of 16.105 It mas be assumed, therefore, that in addition to the 16.305 canal laborers who have returned to their homes, over 4000 others have left also Victoria Cross Risk of Life meantime Lieut Dyer brought up a ma. chine gun. "When the Germans were about 400 yards off, the order was given to fire, and the Germans went down In hun dreds, very few getting safely back to their own trenches. On the follow ing morning, after we had had break fast, private McNulty went out of the trench, and on returning was hit in the pit of the stomach. He fell, and the Germans were trying to hit him again: you could see the earth flying up all round him. I said. 'Why doesn't some one go and help him and got the re ply. 'Why not go yourself?1 "I went, and to make It difficult for the Germans to hit me I zigzagged to him. As soon as I got hold of Mc Nulty's shoulder something seemed to take my feet from under me, and I slipped under McNulty. This took place close to the walls of a ruined convent, and Just as I fell several bullets struck the wall, sending a piece of plaster against my left eye. I thought I was wounded, and started to rub the blood away, but the skin was only grazed. "I felt it was time to get out of It, and knowing it was Impossible to stand up, I hookted my feet under McNulty's arms, and using my elbows I managed to drag myself and him back to the trenches, about 25 yards awaj'. As far as I know he Is still alive at any rate he was .the last X heard of htm. Later I got a'bullet through the flesh of my right leg, and had to be taken to the hospital," - - w&vfr- HBSBSSasSSSiMrf&S YMWmMMi3$gSm$3t2&a SKnffira 3b1 v Sls si $ jf lawk ft WfBfffl'KgriMMwifTsi'HnfHHfBfr HsWMsMBMMsMiBfflftn.1 n-pi TV 7 iHBBMWWsWr llHTTiBBIiiMfic mamBBBKBs& sbk; Will Help in Defence of England if German Army Invades Great Britain. nV PIHLWI' EVERETT LONDON, Eng.. Jan. 9 If the Ger mans ever invade Great Britain and the situation becomes desper ate, they will be faced by an army of English Amazons, carefully drilled and trained to the use of the rifle. At first the Women's Volunteer re serve was considered a Joke, but a visit to Old Bedford College and a view of the determined women perspiring through their military drills, is con vincing proof that it is a serious or ganization. It is not to be concluded that the women will rush to the coast and fight the moment the Germans make a land ing. They will take ur the rifle only when Great Britain is in desperate straits. Till such an unhappy time the Reserve will simply act as a discip lined body of women, skilled In first aid. cooking, dispatch riding on motor cycles, signalling and the care of horses. Will Not Neglect Rifle. "At the same time the rifle Is not being neglected," said Viscountess Cas tlereagh, the colonel-in-chief of the Women's emergency corps. "All the women are spending time In the pri vate rifle ranges, and there are some astonishingly good shots among them. There is no reason in' the world why a woman cannot be as good a marksman as a man." It was also pointed out by one of the officers of the Women's reserve that FIVE MEIS START GREATEST FIEHT HISTORY British Colonial Horse. Are Now Eesting, but Are Restless. WERE FIRST TO SEE GERMANS ADVANCING COUT MOtmiX IJE BEAUFORT L' ONDON, Eng., Jan. 9. The pictur esque figures of members of the British Colonial Horse are fre quently seen in these days in the little patch which is left of Belgium. They are proud fellows since the affair of the Yser. Corporal Davison and four of his men were among the first who discovered the German advance in the district of the Yser and they were the men who fired the first shots that started the great and longest battle in the history of the world. Nov' Getting a nest. About 20 of these sturdy chaps, among them several exmembers of the Royal Northwestern police of Canada, are now attached to the third regi ment ot Belgian Lancers. They are having a rest at present, but are be ginning to get restless, and are anxious to get back again to the front "But," as one of the men explained to me, "without our horses. This is no couhtry for any horse which has a grain of respect for himself. He never knows here whether he will have to wade or to swim." Hold Wife as Hoxtnge. At the farm where the boys of the B. C. II. are quartered at present, I made the acquaintance of a young farmer. He has a. married brother who lives five or six miles away from here, across the German lines, in the terri tory at present occupied by the Ger mans. About ten days ago this young farm er was awakened In the middle of the night by his brother, who had been forced by the Germans to cross the Belgian lines to obtain Information for them His wife and house were held as hostages, and he had been informed that In case he should prefer not to re turn, his wife would have to pay the penalty for his "treason " He v ent When the Germans invade Great Britain they will face in addition to the regular soldiers -and Kitchener's riew army, a body of determined women who will act as the last line of the reserves. UnMl called to the trendies the women will work as dispatch riders, telegraphers, camp cooks, groo ms, and in any other useful capacity 'that .offers. This 'photograph shows a group of women in khaki, gathered around a table in Old Bedford college, London, re ceiving a lesson in the use of the field telegraph. There arc many professional telegraphers in tlie Women's Volunteer reserve, as the new organization calls itself. '- The women hold regular drills. Army officers are their instructors at first, and then women '. drill officers take charge of the units. Every woman must pass a physical exa mutation And all "below 18 or'above 40 years of age are barred. There are many 'militant "suffragets, no longer enemies of the government, in the reserve. ' The insert below is a photograph of the famous vise ountess Castlreagh, colonelinchief of the Women's Emergency corps. She has long been kmren as a locr of out-of-door life. Now she "is spending all her time drilling Englishwomen for war. , ' ' women bear eertain forms of hardship better than men. It is well known that women are less susceptible to cold and wet than the stronger sex. Their bodies are better protected by fatty tissue. This is seen on the bathing beach where women are able to enjoy themselves on chilly days when most of the men seek the clubhouse. The same condition should be true In wet. damp trenches. It is also accepted that a woman, once her nervousness is over, and tier determination is in spired, can stand more physical pain than man. Would Ennnl the Men. "In fact," said the woman informer, "the only way the women would be In ferior to men soldiers would be on the long marches." At Old Bedford College, which Is the headquarters of the Women's Emer gency corps, I found Col. Viscountess Castlereagh and Honorary Col. Evelina Haverfield hard at work with their re cruits. Mrs. Haverfield Is'remeirfbered for her carefully organized remount camp, which she built up at the time of the Boer war. Nearly a hundred women were going Burjw oj swt Soldi Minos lers ONDON, Eng., -Jan. 9 The terrific effect of the' powerful shells used " by all combatants In the -European war is shw.n by the 'increasing number of invalidated soldiers wno are not wounded but' are? simply stunned by shock. One of the most peculiar casqs is that of Lieut. Denys Cooke,, son of Rev. Cannon Cooke, of Pitlochry, who has no recollection of being in action. JHs mind has been a complete blank for,over a1 week, and the 'last, thing he remembers is sitting down to lunch in the supporting trenches before he was under fire Lieut Cooke is an officer in the Black Watch, but was attached to'the Gordons. Ho does not remember any thing about the fighting, though he back with such Information as'he;cou!d take. A commandant with whom I recently traveled from Calais to Fumes, ex plained the attitude of the Belgian farmers. Pcnsnnts Are Intimidated. "At first," he said, "the Germans paid cash for everything they bought or requisitioned, while we. of course, could only givo 'bons.'. Therefore, in many cases, the Germans were thought quite well off, and received more attention than our own people. But, after a while, the mailed ,fist under the kid glove was shown, and they have cowed the population of the countryside into such a state that the peasants, out of sheer fear for their lives, have given information tothe Germans, where they pretended to us that they knew noth ing at all. "Many ofo ur losses, and surprise at tacks may be explained In that way. That, even today, many of the Belgian peasants beyond ourl lnes are forced, almost beaten. Into doing their dirty work for the Germans, I am perfectly convinced." British Labor Leader Is With Aimy at Front Though ' Bitterly Opposed to War London, Eng, Jan. 9. One of the greatest surprises of the present war Is the news that Ramsay MacDonald, the famous leader of the Labor party, and one of the few English politicians who in its initial stages was strongly opposed to the idea of war' with Ger many, has now gone to the front and is at present serving with Dr Hecter Munro's field kitchens and motor ambulances. through the re,jrutecnny-lnfaitrj- drill. They were not 'women of leisure either. Most of them had put through a day's toil already in an office or along some professional line. Several regular army officers in uni form were present to assist In the work. The war officers at first took a oon tomptuous attitude toward this move ment, but they have conic to see the value of It Just as the usefulness of the Boy- scouts is now enerally recog nized. '- t I had an interview tth Capt Adair Roberts the women's drill officer. "We are following the regular army rules throughout." she said. "No com missions are granted except for m,erlt. "When women are adjudged competent to teach the drill, -"the regular army of ficers drop out in their favor. ComnlMlomi Not For Sale. t "The Reserve is strictly non-partisan and non-sectarian. No wonten of wealth are permitted to buy commis SionValthough there have beenmany attempts of this sart. "I can show you a titled woman and one of her servants drilling, here side by side. This Is not 'an Isolated in- w - Often Left Blank has ,a dim recollection o? being placed in a hospital, train, but it is only a memory. It is assumed 'by the doctors who have studied his- and other similar cassa that a shell must have burst close to 'mm and the effect has "been to leave his' brain-In a state of 'olbuded cqn sqifousness' frfim which'he will recover In tjme. Quite a number of cases have been reported wjiere men have lost the power of speech. One "man in a London hospital has had to be taught .how to write again. He had lost all memory of the education he haa received in his youth. Another Is still 'unaWe to recognize his relations; and Is -as help less inv elementary knowledge as a child of two years, having lost all power of expressing himself. Dancing Dervishes Will Form Volunteer Regiments To' A id Turkey' in the War Ajnst,erdam,. HollanU, Jan.. 9. It is reported from Constantinople that the sect of Dancing Dervishes has decided to enrol regiments of volunteers. The Dervishes are the religious orders of Islam, but unlike "the mbnks of Chris tendom, they are married meji. They are hated By the Ulemas, who are the high doctors and ecclesiastical authorities of Islam, but they rast'lhelr power on the Ignorance and fanaticism of the people. Some of the Dervishes are benevo lent and broad-minded- men, -anxious to do good tto humanity and living a life of self-denial and piety among tho poor; others are sensual and savage ruffians who prey on the people.. There are 32 Dervish sects In Turkey, but there are three that mainly' count the daancing Dervishes oTMelvevf, the Howling Dervishes, .and tlieBek takls The dancing Dervishes are , really whirlers. They cultivate a speblea of spiritual exaltation' which degenerates into physical frenzy. Bn.IT.VIX ADVERTISES AMO.VG BELGIANS FOR CRAFTSMEN' The Hague, Holland, Jan. 9. Great Britain is advertising among therBel gian refugee camps in Holland and elsewhere for skilled artisans. Iron, steel and brass workers, gunsmiths, rope makers, leather workers, hosiery makers, shoemakers, instrument makers, glass workers and many others are called for, but proof of the pro ficiency of applicants is demanded. Mancoeither; there are several such." At flst the fear was expressed that if women were taught the use of a rifle, the Germans wotjld charge" "sniping" and ferocious reprisals would be the re sult, but now it Is realized that the or ganizing of the women will prevent, instead of encourage, foolish individ ual action, such as Is certain to take place in moments of great danger among an unorganized populace. The helpless rabble of Belgium, women and children refugees, fleeing they knew net whither, will not be repeated in Great Britain. No woman is permitted to enter the Reserve without a. careful physical ex amination. Women doctors from the city hospitals see. to tnls in their hour off. The women of the Reserve must be over 18 and under 40 years of age. Special attention has been paid to signalling practice, as this Is an im portant branch of warfare in which it is-unanimously agreed that the .female sex may be of service. There, are many professional women, telegraphers In the Reserve. Instruction is given in Morse (Conflnned on Paso S. CoL 6, Tfils Section) lEBEIITillS Have Sport in Running TJp and Down the Huge Egyptian Monuments. , IS TRAINING CAMP FOR BRITISH TROOPS CAIRO, Egypt, Jan. 9. If one goes out to the great pyramid of Gizeh these days he sees a most aston ishing sight. The sides of the enor mous mass of stone, which is 430 feet high, are covered with soldiers in khaki. Up and down they pour in a constant rivulet of soldiery. There is a lot of horse play among them, and once in a while one gets a bad fall. Hiih Turk rtMHU TIE PfflllDS Altitude -Cold Hinders Fignt -::- -::- -::- -::- Freeze to Deatl .In TrensHes rfV FRANCES P' KTROGARD, Russia. Jan. 9. Rus ian and Turkish armies are strug- gling'under horrible weather con ditions. Turkish Armenia is very mountainous. The average altitude is about 3000 feet, but the armies have clashed on several occasions-at greater altitude than -this. The engagement of Uze-Veran, for instance, was fought at an altitude of 49S7 feet. The latitud is that of Naples,' but the winter is marked by severe snowstorms and never ceasing biting winds. The difference between day an! nlsht temperatures is enormous. In the sun a Reamur thermometer will show 15 above, but in the course of the night tlte mercury will fall to S5 degrees below Another serious effect of the alti tude is the difficult in breathing. The DQRRDWSCHDSS HUB LEG! FOR DIE NUN President of France Pin? Decoration on Woman at Gerbeviller. RESCUED SACRED WAFERS IN CHURCH NANCT, France, Jan. 9 Gerbeil ler has become, like other cities of the past, a regular show place. Its few remaining inhabitants, rein forced by people of greater distinction from the outside world, have provided the material for "living" Pictures against the dead background of its crumbling walls. Practically everyone who now comes to Lorraine is taken to see it and to moralize over its destruction. President poincare during his visit to Nancy, was duly Introduced to its ruins and to the quiet sister of the Order of St Charles of Nancy who cared for the wounded all through the dangerous times of Its bombardments by French and Germans, the running fight in the streets, and the horrors of the wholesale ajfts of in cendiarism which brought all but handful of its houses crashing to the ground. Now she is one of the few women in France who wears the Cross of tho Le gion of Honor. The president borrowed the decoration from one of his suite and pinned it upon her black robe with his own hands. Old Chnrch I PUIaged. On the day that the German soldiers came into the town some of them began the work of pillage in the church, at one end of it. while the few dozen Chasseurs of the defending force were still keeping up the fight In the streets on the farther side of the river. The Germans tried, amongst othert hings, to break open the sanctuary above tho altar, in which is Ttept the Pyx, con taining the consecrated wafers, by fir ing several shots at the lock. Ater a time they gave up the attempt and moved on In search of other games Then, while the bulletsTvere still fly ing Soeur Julie succeeded where thev had failed. Knowing that they would be sure to come back, and, determined to save the sacred elements from their sacrilegious hands, she picked up a bayonet which Tiad been left lying on the floor of the nave, and with, its help wrenched open the door of the sanctuary. The Pyx she found lying on Its side, pierced with bullet holes, with Its contents scattered around it No one but a priest had the right to touch them, the Soeur Jullft though a relig leuse was not a priest But she col lected the wafers, and, placing them in the sacred vessel, carried' It to her house, and put it, for safety, among the bottles ahd tins and dishes of her hospital buffet FoIIOTTtne Dnvld'n Example. Then-' she began to have new fear. When the fighting was over the Ger mans would be sure to search all the houses for food, and her precautions would all be In vain. So, with a full sense of the enormity of her offence, as there was no priest within reach, she followed the example of king David with the shewbread. and communicated the consecreted wafers to herself Afterwards a priest did come to tne hospital to help the wounded, and as sured her when she confessed her ml demeanors. that both In the church and hospital she had done perfectly right Another hospital superior. Soeur Marie Rosnet is wormy or special honor for the way in which she stood up to the German authorities In Clermont-en-Argonne. and actual ly succeeded in getting a company of German sappers to save the houses which had been set on fire by Ger man soldiers. Given Absolution; Dies. A private soldier, badly wounded, was lying in one of the hospitals, and, thinking that he was going to die, asked for the service of a priest. At the moment, no priest was to be found. Th -man in the next bed. with his thigh hideously shattered by a shell, was in a state of coma. Gradually he realized that the doc tor and the nurses were talking: about He just managed to make a nurse understand that he was him self a priest, and would pronounce the absolution of his fellow soldier if she would hold up his hand, and then, as he whispered the words that brought to the other tho comfort that he wanted, he died. for the ascent is somewhat hazardous. On the top, perhaps 200 men are gath ered, enjoying the wonderful view in the clear Egyptian atmosphere. Still others are exploring the airshaft in tha interior. Here among the pyramids of the Pharaoahs is stationed the largest in fantry forces 'ever transported across the sea. The Sphinx looks down on troops from Australia, New Zealand. England. Ireland. Hindustan and Tas- ! mania, while there is a large number of Egyptian soldiers also quartered here. Camp Is in the Desert. The great camp is situated In tha desert just in the rear of the house of the king. Menes. In the vicinity Har vard university is conducting excava tions. The men exercise their horses In the desert, romping around the pyramids and the Sphinx. This it will be re membered, is one of the battlefields of Napoleon Bonaparte. The differ ent contingents have different towns of their own. Here for instance, is Queensland: there, Victoria, and at HeliopoMs, a suburb of Cairo, New Zealand. In a Queer Mixture. A woman's organization has given all the New Zealanders warm clothing (Continued on Page S. Col. 4. This Section) LAVBI.LB MURRAY. rarlfied air retards the rapid moemeit oc men or animals. ine irozen ground cannot be e.i trenched. The country for the most part is bare of trees. The Russians do not dare to use their tents becau-e this would give the distribution of their forces .away to their enemies. They must sleep under the cold sk, using their tents' only as beds The conditions for the Turks are much worse than for the Russian' The latter are inured to frost, -while the former have been sent from ths southern parts of Aia Minor. They are accustomed to a hot climate. After capturing Turkish trenches the Russians have in many cases found the dead bodies of many Turks who hna been frosen to death. After the great battle between V -Yeran and Kepecky near! all 'J Turkish soldiers who were taken pris oners had frozen hands and feet.