Newspaper Page Text
pclMiHing Quality of Washington Wheats
It, It W. THATCHER, Chemist !The department of chemistry of this Station has in progress a five np ■_ study of the chemical composition and milling quality of Washington *_.*■ The results of this series of analytical and milling tests are ■ Tied to serve a three-fold purpose. First, they should give an acurate .•ledge of the comparative value of the different varieties of wheat Mrh are generally grown for flour making purposes and as such should p as a guide to growers and millers in their choice of varieties, and a basis for systematic grading of grain with reference to its use for mine purposes. In the second place, these results are expected to show k- nature an 1 degree of variations in quality of the same variety when Ln under different conditions in different parts of the state. Attemps rl' being made to discover or determine the causes for observed 'nations, but whether these are successful or not, a knowldge of R „r character and their general field relationships will serve as a guide for hp adaptation of varieties to any given section and as a basis for selection J seed for breeding strains of Improved quality. Finally, it is hoped hat these Investigations' will afford a sufficient basis for a thorough ti.iiv of the relation between the chemical composition of wheat and hp baking or bread-making quality of the flour made from it. Careful Mention Is being Riven to the variations in the bread-making quality 5 the different flours which are milled, with special reference to the mount and quality of gluten prison' and the Influences which appear to ause changes in this, and to variations In the action of yeast upon the liferent flours. ; • - -^. In such a study, ii would be impossible to draw conclusions from the •cults of a single season's work, The Influence of unusual climatic con litions such as hot winds, or insufficient rainfall on the one hand or of '.usually moist cool harvest weather on th. other, might easily make one ...ason's crop quite unlike the average crop in composition. Or some musual local condition might give to the wheat of that locality some ...vantage or disadvantage over that of oilier sections in some one season n-lii'ch it might not possess in other seasons. For this reason the study must extend over several successive seasons, and it would not be fair to draw Anal conclusions before the full five years work is completed However, the results of the different season's work are of Interest as throwing much light upon the general problems involved, and are pre sented as reports of progress of the general study. The results of the first year's work on this investigation, covering the samples representing the crop of 1905 were published in detail in General Bulletin No. 84 and a brief summary of them in Popular Bulletin No 6. The analytical work on the samples of the crops of 1906 and 1907 has been published in full in General Bulletin No. 91. This Popular Bulletin contains a summarized statement of most of the results which are given in full in the Bulletin No. 91; and of the average results for some, of the leading varieties of wheat for the three crops of 1905 to 1907 inclusive. i./ The samples were secured from farmers, millers and warehousemen, yn response to requests for samples which would accurately represent Ntae wheat of each variety commonly grown in the locality in question, ?|h some instances, in response to special request, samples representing the different market grades of the same variety were sent in, but usually only samples representing No. 1 wheat were obtained. Special attention will he given in the final report on these Investigations to differences in t>3omposition and milling quality between different varieties grown in the same locality or the same variety grown in different localities. The total number of samples of the crop of 1906 which were received at the Station laboratory was ninety-two, representing sixteen different varieties and coming from twenty-one different shipping points. Of the crop of 1907, there were received eighty samples coming from twenty four different shipping points, and representing sixteen different varieties. There was an easily noticeable disposition on the part of the persons who sent in'the samples to select those varieties which are commonly considered to be of higher market grade or better milling quality as the typical wheats of their locality, so that the total number of samples from such varieties is usually larger than that from some of the other varieties which are of lower market grade, which may be nearly as commonly grown. it is .believed that the number of samples representing the different varieties shown in th tables below was sufficient to justify the assumption that : the averages given represent very closely the average composition or i quality of those particular varieties as grown in the state for thai particu ;lar year. For analyses or tests of sample's of other varieties, as well as \ for data concerning the origin, and results of tests on Individual samples, I interested readers are referred to the General Bulletins in which complete I reports are given. I ,In the analyses of the wheat to show its chemical composition, the ; percentages of moisture, ash and crude protein in each sample were i determined, and the remainder calculated and reported as carbohydrates i and nil. - For many purposes, each of these classes of constitutents is : of importance and the percentage of each as reported in detail in the ] General Bulletins is of interest. But the constituted of chief Importance in judging of the food value and bread-making quality of wheat, or flour, 14 the protein, since it is this portion of the grain of flour which is the most- important nutritive principle and which yields the gluten in the flour upon which its bread-making quality depends. The percentages of protein alone are, therefore, given in the following table, as affording the best basis of comparison of the value of the different varieties in the different seasons represented. Table I. Protein Content of Wheats. Per Cent of Protein „ . . _ , No. of • Variety Crop of siimolcs v ' Maximum Minimum Average Bluest em ~ ~ 7. 1906 ~~24 18.43 10.31 13.75 Bluestem 1907 30 14.43 8.87 11.56 Chfb* 1906 11 13.88 8.37 10.94 Club* 1907 14 13.52 8.26 10.43 Hones* Fife 1906 15 15.06 9.60 12.34 .Jones' Fife 1907 7 12.60 9.22 11.69 Turkey Red 1906 11 15.33 10.70 12.69 Turkey Red 1907 10 12.43 8.40 10.38 ,Fortyfold 1906 6 13.09 10.03 11.90 Poorly fold 1907 3 18.25 8.52 10.79 * Includes Little Club, Red Chaff, and Jenkin's Club. It will be observed that in each variety the protein content was higher in the crop of 1906 than in thai of 1907. The weather of the harvest season was unusually hot and dry, and the wheal matured much more rapidly than normally. We have learned, as a result of repeated observations, that short ripening periods or rapid ripening of the grain always results in Increased percentages of protein, while reverse conditions resulting in long slow maturing of the grain yields wheat, with high per centage of starch and correspondingly low percentage of protein. The Mgh-protein wheats are generally harder and more "horny" in appearance, -while the low-protein grain are softer and more starchy. The difference between "hard" and "soft" wheat (with the exception of differences due »te.certain variety characteristics I is due almost if not quite entirely to 'difference in the length of the ripening period of the grain where It ;,was grown. r •- It will be noticed further, that certain' varieties were higher than others in average protein content in each season, the relative rank in Percentage of protein being very similar in the two years. But the more significant fact which appears from these results is that while the average ;. Protein content of any one variety in either season may be greater or less than that of some other variety, there are individual samples In the one variety both higher and lower than the average for the other. This ;■ fact shows the importance of study to determine the reasons for these variations, and also indicates the possibility of improvement in protein content of the different varieties by the selection of high-protein grain for ,'Beed purposes. ... Yield of Mill Products. • Table 11. shows the average percentage yield of bran, shorts and flour (total or "straight" flour) obtained from the samples which were included in Table 1, when they were milled in the experimental roller mill. .((This experimental mill is described in detail and illustrated by figure ?» Bulletin No. 84. ff ' ' Table 11. yield of Mill Products. %• r>i I Average Yield of ' i> ** - , t . . , No. of | , 'r V" r,ety °pof Bsmptes Bran | Shorts I Flcur ljuestem I-: n —; —rTjTjTj _1 : TO 13.4 70.3 western . . 1907 30 15.2 12.2 72.6 ! £"b» 1906 11 ; 61.1 12.8 71.1 , ?' Ub * 1907 14 15.1 12.3 72.6 Jones' Fife.. .. 1906 15 15.5 12.7 71.9 'Jones' Fife 1907 7 15.6 12.5 71.9 -iUr ,ke y Red 1906 11 15.3 14.1 70.6 Turkey Re d 1907 10 16.3 12.4 71.2 S orWold 1906 6 15.5 12.4 72.1 . *_£tyfold_ 1 _ 1 1907 3 15.5 13.1 71.4 ' v-;„ * Includes Little Club, Red Chaff, and Jenkin's Club. K^!i These results show but very slight differences between the average _ v.* . of Inill Products from the different varieties or from the same 1 ■-<»«. ety in the same season. The average percentage of bran and shorts ;' >".usually slightly higher in 1906 than in 1907. doubtless because the v th. }. of 1907 was Plumper and better matured than that, of 1906, but ', ,rence was very slight. This fact together with the comparisons 1 samples of plump and shrivelled grain of the same variety grown in total .c locality during the same season, leads us to believe that the (I that / d of flour from "shrivelled" grain while somewhat less than "at-lrom "plump" grain of the same variety, is not so much so as is Composition of the Wheat. generally supposed. The difference in favor of th" plumper grain in yield of flour is, in part at least, offset by the higher gluten content of the flour truiiil the lighter grain as shown in the next table, and still better shown n the results on individual samples in the complete tables In other bulletins, I Gluten Tests of Flours. Table 111. shows the results of the gluten tests of the flours made from these wheats, the tests being carried on in the same way as Is done in ordinary commercial testing, the results being expressed as percentage* of moist gluten found in a given weight of flour. ("the Chinese test" is the same test, but the results are calculated as percent of dough instead of percent of flour. The "Chinese test" would, therefore, be just about two thirds of the percent of moist gluten as here reported.) Table 111. Gluten Test, of Flours. „ , Per Cent of Wet Gluten Variety Crop of *_„,',,,„ ~— . "—; [—- Maximum | Minimum Average Bluestem . . . . ~~\ 1906 24 46.92 | 14..7 35750 Biuestem I 1907 30 37.86 20.27 1 29.21 Clvb * I 1906 11 88.99 16.74 1 26.56 clvb * j 1907 14 88.16 | 19.59 I 26.74 Jones' Fife .- I 1906 15 37.42 18.27 1 27.74 Jones' Fife I 1907 7 35.33 | 20.32 | 29.48 Turkey Hed | 190. 11 45.26 26.22 1 35.03 Turkey Red | 1907 | 10 84.26 14.70 1 26.28 Fortyfold j 1906 6 28.01 19.52 24.29 Fortyfold I [907 3 | 35. 18.57 | 25.48 * Includes Little Club. Red Chaff, and Jenkln's Club, These percentages show the same general relations between varieties and between the samples of the same variety for different seasons as is shown by the protein content as recorded in Table 1, thus confirming the statements already made with reference to the relation of protein in the wheat to gluten content of the flour. In general, it may he said that a high percentage of gluten indicates good bread-making quality, although it is just as necessary that the gluten be of good physieial quality as that it shall be present in comparatively large quantity. Exhaustive studies of the quality of gluten from different types of flour and of methods whereby the baking quality of flour containing an insufficient amount or poor quality of gluten may be improved are now being conducted in the Station laboratory, and it is hoped that feasible methods for improving the quality of "weak" flours may be discovered. Averages of Three Years Tests of Washington Wheats. The danger from drawing final conclusions from analyses or tests covering an insufficient number of seasons has been pointed out. But it is believed that the average of certain percentages found in the samples re presenting the three crops of 1905, 1906, and 1907, may afford some In teresting and instructive data, and they are presented in Table IV. Table IV. vinery [25£ ss SiT~liSr"»>to^ VARiKiy sample, ™?H FroteiD Flout W£ r °_e_ t ■■ ■■ I _I__ ____________ ''er Cent Per Cent rer LfUt Macaroni .... f. . 9 9.94 " 12.41 72.0 32.77 Bluestem 76 10.88 12.34 71.7 30.98 Turkey Red .... 28 10.40 11.96 71.2 30.68 Sonora 7 12.00 11.78 72.2 30.29 Jones' Fife 30 10.07 11.67 71.8 26.25 Red Allen 12 11.75 11.56 72.7 30.29 White Amber ... . 6 12.10 11.01 71.1 26.97 Fortyfold 15 11.06 10.96 72.5 23.11 Club 43 10.93 10.68 72.5 25.82 Red Russian .... 12 10.67 9.77 71.2 22.86 This table shows the average percentage of moisture ami crude protein in the wheat, the average yield of flour, and the average wet gluten test of the tin varieties which are most commonly grown in this state. In some cases the number of samples tested is not as many as might be desired, but it is believed that there is sufficient data to Indicate the probable relative composition of the different varieties for the three years 19 05 to 1907 inclusive. In this table the varieties are arranged in the order of their protein content, the one having the highest average percentage of protein being placed first. The rank would be practically the' same if they had been ar ranged in order of the percentage of gluten in the flour, the only differ ences being slight shifts in the relative position of adjacent varieties. It is to be noticed that when arranged in this order the first four are wheats most commonly grown in the sections of lightest rainfall, all except Turkey Red being spring varieties, the next three are winter varieties more generally grown in those parts of the "dry belt" where the average annual rainfall is greater than in the exclusive "spring-wheat districts." and that the last three are the varieties most commonly grown in the moister sections where the average annual rainfall exceeds eighteen inches. Of the last three, all are winter varieties except the Club wheats, which are true spring wheats but on account of their extreme hardiness, are seeded rather Indiscriminately in either the fall or spring in this part of the state. The final report of this study will be published as soon as the analytical work on the samples of the cropof 1909 can be completed and the results prepared for publication. ANSWERS TO FARM QUERIES Regarding Garden and Orchard Insect Pests Typical of the Spring and Summer Months, by A. L. Melander, Professor of Entomology, W. S. C. Question: "I have discovered a grub, or other similar kind of a worm working at the roots of my black berry bushes. How can I get at this fellow?" Answer: "We know of no practical way in which you can get rid of the borer in your blackberry canes, other than to pull out and destroy any canes that you find to be infested. By carefully watching, you will be able to exterminate the pest." Question: "I enclose to you a small box of orange colored eggs which I discovered on the bark of my apple trees. Would you please in form me what they are and a re medy?" Answer: "It is possible that the eggs are those of one of the large st ink bugs." The insect is harm less." Question: "Last summer I cut about fifty dead trees from my or chard. Now 1 have discovered a dozen more dead aparently from the same cause. It has appeared on only a few of my young trees, of which I have about three hundred. I enclose pieces of limbs, (1) and (2), by which I hope you can determine the cause." Answer: "(1) -shows the egg punctures of the buffalo tree hopper. This insect may hurt the trees. (2) contains a few oyster shell bark lice. From the small number present, we doubt very much if the tree was weakened by this pest. The rest of the twigs show no indication as to what their trouble Is. It is possible that there is some root disease, but we think it likely that the trouble is from some physiological source which must be corrected by the method of tilling or feeding your orchard." Question: "Will you please tell me how to get rid of little black bugs, or fleas on tomatoes, rose bushes, peach trees, radishes, etc.? My peach trees have ants on them. Will they hurt the trees? I enclose a sample of the bugs." Answer: "The ants on your plants are doing no harm. The flea beetles I are often destructive' to tomatoes. We I advise spraying with bordeaux mix ture or arsenate of lead for in sects." . Question: "1 am having trouble with cut worms getting into the roots of my strawberry plants. 1 think the worms come from manure that was piled near strawberries. Yesterday I observed that the plants were loaded with blossoms. Will you kindly tell men how to exterminate the worms without injuring the plants?" Answer: "We doubt very much if it is cut worms that is hurting your strawberries. There are several crown boring weevils in this north western country that destroy the plants. There Is no method of ex terminating these that is a short cut to success. If you are really troubled with the strawberry weevils, we would suggest that you do everything to exterminate them immediately. The plants that are infested, or wilt ing, or show that they are diseased, should be pulled out and burned with the weevils inside. The adult wee vil will appear shortly and lay eggs for the next year's crop of maggots. There are some growers who have tried fumigating with good success, and the fumigation method is to cov er the plants with garden cloth and fumigate underneath. Carbon disul phate, or the ordinary hydro-cyonlc gas treatment may be used." Question: "I have discovered a 'beetle phenomenon* in my stock of groceries, a sample of which I enclose to you and would like to know how to get rid of the .Beset. This even ing the floor and ceiling of my store were completely covered with these bugs. They seem especially inclined to congregate on cornmeal sacks and flour sacks." Answer: "The insect you have sent in is the ordinary grain wee vil, and is a very serious pest when once it gets a foothold. Since the In sect Is so abundant] it seems that there is nothing to do but give the store a good cleaning out. The place should he- tightly closed and fumigat ed in order to destroy lhe grubs, or the insect will re-appear, if this is not done', every package of flour, breakfast food, meal, or other grain product that (he merchant will sell, will lose for him a disgusted custo mer." Question: "Do you know of any method of getting bees out of a house when they have lodged In the spaces between the walls?" Answer: "There tire Borne carpen ter bees and mason bees that will seek out crevices In walls of houses or other places in which to nest. These bees do no harm and need not he- molested. 1 know of no method of preventing them from using th,. small spaces for their nests, and In fact see- no reason why they should lie begrudged the use of such locations." Question: "I send you an insect which is on my 'Snowball' hushes, and I want to know how to gel rid of it. I have sprayed with kerosene and so. made into an emulsion, but have obtained no results. Can you tell me what to do?" Answer: "The insect you send Is the snowball aphis. 1 suggest that the best treatment for this pest is some tobacco spray. The keroene sprays are apt to injure the leaves of this shrub." Question: "I am sending to you some worms, some blighted leaves, and what 1 take to be diseased blos soms. Please tell me the name of the worms and fly. What. should I spray with to kill them?" Answer: "Owing to the condition the caterpillar was in when it reached us we could not tell precisely what kind it was. The fly is known as the saw fly. They are harmless. Only rarely do they appear numerous enough to do any damage. Then the young, which is a greenish caterpil lar, will feed on this or that plant. The caterpillars of the saw fly, or those that you sent, can be easily de stroyed by spraying with arsenate of lead." Question: "I have leased an or chard for five years which Is Infested with San Jose scale. I sprayed this spring with a ten to one solution of lime sulphur, and intend to spray once or twice this Bummer. Will you kindly advise me when the different broods of scale make their appear ance and also what would be the best spray to use this summer?" Answer: "There have been many experiments carried on to kill the San. Jose scale during the summer, but none have proved effectual. This is because the San Jose scale' exists In every stage throughout the sum mer. Summer spraying strong enough to kill adult scales would injure the foliage. It is possible' to spray for .veiling scales with soaps and other sprays that are harmless to the tree foliage, but since the San .lose scale exists as young, half grown, and as adults at any date of the season, It Is not a practical scheme to try to exterminate it in the summer time. For some strange reason also, the strong sulphur lime wash does not kill the scale in the summer time. That is why fruit growers have to depend upon the winter spraying for this pest." Question: "Please name and clas sify the inclosed specimens, and tell me what to do to exterminate them. An- immediate reply will favor many of us." Answer: "The name of the in sect that you send is Otlorrhyachus rugifrous. It has no common name, and I do not know what its food plant Is. Therefore,, we are unable to prescribe any definite directions for treating it. Usually weevils of _ D RAKFR& COMPANY Hi Ul UHllLs \ PULLMAN, WASH. HAVE FOR SALE A 17x22 Southwick Steam Hay Baler which has been slightly used, but which we will guarantee for all practical purposes equal ly as good as new and will give the same guarantee on this ma chine as a new machine carries. We will make an exceptionally low price on this machine and give good terms. .--.-... This will pay anyone to investigate who is in the market for a steam baler. j this sort become very quiet when dis turbed, drawing their legs close to •heir body and dropping from tho Plant they are feeding on. It Is pos sible that If you hold an Inverted umbrella under the food plant and shake the weevils that you can catch them and destroy them by hand. Spraying for weevils Is not very sat isfactory, because they are not very susceptible to poison." Question: "in a small box lam sending to you is a bug which I caught on one of my young peach trees. Will you phase let me know what it is? I have noticed quite a number of them in my orchard." Answer: "The Insect that you have sent to us is known as the western Cicada. It Is a close relative of the famous seventeen year locust of the eastern stales, but never ap pears in such numbers as to be seri ously injurious. The insects pass their earlier development in tin' ground, feeding on the roots of grasses, and trees, and when adult, may do a certain amount of harm when laying their eggs. The mother insect places her eggs in twigs about the size of a pencil. By so doing she punctures the twigs and causes them to die. We suggest that you ap ply the black leaf tobacco wash for this time of the year. Question:"Are th.' spores of the scab on the apple and pear the same as those of the blackspot canker? If not. what is the' nature of this i post? What season of the year Is best to destroy the scab fungus?" Answer: "The blackspot canker are liberated in the fall. The apple scab passes the winter on the- scabby leaves which have fallen to the ground. The spring spores of the scab are liberated from the leaves about blossoming time, therefore, wo spray for canker in the fall and for scab in the spring. Scabby fruit may also llverate spores in the spring." Question: "Will you please tell me how to rid my rose bushes of He' pest that is on them? I send you wigs and leaves that are sled." Answer: "The best treatment for the rose' aphis is the tobacco spray. If you are unable to obtain the to bacco We suggest that you us.' soap or kerosene emulsion." Question: "I have recently pur chased a new farm in the Hoods ca nal region, and, owing to my unfami liarity with conditions here, am on somewhat uncertain grounds. 1 have sprayed my apple, pear, and cherry trees with lime sulphur solution, but even as the leaves unfolded I found the condition shown on tin* enclosed leaves. It is new to me." Answer: "The leaves you Bend are Infested with pear leaf blister mil. Usually a spraying with sulphur lime wash, if driven on to the trees with force, using a coarse spray muzzle, will give entire protection. Possibly your spraying this year was given too late as the mites had already ml- grated from the bark where they pass the winter onto the young leaves." Question: "Under separate cover I send to you a small limb of an apple tree partially covered with in sect eggs. The temperature here has been from 4 7 to 52 most of the time. Answer: "The eggs you sent to us hatched in transit, and are now small caterpillars, .lust what moth has laid the eggs we cannot state from the caterpillars. If the Insects are abundant, we suggest that' you spray immediately with arsenate of lead." Question: "I enclose to you some small peach tree leaves with a sort of louse or aphis on them. I would like to know what they are, and how to get rid of them." Answer: "The best treatment for peach aphis after the insect appears is to spray with tobacco. We suggest that you purchase the black leaf dip, using It about one gallon to 70 gal lons of water." A small ad In this paper will prove the best salesman you ever employed. Try It.