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Pullman herald. [volume] (Pullman, W.T. [Wash.]) 1888-1989, October 04, 1912, Image 7

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Persistent link: https://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn88085488/1912-10-04/ed-1/seq-7/

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,Tgricu_tural CO-OPERATION
IN Switzerland
I Though the great difference in con
ditions prevailing in Switzerland an*,
i. the United States prevents the
adoption ot many of '"' actual prac
tices employed in that republic for
the financial assistance of the farm
vet there is much in principle
■hich the American farmer, at the
brink of strengthening his position
through the doctrine of co-operation,
can learn from the farmer of Switzer
land. American Minister Boutell has
recently forwarded to the state de
partment a report upon this subject
following his investigation in connec
ts with President Taft's effort to
establish co-operative credit in the
United States for the benefit of the
American farmer. '
The farmers of Switzerland are the
backbone of the nation. The govern
ment recognizes this. It is to the
farmers that the country would turn
If ever it became necessary for that
confederation to defend its independ
ence. Wisely the government has
done all in its power to aid the farm
er, to stiffen the backbone of the
nation. Incidentally, however, the
farmers have taken a hand in the
question of the government's looking
to their welfare. They have made
themselves a strong factor in the gov
ernment —that is. the co-operation
practiced by the Swiss farmers is
largely political.
Several years ago they formed an
association — the Swiss Farmers' as
sociation — and established a central
bureau at Brugg. This association is
represented in the Swiss national
council, corresponding to our bouse
■of representatives, by many promi
nent politicians. One of the princi
pal purposes of this association is
more or less to fix and control the
market prices of milk and other ag
ricultural products in the interests of
the farmers.
Similar associations have been es
tablished in the various cantons
(states) bearing the name of Canton
al Farmers' Associations, which are
members of the Swiss Farmers Asso
ciation, with the same principles and
purposes as the latter. Besides the
federal and the cantonal associations,
there exists a great number of local
(district) farmers' co-operative soci
eties which have as their purpose the
securing of cheaper prices for seeds
and fertilizers by purchasing these
articles in large quantities, which are
fcept in storehouses and can be ob
tained as needed from the adminis
trator of the respective local society.
The federal government can make
no loans to any of the above-men
tioned associations or co-operative so
cieties, but it contributes annually
an amount of 25,000 francs to the
expenses of the permanent central bu
reau of the Swiss Farmers' associa
tion.
In the various cantons provisions
are made to facilitate loans to farm
ers. In some of the cantons there ex
ist mortgage banks, which are can
tonal institutions and which are au
thorized to make loans to farmers,
against a first mortgage, up to two
thirds of the real value of the farm
Property.
The chief advantage secured by the
farmer in placing a mortgage with
the cantonal or state mortgage banks
is that he escapes the necessity of
repaying the principal of his mort
age in a single payment, and he is
Practically relieved from the danger
,°f foreclosure. The Interest rate
charged by the cantonal mortgage
hanks Is about the same as that col
lected by other banks. For instance,
8 farmer wishes to raise a loan of ;
♦10,000 on his property. He secures
the money from the cantonal bank
»' 4% per cent. He could probably
do as well for himself if he went to
Private sources, but here is where the
cantonal banks help him out. If he
*ent to a private bank to borrow the
°ney at 4 % per cent for a stated
"umber of years— let us say 10 years
—then each year he would be re
hired to pay that bank his 4 _ per
*ent, and the tenth year he would be
required to pay back the entire $10,
--- Now, with the cantonal bank
."• is required to pay each year, in
. Edition to his 4% per cent, 1 per
cer cent as amortization. After the
'rat payment he owes the bank $10.
--'"M less l per cent. Naturally, the
»econd year he must pay Interest, not
°n the $10,000, but on $10,000 less
Per cent. However, his actual pay
°ent o is still 5_ per cent of the $10,
--• Each year, however, a larger ;
Portion of this __ per cent is for
; * toortlzatlon; a diminishing portion
'■ as the amortization continues, is
°r interest. I n this way the farmer
mateiy pays back the entire loan I
; 6 ' bout having been burdened with
"? | big payment in any year, as he
would have been. Only in
rare cases are the loans made
J these, mortgage banks on farm
? r°Perties foreclosed.
_ p|nan.ial assistance is rendered by
nicipai, cantonal, and federal au
k oritl "s to all undertakings which
fc ave as their purpose the improve- 1
____*} of the soil or to facilitate its
'Wzation.
improvement, of the soil which en
;;;;■ financial aid °f Republic au
*__?" are: Irrigation, drainage
gance ?l the land, road maS
;-' mending, boundary walls (SB
ir th° erection oi »~^
ame s , on the Alps. Whenever a
*■* possesses land of which the
«_S could be considerably increa ed
'tough the Improvement of the soil,
such" 11 not afford the M p. for
or a work he can make application
'°r»^ rtb«loa to the coat, of WC
undertaking to the government of
ia.tr uoa mute,, and, through the
latter, to tab federal government. In
ggj cantoiw laute.) the municipal
authorities do not contribute, to an
improvement of the soil if by such
improvement only one individual
farmer would profit, whilst they con
fute in those cases where a num
ber of farmers or a corporation is
concerned.
After a careful examination of the
P'MS for improvement, by technical
experts, the Swiss department of ag
riculture presents the request, with
Its report, to the federal council; the
latter then decides, on the basis of
the report from the agricultural de
partment and the plans, whether a
contribution will he granted and fixes
the amount of such contribution
within the limits in the federal law
I maximum 4 0 per cent of the total
costs).
For example, a farmer who pos
sesses land of which the value could
"" considerably raised by improve
ment, partly through drainage and
partly by clearance, but who has no'
the money to pay the costs of such
Improvement, can apply in the above
prescribed manner direct to the can
tonal government, or, if he prefers,
first to tin- municipal authorities, It
may happen that the commune I.
Poor and. therefore, the local author
ities are unable to grant any contri
bution at all; they will, however, re
fer his request to the respective can
tonal government (government of the
state) recommending the request for
favorable consideration. The canton
al government, after examination of
the request and plans, decides to
grant a contribution of 30 per cent
to the estimated costs of Improve
ment and at the same time—in com
pliance with the desire expressed b*
the proprietor of the farm—
the request to the federal govern
ment with its report and recom
mendation. After due consideration
Of all the facts, the federal council
may decide to grant a contribution,
similar to that of the canton, namely,
of 30 per cent to the total costs. Now,
since the- cantonal government has
decided to grant a contribution of 30
per cent and the federal government
la granting one of 30 per cent (to
gether 60 per cent) to the total
costs, there would main a balance
to be paid by the farmer of only 10
per cent.
Let one assume that the farmer
has invested all his money in live
stock and has, at the time no cash to
pay his share of 40 per cent, but is
obliged to borrow this amount from
a third person. In such a case the
Federal law makes it easy for him to
find such a loan at low rates, because
the new Swiss civil code provides:
"Whenever a farm property is raised
in value because of the improvement
of the soil, carried out with the fin
ancial aid from public authorities, the
proprietor can, for his share of con
tribution to the said Improvement,
have recorded in the ground book
(record of land), for the security of
his creditor, a lien which comes first
of all other debts of record (mort
gages)." such security, of course,
makes the mortgage a very attractive
investment.
In the year 1911 the federal gov
ernment contributed 1.456,764 francs
to the costs of improvement of the
soil (311 cases). In the federal bud
get for the year 1912 an appropria
tion of 1,500,000 francs is made for
that purpose.
For lack of statistics it Is impos
sible to give the amounts contributed
by the various cantonal (state) gov
ernments for i the improvement of
farm land, but it is certain that the
total amount contributed by them
will he at least as high as the federal
contribution.
There are no provisions made
either in the federal or cantonal laws
by which farmers' corporations would
be entitled to issue bonds in order to
secure money for the improvement of
their land as is done in other coun
tries.
It may be of interest to know that
the Swiss federal government, as is
done by the governments of agricul
tural cantons, encourages the raising
of cattle for breeding purposes by ap
propriating every year in the budget
a considerable amount for premiums
to be given at the cattle shows to th>
raisers of the prize-winning cattle —
bullocks and cows.
Largo improvements were made in
recent years with the financial aid
from the federal and cantonal gov
ernments and much Interest Is taken
by the public authorities in the wel
fare and prosperity of th.' population
in rural districts. It is remarkable
how the prosperity of the farmers hr.s
increased in the past 15 years, which
is to a great extent duo to tho finan
cial assistance rendered them by tho
tonal and federal governments In
the manner prescribed in the forego
big report.
STATE COLLEGE
DEPARTMENTAL .NEWS
Agriculture
This year's enrollment in the agri
cultural department, although not
complete, shows very well the steady
growth in the last lour years. Fifty
Freshmen, 22 Sophomores, 13 Jun
iors and eight Seniors, with three
non-marticulate students, constitutes
the roll as it now stands. Striking
off a large per centago for the num
ber win. have, dropped out since en
rollment four years ago, it is easily
seen that the department has more
than doubled in size.
A visitor at the College on Friday
last was Mr. Peter Wilhelm A. Bull
rich, a wealthy farmer from North
west Germany, who is in America to
study our agricultural methods. He
was conducted over the farm by Pro
fessor Thatcher and treated to a ride
around a large field on a combined
harvester. Mr. Bullrich stated that
there is much for the German farmer
to learn in America, but that there is
much more for the American farmer
to learn in Germany in the way of
diversified farming, for there the
very large population in proportion
to the acreage has caused the work
ing of small tracts to be reduced to a
fine art.
Professor Ashby of the animal hus
bandry department ha 8 made arrange
ments for a Saturday afternoon class
in live stock judging which is to be
offered to public school students.
The purpose of this course, which is
open to students from any school in
the county, is to prepare them for
the student judging contests which
are. to be held in connection with the
Northwestern Live Stock Show in
Lewiston in December.
Chemistry
Enrollment in the chemistry de
partment is not complete yet but it
has already passed the high-water
mark established last year. Profes
sor Brewster, who takes the place of
S. M. Morris, resigned; Professor
Todd, who has returned from a three
years leave of absence, and Me-.
l:niU, ''-v l"' last year's graduating
ciass, who has 'been made an In
structor, have assumed their duties,
as has Mr. Bsteß, who comes as i
special analyst in the field of stac
ami municipal water and food sup
plies. Mr. Estes has a very broad
field, as it Includes everything which
has to do with the industrial devel
opment of the state other than in the
agricultural or mining side of it,
hut his work for the first semester
will be pretty closely confined to
an analysis of the municipal water
supplies of the different towns of the
state. He is already at work on sam
ples from 10 cities, including such
widely separated places as We
natchee, Waitsburg and Bellingham,
and within the next week will send
out containers to as many more. The
field which Mr. Estes has entered is
an entirely new one for this section
of the country, and If his work
proves as successful as it ought to
prove, it will be a great step forward
toward a systematic betterment o r
the sanitation and health of the state
of Washington.
Economics and History
A new course in American history
is offered to advanced students this
year, which has for its purpose the
study of the political and economic
conditions of the South before and
after the civil war. This course is
taught by Professor Lemke.
Engineering
The highway engineering depart
ment of the State College of Wash
ington is rapidly becoming recog
nized as one of the best in the West
The past summer has seen Its labor
atory constantly open for work In
testing road building materials. Oils
and stone for the county road being
built from Colfax to Palouse have
been analyzed and tested, asphalt
and cement for the paving work at
Goldendale, gravel and oil for the
town of Charlston in Kitsap county
and building materials for our own
paving job in Pullman have been
passed on, and now Moscow engin
eers are asking the department to aid
them in their big $200,000 paving
project which begins soon. Tin
equipment In the laboratory is now
practically complete. A rare oppor
tunity is thus offered by the depart-!
ment In the way of advanced work
for engineers who are interested in
highway work generally, and particu
larly in the analytical side.
Horticulture
'■• Professor Morris of the horticul
tural department reports a very larg
enrollment of students with a<!-"
Mimed standing. Two men from
Scotland, two from England, one
from Germany and a number from
the Eastern states are here to study
horticulture.
Charles Prooks, plant pathologist
in the employ of the United States
department of agriculture visit.
Pullman last week.
Veterinary News
Four graduates of tho department
of veterinary science bold official po
sitions In Spokane. Dr. Frank XV.
Close, '07, and Dr. J, 11. Martin, '10,
are the municipal meat inspectors.
Dr. Harry Graves is the city dairy
and milk Inspector. Just recently
Dr. Frank Mason, '10, was appointed
city humans officer, a position
which carries a great deal of author
ity as well as responsibility.
Dr. Fred P. Calkins, '10, is dairy
and meat Inspector for the city of
Tacoma. Dr. Calkins was selected
from a large number of applicants
and came from Chicago to accept his
new position.
At the annual meeting of the
American Association of Veterinary
College Faculties and State Veterin
ary Examining Boards held at Indi
anapolis recently, the state of Wash
ington had the distinction of being
the only state with the entire ex
amining board present.
Professor S. B. Nelson, head of the
department of veterinary science, at
tended both meetings of the Ameri
can Veterinary Medical Association
and the American Association of Vet
erinary College Faculties at Indian
apolis in August.
One on P. Henry, Esq.
After the capture of Richmond in
the "late unpleasantness" a party of
English tourists were in that city
chaperoned by an old darky.
"What is that building?" said one
of the gentlemen to him, pointing in
a certain direction.
"Dats a 'bacco warehouse," said
the old man.
"And what is that one?" pointing;
to another.
"Dats a 'bacco warehouse, too."
And then looking in the direction
of it high hill, Church hill, as it is
called in Richmond, the touring party
spied a church at the top.
"And what is that building? Is
that a tobacco warehouse also?"
"Oh, tie., sir. Dats de church whar
Patrick Henry made de speech, "Give
me liberty or give me death,* and for
Gawd, dey done give him both."—
The Docket.
Good Advice
Another story of John Drew's wit
is circulating.
Mr. Drew, at a New England lunch
eon of turkey and pumpkin, had the
ill fortune to be seated next to a bore
and failure.
This bore and failure, a tragedian,
lamented the fact that he couldn't
gel a place to "lead," and put the
blame upon the- press.
"There's a conspiracy of silence
against me," he said. "A universal
conspiracy of silence. What ought I
to do, Drew."
"Join it," said Mr. Drew, nervously
twisting up his mustache.—Philadel
phia Ledger.
The Italian-Turkish war is still In
progress. According to the latest re
ports the most sanguinary battle of
the war took place recently near
Derne, a small town on the Mediter
ranean. Reports show that 61 Ital
ians were killed and 118 wounded.
The Turkish loss Is estimated at 800
killed.
The Chinese republic lost 500 sol
diers when a party of retreating Mon
gols set fire to a forest in which the
si.idlers were encamped for the
night.
Affairs in Granada, Nicaragua, are
in a very turbulent condition. The
rebels there are resorting to deeds of
absolute violence, worse than those
practiced in Congo. American ma
rines and sailors were fired on and
engaged in severe fighting with the
rebels. Rear Admiral Southerland is
in charge of the operations and has
2000 men under his command.
A new process has been discov
ered by scientists whereby wood may
be made from straw. This straw
"wood" burns with a bright long
flame, Is practically free from smoke
and at the same time gives an Intense
heat.
Forty-five hundred armed strikers
are making things uncomfortable for
the officials of the Utah Copper com
pany and other mining companies in
Bingham, Utah. The strikers are en-
trenched in a rude military fashion
and demand a 25 per cent increase in
wages besides the recognition of
their labor union. The loss of largo
quantities of dynamite from the
powder house of the Utah Construc
tion Company has caused much ap
prehension. Governor Spry recently
addressed the strikers, urging them
not to cause loss of life or property.
The militia is held In constant readi
ness to move for the scene of tne
strike.
SUCCESS!
Never attained without planning ahead.
Have you planned on your winters supply
of FUEL? A word to the wise is sufficient.
POTLATCH LUMBER CO.
H. D. MacVean Mgr. Phone 7, Pullman, Wash.
H. R. Watson C. Graham
Plumbing _ Heating
Will figure and install work in outside towns. Satis
faction guaranteed.
106 S. Pine Street, Spokane, Washington
■JjnSMß—.ilfigg^'^ttiwfrwt * — _ni____-*~^-r — __j___r_^____^F' _w£mTi ~ _\jm_\\\_l\_\\_f~^_____~~'^v ~* _ ""■" ~- - — _
A Money fflT The Cow'ft V
Maker ffl *11C VOW b m
saver ffl eSt Friend %
ffl If you are still skimming milk by the old- »
ffl fashioned " setting" system you are losing about ■
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ffl giving your cows a square deal. ||
ffl With aDe Laval cream separator you would get 20 to II
ffl 35£ more, and much better, cream, and besides would I
M have warm sweet milk to feed to your calves and pigs. 0
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H t\^\% A-s-k any of your neighbors who use a ffl
B 4V?^ft -fW^^^t,, C . Laval what kind of ffl
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will make a first class stenographer of you in six months and place
you in a good position. The Pitman shorthand, the kind used every
where where the highest speed is required.
Bookkeeping by the latest and best systems and most up-to-date
instructors. Our graduates step right from our college to the best
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$70 IN ADVANCE pays for a single course, no matter whether it
takes your four months or four years.
$105 IN ADVANCE pays for a combined bookkeeping and shorthand
course, no matter how long it takes you to finish.
This is only one out of many:
Spokane, Wash., Jan. 22, 1912.
Mr. XV. E. Allen, Spokane, Wash.
Dear Sir: I wish to give you my testimonial in favor of Allen's
Business College.
I enrolled as a student in your school, taking a complete short
hand course, which I completed in five months. At the end of that
time I accepted a position as stenographer.
I can recommend Allen's Business College for any one desiring
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For catalogue address:
('. S. SPRINGER, Manager, Spokane, \Va*h.
"BLOW IN"
for the Annual LEWISTON-CLARKSTON
FAIR and Industrial Exposition
OCTOBER 7=12, 1912
Six Days of Entertainment and Delight-
Six Nights of Fun
The Parker Carnival Shows
Exhibit in Lewiston

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