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The. Value of Textile Study from the
Housekeeper's Standpoint SADIE J. SWEXSOX Instructor In Home Economics From Washington Agriculturist ■K__GSy I" IMMEDIATE value to mm TYd be derived from textile ISIL— E study is the development SUSfflg I of judgment in the wise and economical selection of clothing and house furnishings. The more far-reaching value will be brought about through our efforts to raise the general standard of textile production. In order to do this we must be capable of making intelligent demands for good materials and be willing to pay proportionately. How much does the average con sumer know about fabrics? When buy ing, how does she discriminate quality? Does she get her moneys worth? Does the material serve the purpose for which it is bought. When selecting food she may know the cost, the nutri tive value and the combination of food principles which yields a balanced diet. When food stuffs fluctuate in price she knows the cause. If she can not afford the expensive dishes she is prob ably capable of combining cheaper ma terials and turning out a most appe tizing dish. Consequently she has economized in money, satisfied the palate and supplied the body with a sufficient number of calories or heat units. Selection of Clothing. The principle involved in the selec tion and the preparation of food is applicable to the selection and con struction of clothing and housefurnish ings. Does she know the cause for the fluctuation of prices in textile ma terials? If she has a small income and yet must appear well dressed can she substitute a cheap material for an ex pensive one and get good effect in de sign and color and at the same time secure durability and appropriateness" The problem is infinitely harder, yet equally as important. The aesthetic and the somewhat intangible element enters into the problem to complicate its solution. For example, the pur chaser may believe that she has de signed the gown, yet when it is fin ished it is a failure. Her aesthetic re quirement has not been filled. As a result, the gown is shortly discarded and therefore the money has been poor ly invested. The primary aim, then, in textile study is to acquire knowledge which will be the means of saving money by wise selection and at the same time preserving health, securing comfort and satisfying the desire for the beau tiful. In order to be an intelligent consumer one must have a knowledge of the general characteristics of the chief textile fibers, their production, preparation, manufacture, methods of adulteration and means of detection, as well as the cause for the present low standard of fabrics in general. I inferior Goods. The consumer is responsible, to a very large extent, for the inferior grade of goods. Manufacturers pro duce materials which the public de mands. This is particularly true in America where goods must be both cheap and pretty. Since there is no distinction in this country as to class or grade of society all sense or feeling of appropriateness of-dress to station is lost. People in the most meagre circumstances demand new and at tractive novelties at low price, instead of getting a standard material at the same price. For example: This sea son the market is stocked with a vari ety of new cotton materials, web-like in weave and rough in surface. They cost the consumer from thirty-five cents to one dollar and a half per yard. With the exception of their prettiness, when new, they have no points in their favor. Shrinkage is one of the chief objections. Some of these fabrics shrink as much as three inches Per yard. Since they are strictly a novelty, . dresses made from these ma terials will be discarded after one sea son. For the same price, one dollar and fifty cents, a beautiful quality of linen may be had, which makes a hand- some and serviceable gown for several years. As a result of this demand the manufacturer is compelled to bend the quality to the price, instead of being able to command a fair price for a higher grade article. Adulteration; Methods. In order to profit iii his business be resorts to some or all of the following methods of *adulteration: I. By combination. (a) Raw fibers are mixed before spinning. Cheap suitings and flannels are conspicous examples of this method. (b) Two single yarns are twisted to gether. The so-called "salt and pep per" effect is obtained by this method. In cheap suitings the black, shoddy yarn is twisted with white cotton yarn. In the better class goods this effect is secured with silk and worsted yarns. (c) Two different fibers are used in warp and filling. Mixed poplins and brilliantine serve to illustrate this method. 2. By adulteration —Selling one fiber under the name of another. This is one of the chief methods of adulteration, as well as one of the most, objectionable. Examples: (a) Artificial silk sold for silk. (b) Mercerized cotton sold for silk or linen. (c) Cheviot shirting —a material made totally of cotton, d) Cotton worsteds contain no trace of wool. (c) "Linen mesh" has been duced solely from cotton yarns. (f) "All-wool" union suits have been found to contain about fifty per cent cotton. In this case the price was reason able and garment was good, yet why should the consumer be deceived by false labeling? ■i. By supplying . a deficiency in weight with chemicals called "filling materials." (a) Silk is the most beautiful and the most precious of all textile fibers, consequently it is adulterated more than any other. A fabric sold as "all silk" will contain no other textile yam, but it may be adulterated with weighted dyes to such an extent that the material may consist of two-thirds adulterant —mineral salts —and only one-third silk. (b) Some cheap table damasks have been found to contain as much as fif teen per cent dressing. After they have been laundered several times all the starch is removed, leaving a fabric of cheese cloth weight and appearand. For the same price unbleached damask or German linen may be purchased, which is attractive and exceedingly desirable. 4. By giving a deceptive finish. (a) Stamping paste dots on cotton to imitate embroidered swiss. (b) Finishing cotton to look like linen. 5. By making narrow cloth. It costs the consumer less per yard, but more per garment, as narrow goods does not cut to advantage. G. By the use of made-over yarns. The wool supply of the world can meet only about one-half of the de mand. Yet there are wool goods and wool mixtures for the majority of the population. This deficiency .of one half is supplied by the use of regener ated or recovered wool. This class of wool is found in trade under the names of (a) Shoddy. (b) Mungo. (c) Extract. The fibers are obtained from knit ting mills, waste from tailor clippings and from old clothes. Dark and min gled fabrics are more likely to contain shoddy than the lighter ones, because shoddy is produced from materials of • A mixture is not always an adultera tion. Only when a mixture or substitution deceives by giving an attractive, super ficial appearance, or adds weight, can it be said to be an adulteration. For certain purposes mixtures are often superior to the pure fabrics. * * ■ various colors. The colors can not be entirely stripped from the fiber with out a harmful effect. Shoddy does not possess the same qualities of new wool, j The fibers are very much shorter and injured in many ways, therefore producing an inferior cloth. While it is unjust that the consumer should have to pay new wool prices for shoddy, it is not to be condemned. With reference to this class of material the English authority, McLaren, says: "There are few more unreasonable and foolish prejudices than that against shoddy, and so far from it be ing a term of reproach it should really be one of praise; for the man who first brought shoddy into use has conferred an incalculable benefit on the world and enabled millions of persons to be warmly and cheaply clothed who must otherwise be suffering with the cold. It would be as unreasonable to de spise paper makers because they use up linen rags, or despise dyers who use up colors made from coal tar, as to despise manufacturers who use up waste woolen rags as shoddy. It is said that 125,000,000 pounds of shoddy, mango, etc., are manufactured into cloth every year in England alone. If this immense quantity were wasted it is difficult to estimate the increase which would take place in price of wool and the consequent dearness of cloth, but the result would be that countless persons would be unable to afford proper clothing." Flocks are another kind of waste wool fiber which may be ranked with shoddy. They are short fibers, gen erally gigged or sheared from cloth in finishing rooms, or woolen rags ground in a flock cutter. Flocks are an adul terant. They are used largely in the manufacture of low-grade goods. 7. By use of cheap dye stuffs and in ferior methods of dyeing and printing. Investment in materials produced by these methods is one of the greatest avenues of waste in textile consump tion. As a rule the cheap prints are extremely fugitive to light and wash ing, especially the former. After a couple of weeks of exposure to light and air the fabrics have lost their at tractiveness. Where strict economy must be observed there is an alterna tive in the selection of draperies— either buy the best prints and pay from sixty-five cents to one dollar and twenty-five cents for twenty-four or twenty-seven inch goods, or buy white Swiss or neutral colored voille, scrim or net and pay from fifteen cents to fifty cents per yard. The former is produced by superior method of print ing and with tested dyes. With a rare exception the colors of these prints are fast to light, they wash satisfactorily and give the desired color and cheer fulness to the room, while the latter class of materials are durable and please the eye as long as they last. The time and labor spent in making up draperies and housefurnishings must be considered as well as the actual cost in dollars and cents. Importance of Textile Industry. Though women are the chief con sumers, few realize the significance of the textile industry and the influence of fashion upon textile production. In some respects, considered as a whole, the textile industry is the most important branch of manufactures in this country. The United States cen sus report of 1906 ranks the industries in the order of their importance, as follows : 1. Food and kindred products. 2. Iron and steel and products. 3. Textiles and allied industries. The test of importance of an indus try is based upon 1. Extent of employment. 2, Amount paid in wages. In the number of wage earners em ployed the textile and allied industries is but little below the combined num ber employed in the two other indus tries mentioned. If a knowledge of textiles enables the consumer to buy more intelligent ly and economically her responsibil ity does not end in wise selection. It is her duty to enlighten herself in re gard to social and industrial prob lems; to develop and promote an in terest in pure textile legislation which will result in the honest labeling of all materials. GIVE THE BURGLAR THE"HA,HA!" BANK YOUR CASH WITH US SOME people extend invitations to the THIEF AND HOLDUP MAN. They carry on their persons or in their homes large sums of money. A CHECK BOOK is of no use to the professional thief. Still, a check is AS GOOD AS CASH to the tradesman or for the immediate household wants. If you haven't a bank account OPEN ONE TODAY. Ufye " Farmers State Bank Pullman. Wash — ■"■■ ■■■" IHI ■ I ■■'— ■■MiMM>»>M>M____.________ W l_________W^-_^««^ ********* I ***<•************************ + ******* ****** a a a a a < :: " , i! Hart, Schaffner & Marx j :: and | Sophomore Clothes j < a a a • - Have arrived for the Spring wear. Clothes : • S that are perfectly tailored, right in j :: design and made of the best : a a a :: material to be had. : a a < a a < a* a > a , a a Mallory Florsheim a Mallory Florsheim Hats ~ Shoes a a I ■ I . < a. a a , W iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiimiiimii ! aa < !! V. W. CLARKSON ! «• • — "MEN'S OUTI<T_TEIt" a a a aa a :: : a a a i a .______._,_______L _____» < Iftiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiniimiiiiu I A Friendly I I Atmosphere I E The officers and employes of this bank strive to see that I = patrons always find here a friendly atmosphere. E E You are doing us a good turn when you bring business of = = any nature to this bank. We appreciate it and want you to E jg feel at home here, and find it a pleasure to come. 5 E Don't stay away because your transaction is a small one. It E E ;« the sum of small things that makes a bank great. E E S | The j __! "• I Pullman State Bank | ffiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiniiiimniiunT || Spring is Here —• .] |! The time when you need lumber to !j !; build a new house or repair your old <| j| one. We have the kind of lumber jj |l you need—either rough or finished. jj ij The Potlatch Lumber Co. ]j jj H. D. MacVEAN, Manager Phone 1 ,;,;!