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Cabbage and Cauliflower Culture
C. B. SPRAGUE, Assistant Horticulturist CLIMATE AND SOILS Cabbage and cauliflower, due to their very similar relation- Sip to each other, will be treated together as one subject in this article under the heading of cabbage, Instances wherein the cultural methods for the two crops differ will be men. tinned and each will lie explained separately. 'Cabbage is one of the leading table truck crops grown in the United Slates, ranking second in production only to to matoes. It can be obtained in the markets at nearly all sea suns. Unfortunately it is one of those crops, the acreage and value of which, fluctuates greatly from year to year. The cabbage thrives best in a cool, moist climate, In sec tions with long dry seasons, and high temperatures, the crop should be grown either in early spring or late fall to be given 'the advantage of the cool nights. The cabbage is a hardy plant and when hardened oil properly will stand .several degrees of frost and still not be hindered in its growing. ' Adaptation of the cabbage plant is great. Successful cab bage crops may be grown on almost any kind of soil. Abil ity to hold an abundant supply of moisture and al the same time be able to warm up quickly in the spring, arc the most essential features. Gravelly soils are not good because Kiev are unable to hold sufficient moisture. Clay loams are ideal if the proper amount of care is given to their preparation SOIL PREPARATION Owing to the wide range of soils in which cabbage can be grown no one hard and fast rule can be laid down for their preparation. Fall plowing, eight to ten inches deep, as soon as crops are removed, is best. Spring plowing should be done early in order to retain the maximum amount of moisture. Ground should be worked down at the earliest possible time and thoroughly harrowed at least once a week until planted. Alter a rain the ground should be cultivated over as soon as practicable. Never allow a crust to form, for in so doing, a great amount of moisture is lost. Too much work cannot be done in preparing the soil for this crop. FERTILIZERS Production is greatly increased in any type of soil by ap plication of well rotted stable manure. The cabbage plant is a heavy feeder and to get satisfactory yields must be grown on rich soil. Ten to fifty loads of manure per acre, put on in the fall, plowed under and It'll to decay through the winter, are none too much. Commercial fertilizers are good but present prices almost prohibit their use. Cabbage in a rota tion following a sod of clover or alfalfa does well and fer tilizers play a less important part in such planting. PRODUCTION OF PLANTS Uood clean seed is one of the important factors. Too often if the seed has the desired name attached and the price is low no other questions arc asked. At present there arc no ready means of determining at the tune of purchasing whether or not seeds are standard and true to name. The general rule is, seeds low in price are not always the most reliable. A great deal of the renaming of old varieties is constantly tak ing place and different strains of varieties are often mixed. The only sure way, if especially desirous of producing a crop all of one strain, is to buy the seed a year ahead and test a small portion of it out by growing the plains to maturity. Three pounds of seed drilled in and given good care should produce enough plants to set ten acres. Early plants are generally produced from seed sown in a hotbed in February or March. In milder climates where the temperature does not drop much below freezing, seed may be .'planted in cold-frames in the fall and will be ready for setting out early in the spring. Plants that are grown in a hotbed do better if transplanted into fiats (small shallow boxes, 18 inches by 22 inches by 4 inches deep, with holes in bottom tor drainage) or cold frames, when they become good stocky plants three to four inches high with leaves measuring two inches or more across. When live or six inches or more high, with leaves nearly as broad as a man's hand, they are ready to be placed in their permanent positions in the field. v Seed for late plants is generally sown m carefully prepared . seed beds m the open ground. The sod should be thoroughly cultivated, raked tine and well tinned down. The bed should •not be over six feet wide, to admit of care and watering from each side. Seed may be sown broadcast and raked in, or drilled in rows twelve inches apart to allow cultivation with a wheel hoe. Plants raised in this manner are generally ready • tor transplanting to the field in four or five weeks from time oi sowing seed. TRANSPLANTING Iraiisplantiug of the cabbage is very important. Care must oe taken to keep from injuring the root system of the young plant. When injured, a week or ten days may pass before tue plant ready begins to grow. It is then, in" all probability, bunted m its growth, and will never make the plant it would nave made had it been kept growing continuously. Moisture play's an important part in transplanting, since the plants are wtely to he ready for setting out in the held about the time ii t weather is hot and dry. The best time to transplant is just before a rain. In irrigated sections, plant in wet fur rows where water has recently been llowing. During cloudy weather, or late in the afternoon, is the best time for setting 0 the held, and if soil is dry apply a small quantity of water around the roots. Cover over with dry soil. Never set the Plant and then wet the ground on the surface. This causes mo much evaporation from the soil. The leaf area of the pants is sometimes reduced by grasping the leaves in the ' aim U nd shearing off one-third of the upper portion, thus sbJirrß cva lJoratloll of water through the plant itself. A D-Sf'f stuck Up on the west side of a freshly transplanted L ut .to shield it from the afternoon's burning sun will often ««P it from wilting down. A small leafy branch or a piece paper, arched over a plant, with a clod of earth on each Qtr, will give excellent protection from the sun. uenrr* re((Jiuniended distances for planting are various, de avail If °? lilC variety grown and the amount of moisture wide lul plaut growth. Early varieties do not require so are v ,Bpa<' lUK because the plants arc generally smaller and Early Wi l Ul ll iQ- t'mc °* car wueu moisture is more abundant. twHio cabba £c *** planted twelve to eighteen inches, in rows be ni i Ur- l° Ulirt >'"si* iucues apart. Late cabbage should lhiif • ? Jteen to thirty inches in the row, the rows being Uu-ty-sa inches apart. rowstfv caulitiower is planted eighteen to thirty inches, in thirty .rtv *Sl- X iucLeß apart. Late cauliflower should be placed !? y-su to forty-eight inches, in rows forty-eight iuchea apart. lfc_BP, c-Ck luw I'lanting is often used with excellent results, Uiu the amount of hand labor by hoeing. CULTIVATION iy_n?tSe require 's a great amount of cultivation. The old &d -* lna i "cabbage should be hoed every day" is a truth- Stivat see"is to be benefited by frequent and shallow a dug, 011 ' eveu m very dry weather when there is already i'Ultiv m • over the area- Cultivation with flue toothed mora » Preferable, stirring the soil to a depth of two or three inches and leaving m smooth a surface as possible. Hoeing about; the plant* in the row is equally as important «* the cultivating between rows except where check row plant ing is followed. Cultivation should be continued as long as tin- leaves will allow passage between the rows. It is often better to sacrifice a few of the leaves by breaking off, than to '•ease cultivation too early. Tbe leaves break more easily early in the morning or late in the evening. The time between ten o'clock'in the morning and four o'clock in the evening is best to cultivate cabbage. ** Cauliflower must not be allowed to become sunburned. W Inn the head begins to form gather up the outer leaves, fold them over the top and fasten by tying a string around the tips. Ihe head thus develops in comparative darkness and remains white and attractive with a better flavor. HARVESTING Cabbage should be harvested as soon as the heads have at tained a sufficient size. Small or medium sized heads are often preferred to an over grown head. The loss from crack ing or bursting is often great when not harvested at the right time. Care .should be given in handling not to bruise the beads. Bruised areas cause decay and make the crop unsight ly when placed upon the market. The time of harvesting cauliflower is much more limited than that of the cabbage. The heads develop much more quickly and must be cut just as soon as they reach full size and before starting to break. lose watching is the only method recommended for determin ing the harvesting time. STORAGE Cabbage may be Kent in a cool, well ventilated cellar, or may be stored in the ground as follows: Select a well drained spot and dig a trench or plow a furrow eighteen inches wide and ten or twelve inches deep. The cabbage heads are pulled up and placed beads down in the trench The first layer will consist of two rows of heads ami the second layer, of one row of heads, may be put on top of I lie first, between the up turned roots. Straw or corn stalks may be placed next to the cabbage and the hole covered over with a thin layer of soil. As weather becomes colder more soil must added to prevent of alternate freezing and thawing. Cabbage should be in good condition when put into storage. Water between the leaves should all be drained out by a gentle whirling of the head held up by its root, and all diseased leaves should he removed. No storage is recommended for cauliflower. VARIETIES Many varieties and types of cabbage are used tor general field and garden crops. The" early sorts are Early Jersey Wakefield (or Wakefield) and Charleston (or Charleston Wakefield). The second early sorts are Henderson's Early Summer, Copenhagen Market, All Seasons, and Henderson's Succession. The late varieties are Flat Dutch, Autumn King, Winuiugstadt, Danish Ball Head and Danish Round Head. Cauliflower varieties are not so numerous, Early Snowball and Extra Early Dwarf Erfurt being the chief early varieties and Dry Weather the main late variety. PARKS AM) recreation GROI NHS I MILS IN COMMUNITY GROWTH The great American problem of making more money lias so thor oughly permeated the people that we have almost forgotten how to play. We don't play enough and when we do play, instead of all taking part in the game, we hire a lew professional baseball players, pay a fancy admis sion price, sometimes bel our money on the game, and watch them play. This is not eat ion, it is "spendu - I urn" ami the players get the exer cise and the money and what do we gel. Our rural recreation parks should have the following factors: 1. Cent hall for Indoor activ ities, contests and exhibits. 2. Play ground for outdoor fairs and sports. * :',. Picnic grounds for picnics, cant [1 ground, etc. I. A swimming pool, wherever it is possible. 'the evolution of the rural fair lias reached Ihe point where it is often little better than a carnival com pany. Is '„■; possible that the rural folks can no longer enjoy tnemseivi 1 without balloon ascensions, horse races, I'll-,:' Are we no longer inter- ted in the best products of the farms and the true skill of rural folks? Why isn't there just as much skill in plowing a nice clean, straight furrow, showing a fine team of raft horses, sowing broadcast by hand a patch of grain or cradling a swath of clover or alfalfa as there is in (lo ing souk* of the stunts we now try to do? If you must throw baseballs at the negro babies or toss croquet halls into tilted beer kegs, let us not sell tie concessions, but do this under the management of the fair and leave the money for the betterment of the community. Look over the following factors and consider them with regard to how the) fit your community 1. Product of Soil _. Market and Transportation Facilities, 3. Good Roads and Streets. l. An Intelligent Reading People. 5. 1 loud Schools and Churches. 8. Suitable Parks and Recreation (i rounds, 7. Pleasant, Comfortable Homes. --W. S. Thornber, Director of Exten sion, State College of Washington, Girls at the State College of Wash ington boarding outside the dorm itory have organized into two large groups and are planning that as many as possible of both groups shall meet at an appointed place at least once a month and hold a regu lar house meeting for social and self- Improvement. COMMUNITY BREEDING Next to feeding and care, breeding is the most important step in build ing up a profitable dairy herd or Im proving the quality of any class of live stock. The prog re: live stock and dairy farmers today are realizing more and more the value of good, pure bred sires. The} have learned that by co-operating with hen neighbors In the purchase of bulls, that they can reduce the expense or dinarily attached to the purchase of a new bull ever) two or three years. The dairymen are learning also that the final proof of a bull's value is the records of his offsprings; and it pays extremely well to keep that good bull in the community as long as he is a sure breeder. This community breeding of live stock is proving beyond doubt that it pays for the farmers of one com munity to concentrate their efforts upon one breed of cattle or other live stock. The confining of all ef jforts to one breed bads to greater Interest and pride in the work on the part of the farmer This in turn leads to better stock. Finally, that neighborhood thai confines its ef forts to developing a high quality of animals all of one breed attracts buyers for Its surplus stock. All these things are accomplished by the co-operative breeders' asso ciations. Why not wake up in Washington and form several of these associations In the dairy com munities of the slate in order to in tease our profits from the sale of dairy products and to establish a reputation for the production of high class dairy cows, We have always looked to Wis consin for good dairy cows Co operative breeding is largely respon sible for the reputation Wisconsin has lor producing good dans cows. If we will tint awake to our oppor tunity, Washington need not take a back seat for any state, regarding the quality of her live stock. The Extension Department of the state College at Pullman is ready to help in. the organization of such as sociations and in the selection or bulls to be used. Let's co-operate. — •las. N. Price, Extension Specialist in Dairy and Live Stock, Extension Service, state College of Washing ton. Twenty-four lieutenancies in the United States Army and in the Ma rine Corps will be open this spring to Washington State College Seniors and graduates of last year's class if th" College regiment maintains its present high standard of efficiency which led to placing the State Col lege among the "distinguished insti tutions" last June on the basis of its work of the preceding year. NOTED PUBLISHER TO ~ LECTURE APRIL TURD Mi. Kllsworlli to Tell how Litem . tui-e Is Made Perhaps the most valuable enter tainment the lecture course * i.l have to offer this year will lie ihs lecture Tuesday evening, April 3, by William \\. Ellsworth, for 37 years connected with the Century company and mi tho past, three years its' president. The subject of the lec ture is "Forty Veins of American lateralure." in addition to being a comprehensive survey of American literature for the past half century, it. is full of most fascinating accounts of the inside workings of ,i great publishing company, and of personal reminiscences of great literary lights during the past half century Prof. Fred Lewis fatee of the Pennsylvania State College wrote to Mr. MllNworth after a recent lecture delivered to his college us follows; 'I want to tell you first of all that your lecture was the finest we have bad here lor ii long time, A man who can hold a thousand of our stu dents absorbed for an hour with a lecture devoted to literature is a rare bird. You have a great story to tell, and you tell it with conviction .i- one who lias been a part, of what tie tells." No one is better fitted to tell the story of American publishing and the literature it has helped to produce than Mr. Ellsworth. It was not long alter lire) llarle and Mark Twain had made their great successes that Mr. Ellsworth became a publisher, lie has known practically all of the A Direct Service » Dependable ami Good THREE THROUGH TRAINS DAILY TO THE EAST Buy Your Ticket Through via NORTHERN PACIFIC RY. The Yellowstone Park Line The Line to use to Seattle, Tacoma, Everett, Bell iiigliaiii; Vancouver, IV ('.. Victoria, B. C, to Port land .mil to California in connection with the Fast <!. X. P. S. S. Co. steamships, making train time from Portland. Perfect Dining Car Service /<?/ evSA ' '"'kels '" '"'II points, berth reservations, and It ____\ I '"" '"f°nna from yO^^p^C)/ Wm. Laird- Agent, Pullman, Wash XjClrJ< M. A. Berg, T. P. A., Moscow, Idaho A. D. Charlton, A. G. P. A., Portland, Ore. § satisfied customers My long list of satisfied customere makes a sufficient that it will pay you to see me about your sale. n. w. CAIRNS LEADING AUCTIONEER Office with Walker & Struppler Pullman Phone Me at My Expense Wash Weeders! Weeders! Weeders! Rolled Weeder Steel Is Hard to Get These Days Luckily we have secured enough for ten weeders. If you want a cheap w< eder, a good weeder, in fact the only one worth while, belter see us at once. See sample at shop next to Stokes' Garage. FALLQUIST BROS. (7\l&&&fZ' -J AH Length, and Widths ——^- *™*m€l C R. Sanders Co. great literary lights of the last 40 yours and be has much to tell about them — Mark Twain. (able. Howells. I'"" llopklnson Smith/ Stockton, Mrs, Deland. Winston Churchill! luck London, and many more. Mr. Kllsworth tells Just what It coats to make a book, tells of the publisher's profit, and shows how difficult it would be to sell books at lower prices than now obtain. He tells also of the "best-sellers." and how books are advertised. No other writer or lecturer has ever told so much that Is Interesting and heretofore unknown about the world of books and magazines. The lecture will be in the audi torium at 8:00 p. in. on Tuesday. April 3. Student passes will admit; general admission will be 25 cents. A TWO-TON DRILL A radial drill more than ulue feet in height, weighing approximately two tons, and valued at $850, Is now being constructed in the machine shops at the State College of Wash Ington by students lv Mechanical En gineering. Later it will be used In the college shops. By using it, an operator may drill a row of holes in a twelve-foot beam without moving the stock. This machine was de signed by classes ln mechanical draw ing at the College; the patterns were made by Freshmen ln the pattern shop; the castings were poured in the College foundry; and ft is now going through the College machine shop. The third group of girls to occupy the Practice House, conducted toy the department of Home Economics at the State College of Washington I* now installed in the house has just moved In. Members of this group are Elsie Freakes, l.uella Hoptou. Helen Canfleld, and Jennie McCor mack.