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l^ill^ TP^ TC^ TE2^ TTll^ .^^^ T^^BT i*>^ E^tf^ f llAm^^sPTi WT^ ■■** ■-** ■ * I I § 1 fl^lr ■ l.^^J^^^ bj Vol. I LAWS FOR THE PEOPLE. The Governments of the Australa sian colonies, and especially New Zealand, are gradually nationalizing what, in Canada or the United States would be considered individual or cor porate business utilities. Legislative measures in Australia proper are not quite so far advanced as In New Zea land, but all the Australian colonies will speedily follow the example of New Zealand. New South Wales last year closed its first (successful) financial year un der a policy of free trade and a direct land tax on unimproved .values. Usually, when Australian or New- Zealand legislation is referred to in the Canadian or American press, it is said to be socialistic, anarchistic, wild cat, experimental or trial legis lation, and the people look in vain for explanations. A perusal of the fol lowing brief reference to some of the measures will assist the reader in coining to a correct conclusion as to whether the New Zealand laws are in the interests of the whole people or in the Interest of a few privileged in dividuals. 1. Tbe Land and Income Tax Assessment Act in force in New Zea land imposes a tax upon incomes and an ordinary tax upon land and mort gages, the amount of which is fixed annually by a rating act. There is also an additional graduated tax upon the unimproved value of land held in large blocks of from one-eighth penny to two pence in the pound. Improve ments pay no taxes. The income tax is payable upon incomes derived from • employment and from - Imstaess, in cluding investments other than those in mortgages on land, upon which the ordinary land tax is levied. An ex emption of .£3OO if allowed to every person domiciled in New Zealand. 2. Advances are made by the gov ernment to actual settlers; in fact, any farmer may borrow on the security of his farm and improve ments an amount ranging from C2~> to £3000 at 5 per cent interest per an num, an 1 repay the principal on very ■easy terms. On this account, exist ing mortgages in favor of private parties or corporate companies which are bearing high rates of interest are being paid off, It is believed that this system will soon be extended so that the artisan class may take advantage of it. >:" 8, The schools are national and free. ■I. Over #1,00(1,000 have already been expended by the government of New Zealand in establishing techni cal schools. &, The government controls the post-office and post-office savings bank, and the postage between any two points In New Zealand is Id., and the deposits in the government sav ing- banks are always available when required. •>. The government controls aod Operates the telegraph system In con nection with the postal service, and a ten-word message costs only (id. 7. The government controls and operates the telephone system, and the charges are about two-thirds the usual Canadian or American charge-, and the profits go to the government and consequently to the whole people. **. The government gives state or national life Insurance. The pre mium rates are lower than the aver age rates charged by private com panies. Every policy holder feels thai he has the whole nation a- a guarantee behind his risk. '■'■ The government i- now perfect- Ing plans In regard to national fire insurance. • 10.. The government has practi cally established a state or national bank. South Australia was first to ■ova in the establishing of a national government bank, which is managed in the interests of the people. There i* no object In the government forc ing; citizens Into bankruptcy in time of depression. ]'.; j 11. The government controls and i* responsible for the administration of all estater, for which service a very nominal fee is charged, and the widows and orphans are protected from legal troubles. 1-. The government charges a graduated succession tax of from 2 to 10 per cent, according to the value of the estate. 13, The government owns and operates all the railroads excepting one short line, which will also soon be nationalized. The freight and pas senger rates on the government roads are such as give about 34 per cent in terest on the capital invested. The rates do not discriminate, neither arc they differential nor preferential, nor do the people pay freight .and passen ger rates necessary to provide inter est upon watered stock. 14. Women vote at all elections in New Zealand, and also in South Aus tralia, which has undoubtedly had a very beneficial influence. 1.1. Bight hours constitutes a legal day's work, for which fair living wages are paid. This gives the workers more time for mental im provement, recreation, health build ing, etc.: life is considered worth liv ing, and shorter hours also compen sate to some extent for the loss of labor caused by the general use of machinery. 18. The large estates, principally acquired by squatters, who located their holdings early in the history of New Zealand, and for which little or nothing was paid, are being pur chased by the government for the benefit of actual settlers; that is. the estates are assessed for taxation pur poses at the owner's valuation, the government reserving the right to take over the land (excepting a home stead, If required), at the owner's valuation, plus 10 per cent, if the owner's valuation is considered too low. IT. A conciliatory board has been established in every town or city where any difficulty is likely to arise between capital and labor. These boards are composed of three repre sentative business men, three repre sentatives from the trades union and a district judge. A strike is impos sible in New Zealand. 18. Public libraries, museums, parks and gardens have been estab lished in every city and town: public baths are also found in many places. 19. Considerable of the land ad joining the cities and towns is held as public domain, and for small home steads for the artisan classes. 20. Wednesday afternoon is the usual half holiday. The law compels a half holiday during each week. 1 do not know of any country where there are so few very rich and so few very poor as In New Zealand. The laws lend towards providing an mjual opportunity to all, and to check the over-reaching el those possessed with wolfish propensities. It is quite true that party politics still prevail, and that the government Opposition in New Zealand is dissatis fied, also the money-lending and land monopolizing classes, likewise those who have had or who wish to have special privileges, and their cause is championed by a financially strong wing of the press. The writer spent over sight month* in the Australasian colonies and never met a man who could give good or valid reasons why the so-called radical laws should be repealed. The general opinion is that an honest ad ministration of the laws will secure for the people of New Zealand un precedented contentment and pros perity.— [T. .1. Mcllridc, in Citizen and Country, Toront3. And History Repeats. In France before the great revolu tion the condition of the peasants was In most districts, miserable in the ex treme. Exactions of all sorts which went to feed the luxury of the court at Versailles left them with barely the means to sustain existence. They were Impoverished to the level of brutes, and were not even well fed .indwell housed animals. Wilting under these conditions a great French statesman denounced the economic system which took from a thousand men the necessaries of true human life to feed the immoral extravagance of one courtier. A thousand men, he said, were debased by poverty In or der that one man might be corrupted by wealth too great for his • virtue. This description of the condition of the people of France yesterday may be accepted as a fair portraiture of the condition of tbe people in many na tions today. Will history repeat it self, or will a higher civilization in fluence a peaceful, rather than a bloody revolution? -[Ex. i EDISON, SKAGIT COUNTY, WASH., SATURDAY, SEPTEMBER 24, 1898. THE EXPLODED DEVIL. Men don't believe in a devil now, as their fathers used to do: They have opened the door of the widest creed to let his Majesty through, And there isn't a print of his cloven foot, nor a fiery dart from his bow, To be found in earth or air today, tor the world has voted it so. But who is mixing the terrible draught that palsies heart and brain? Who loads the bier of each passing year with ten hundred thousand slain? Who blights the bloom of the earth to day with the fiery breath of hell? If the devil isn't and never was, won't somebody rise and tell? Who dogs the steps of the toiling saint? Who digs the pits for his feet? Who sows the tares in the fields of time wherever Cod sows the wheat? The devil is voted not to be, and of course the thing is true: But who is doing the terrible work which the devil alone should do? We're told that he does not go about like a roaring lion now, But whom shall we bold responsible for the everlasting row To be heard in Church and State today, to earth's remotest bound, If the devil by unanimous vote Is no where to be found? Won't somebody step to the front forth with and make his bow and show- How the frauds and crimes of a single day spring up? We'd like to know. The devil is voted not to be, and of course the devil's gone, But simple people would like to know who carries his business on. - New York Tribune. • a- COLLECTIVISM A LAW OF NATURE. R. DIDDEN IN THE "WESTMINSTER REVIEW." The system of competition, the striv ing on the part of each unit to obtain the upper hand, the same desire on the part of each man to make his neighbor a stepping-stone toward his own pros perity—this process we euphemisti cally style "the struggle for life." The vulgar transcribe it in less ele gant but mono forcible and realistic language: "Every one fur himself, ami the devil take the hindmost." Ami when he has got them we shrug our shoulders with another ready-made euphemism: "Well, que voulez vous? — it is nature's law, 'the survival of the fittest. Now, the question is. are we quite sure that l] is nature's law? If we are quite sure, is it right tor us to build workhouses, to take Cam of the cripples., tile blind, the old. the helpless, the useless —in short, of all those who, from one cause or another hare been Incapacitated or come to grief in this "struggle for life"? If we are in any way logical, there is but one answer: "No," If they are not "fit," nature say* let them die. Why are we moved to oumpassion by the misery and degradation and suffering of our fellow creatures—by a desire, ever taking a more active form, to remedy the pres ent sad state of things, which desire is 1 now manifesting itself in a strong movement—in which most of the finest and noblest natures are joining to re place the present system of competition by that of co-operation, to replace the system of selfishness and hatred by that of altruism and love.- On the proper solution of those questions depends to our thinking the answer to the initial query: Individualism or collectivism? It is usually asserted that among plants and the lower animals the strug gle for survival In very fierce, and car ried on with relentless vigor. Hut when we descend into nature's work shop and observe her closely we find that this general stetement, like most statements of its kind, contains only a half-truth and requires qualifying. In a very interesting and fascinating book. "The Sagacity and Morality of I'hints.'' Dr. J. I. Taylor -jives highly instruc tive examples in that respect, showing that evolution works towards co-opera tion and altruism, and. what is more, proving that co-operation has invari ably worked for the benefit of the Indi vidual as well as for that of the com- j munity. Speaking of the Legumlnosae, he says: "Compare the solitary flowers of the lovely grass pea with the minute but similarly constructed flowers collect- j ed to form the heads of the clovers and trefoils, No Bower* are perhaps more specialized to the visits of the most in telligent of I Besots than those of clover; but what would they be If they grew singly? Co-Ope has been the secret of their success, as, indeed, it is innumerable species in other orders of plants where the same plan has been i adopted." And, after giving many more examples of this i rinciple of co-opera tion arid its unvarying success, Dr. Tay lor makes this pregnant remark: "Floral altruism is a fad i i the sege table kingdom, only found in the most differentiated floral societies, just us we meet with it only in the highest-devel oped of humanity, although we antici pate it will be --till more developed as mankind grows out of It i lower into Its higher life." That the same co-opera tion exists among animals in innumer able instances Is so well known thai we should only be burdening our paper with superfluous details by giving cases in point. Let any reader refer to the extremely fascinating experl i ents made, for instance, by Si." John Lub bock. Now, what conclusions are we able to draw from our short excursion into the plant and animal kingdoms, which ex cursion should, however, be prolonged by each reader at his leisure, so that he may be thoroughly convinced of the facts, and consequently of the correct ness of such conclusions? Surely none other than these; 1. That there is a gradual dawning, a gradual manifesta tion of reason (or reasoning Instinct) already distinctly traceable in plant life. _. That the struggle for life is, fiercest among the lowest forms, grad ually softening and modifying as these evolve into higher types, and transform ing itself ultimately into altruism and cooperation, both plant and animal life showing many and startling cases in support of this fact. .'i. That this co operation is invariably to the benefit and progress of the community. The next question which we have to consider in our pilgrimage would be this; Can this gradual and continual modification, this tendency towards al truism and CO-Operation, be traced for ward in man? We think it would be an insult to the reader if we were not to say at once that asking the question is already answering it. Indeed, this tendency toward altruism and collec tivism has become so pronounced and unmistakable that Mr. Spencer is quite alarmed and has written very power i fully against it. although he is con vinced that ho is preaching to deaf ears. and thai collectivism will sooner or later become an accomplished fact. And if all our facts arc correct and our reasoning Logical, our last and final conclusion from th« foregoing would be: That the law underlying the evolution ary process) makes for collectivism, and that there Is a deeper significance in !the old saying that man is a "social animal. than we have yet realized. And this tendency toward collectivism, growing ever stronger as man evolves into higher and higher life, by no means weakens that desire to compete, that love to excel, which nature ha* so firm ly implanted within us. and which Is to i essential to our advancement that, with out it, evolution would, to to speak, come to a standstill. Have we not all ' a craving to excel, be it in a mental or physical combat, though there is no re ward of any kind attached to such ex cellence? Why, even the thief, who' will so skillfully rob us of our watch or purse, will, under other and more fav orable circumstances—where this pur ler craving, or, as we say, his better | nature, has an opportunity to manifest | I —do a noble act. and rescue a drowning child, or perhaps a paralytic old woman ; [ from the burning flames. And as little as we - .nil lose our ile sire to excel, so little need we appre hend thai a general free education will ! raise us all to the same level. But jus-! lice will be Isn't d, inasmuch as every boy and girl will have the same chance and the same privileges. The genius. I the student, the highly ..... will form the aristocracy, We shall have an aristocracy of the mind, instead of one of the purse. It will be an aristoc- i , racy in dance with evolution, in ; accordance with nature'! law, tit to as-1 sume the highest offices [the offices of honor) and to direct the affairs of the] j community for the common good. At! ; prevent you cannot.expect men of edu ration and refinement to "hobnob' with the coarse and vulgar. It is against nature, which says, "Qui se resemble, I •'assemble," and collectivism does not expect it. We are now in a position to realize the fallacy contained in such unfortun ate books as "Social Evolution* 1 by Mr. Benjamin Kidd) and their kindred.! What shall we say of a writer, calling himself an evolutionist, who does not scruple to speak of altruism as a 'new" fjrce which yvas "born" into the world with the Christian religion? If such writers would only study plant and ani- i mal life they would not publish such 1 mislead books. They would realize i thai altruis n and co-operation have t nothing to do with religious Instinct^ ( although they may be fostered by it. 1 but thai they are the working forces of 1 evolution, already traceable deep down i in nature, and gradually but securely f evolving from among her lowest ehil- i In i:. ' Based on the facts, which we are ( afraid we lave but all too feebly stated 1 —it would almost require the writing c of a book to do them full justice — our ; own conviction is that evolution makes i for collectivism] We believe that this ; collectivism, instead of being feared. I should be welcomed. It will not come about by violent means— means . would rather be Instrumental in retard- i Ing i:—but travel along the slow path ] which is evolution's own. Its advent 1 will he gradual, one advance post fall- i Ing at a time, and it will be in posses- | slon of the whole Held before mankind i is ell aware of its arrival. 1 Competition. Competition has been called the >' life of trade. That, however, was a notio l conceived In old-fashioned days when men were honest and . trusts had not been cradled and fos- j tered by the Republican party. Noth ing hurts trade so much in these mod ern days as competition. It interferes with robbery, and robbery has become a synonym for trade. This fact is made cheerfully prominent by the course taken in offering bids to make armor plate for the United Stat-I- government. Carnegie and Bethle hem work together in unity, and, but for the law of congress forced through by men who failed to recog nize the fact that thievery i* quite legitimate, would have made a much larger steal than has been accom plished. But both these armor-plate plants have been robbed up to the full limit. Carnegie has bid for one class of armor and Bethlehem for the other class, and each Is to receive -$400 a ton. bow delightful it is that there should be no vulgar competi tion. How cheering to Carnegie and Bethlehem must be the fact that the old Idea that competition i- the life of trade has become a creed outworn. ' : —[Chicago Dispatch. . Do you know a good reason why any I agent, officer or employe of the govern ment should receive a larger compensa tion for a day's work than a skilled laborer gets? If there '- any good rea son let us hear it. Can you not see i that in paying higher wages for cleri cal or official work, such employment is raised in rank by this rating and hard labor degraded? It is astonishing that such a discrimination should be toler ated for a single Lay 1 1; shows only the ignorance of the people who can accept only degradation, official sal aries have eased for 30 years while wages and prices have fallen 50 per cent. The lower prices the better for officials. They are thus converted into public enemies by being lid to rejoice! j in low prices which enlarge their sal aries by increasing the purchasing i power of money. Let slaves go with ! ' prices. The highest paid tb any should be graded by the wage of skilled labor] i Thus tbe official class would share the bad times with the people! Now they j flourish upon tin- ruin of public pros perity. They are tempted by a great I bribe to stand i:-. with the workers who; j plot to make low price.-- by a scant sup ply of money! Ileduce all salaries to the past standi) of the daily wiiges of 1 the laboring man! This Is radical, 1 know, but it is simply just, and must be 1 done at last. -The Canadian Starch-' light. The Spaniards call the people of the United State* a nation of pigs, and they are not so very far from the truth. The Anglo-Saxon race is a big hog. it- Idea baa always been to reach out and conquer in order that it might enjoy the wealth of it- con quest. The difference between the Anglo-Saxon race and the Latin race. | as it .- represented by Spain, is that Spain is a wild boar while the United I States and England are just tin- or dinary domestic hog. 'Spain delights In blood and torture as well as rob-' bery; all that we want is a good bel lyful, and if others suffer in conse-' quencc, that Is their lookout.—Ex. | No. 21 Republic cr Empire, A volution Is at the door. It im pends like a clem! on the horizon. Whether we shall accept it rind it? result remains to ie determined: but that a creat transformation of politi cal society is in.the dawn let no man longerdoubt. What a few thinkers save been able to foresee and foretell md' what the. have been ridiculed for foreseeing and foretelling, ha* risen like an exhalation of the night. The swift whirl of events becoming even swifter, has brought the nppre hended change "upon us, and ere the century closes we are obliged, looking around upon .v.: . Is virtu; the wreck of tur old institution^ to Bee arising over them the spectre of Im perialism. The proposition to transform the American Republic into an Empire i= not only put forth, but it has ti l( .. sup port of all the special interests in the United States arid of the partj In pow er as their organ. They do not openly propose, any more than the leaders at Home proposed at the middle of the first century 3. C, to cast's the name of the republic : id adopt the name of the empire, but they pro ceed insidiously to use the old terminology and to discard the facts. The democracy of the New World is to be deceived with Ike retention of the name of the Republic while the Republic is being robbed of Its charac ter and substance. In America the new Imperialism ist favored most of all by the plutocratic cl isses. The plutocracy has succeeded by taking advantage of the conditions of American life, in accumulating the means out of which to construct the empire. The few thousand millionaire!? and billionaires who have risen to more than princely rank by the spoli avion of the American people know well that the democratic Republic does not furnish them with adequate means for defending and increasing their spoil. They have he.i] up their, enormous resources in the most deitnr* sible forms, 1 ir. they shbwjan il'-Jis... guised dread of danger,and would fain have stronger bulwarks. My countrymen, we thus have three facts In which Imperialism expresses its purpos;. The first of these is ter ritorial acquisition-^ for the empire must conquer and expand^ The second fact is that inflamed political lust of power which seek? to frejitea govern- Iment apart from the leo"^, over them, without their consent, *&&' pressing them down against their pro-' test. The third fact is the Institu tion of plutocracy, whlchdemarids the other two for its maintenance and promotion.—[Historian Ridpatb In September Arena. I—a- A Goad Object Lessee: I think it will be well that we annex the Philippines. 1 will find grim de light in the result, inevitable of itueh action. Wages are only Id cuts a day there, nd then are several million laborers in the 1,200 islands compris ing tbe group. As soon as it becomes a part of the United State- all tariff' differences will cease, because prohib ited by the constitution. Then our capitalist.- will put up factories there. and employ this 10-cent docile labor, and ship its products right into our prosperous land and sell it against the products of like mills here, who will have to shut down or cm down the wages of their.wage-slaves to the level of the Philippines, Already the con> jietition of the Japanese and Chinese fait jrles built on modern plans i- play ing havoc with the products ol tho factories of the "civilized" nations. 1 think the white labor of tile United States can be induced to work for !J cents a day. It only requires a little more starving to bring them to it. The? may kick a little but thai will no; do them any good, because they will continue to vote the saraa old ticket, and so long as the property class are e'.eeted to office arid have com* maud of the law and army arid navy, the people wi'.l work for any price their masters ure willing to pay them. In fact, they will bo roaminj around the neighborhood like so many recou ccntrados, that they are, begging for some master to employ them ut wage* enough to keep them from starving. Yes, annexing the Philippines will Iks a gn;at point gained in settling the la bor question—settling it means to have the wages settle down lower.-Coming Nation.