OCR Interpretation

Industrial freedom. (Edison, Wash.) 1898-1???, September 24, 1898, Image 1

Image and text provided by Washington State Library; Olympia, WA

Persistent link: https://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn88085617/1898-09-24/ed-1/seq-1/

What is OCR?

Thumbnail for

J aM-V^sJ^^ j aYSBBUSnfcsT^ aSj^9B^B%S^^^^^^BVBBBBBS^BBBBBBBBB^BSBB^BBBBBV —f 3 ' / i *^'| \'*"P \ M lr X _y 1 X^c^aS*"^a^^jß, yji JJ f
l^ill^ TP^ TC^ TE2^ TTll^ .^^^ T^^BT i*>^ E^tf^ f
llAm^^sPTi WT^ ■■** ■-** ■ * I I § 1 fl^lr ■ l.^^J^^^ bj
Vol. I
The Governments of the Australa
sian colonies, and especially New
Zealand, are gradually nationalizing
what, in Canada or the United States
would be considered individual or cor
porate business utilities. Legislative
measures in Australia proper are not
quite so far advanced as In New Zea
land, but all the Australian colonies
will speedily follow the example of
New Zealand.
New South Wales last year closed
its first (successful) financial year un
der a policy of free trade and a direct
land tax on unimproved .values.
Usually, when Australian or New-
Zealand legislation is referred to in
the Canadian or American press, it is
said to be socialistic, anarchistic,
wild cat, experimental or trial legis
lation, and the people look in vain for
explanations. A perusal of the fol
lowing brief reference to some of the
measures will assist the reader in
coining to a correct conclusion as to
whether the New Zealand laws are in
the interests of the whole people or
in the Interest of a few privileged in
1. Tbe Land and Income Tax
Assessment Act in force in New Zea
land imposes a tax upon incomes and
an ordinary tax upon land and mort
gages, the amount of which is fixed
annually by a rating act. There is
also an additional graduated tax upon
the unimproved value of land held in
large blocks of from one-eighth penny
to two pence in the pound. Improve
ments pay no taxes. The income tax
is payable upon incomes derived from
• employment and from - Imstaess, in
cluding investments other than those
in mortgages on land, upon which the
ordinary land tax is levied. An ex
emption of .£3OO if allowed to every
person domiciled in New Zealand.
2. Advances are made by the gov
ernment to actual settlers; in fact,
any farmer may borrow on the
security of his farm and improve
ments an amount ranging from C2~> to
£3000 at 5 per cent interest per an
num, an 1 repay the principal on very
■easy terms. On this account, exist
ing mortgages in favor of private
parties or corporate companies which
are bearing high rates of interest are
being paid off, It is believed that this
system will soon be extended so that
the artisan class may take advantage
of it. >:"
8, The schools are national and
■I. Over #1,00(1,000 have already
been expended by the government of
New Zealand in establishing techni
cal schools.
&, The government controls the
post-office and post-office savings
bank, and the postage between any
two points In New Zealand is Id., and
the deposits in the government sav
ing- banks are always available when
•>. The government controls aod
Operates the telegraph system In con
nection with the postal service, and a
ten-word message costs only (id.
7. The government controls and
operates the telephone system, and
the charges are about two-thirds the
usual Canadian or American charge-,
and the profits go to the government
and consequently to the whole people.
**. The government gives state or
national life Insurance. The pre
mium rates are lower than the aver
age rates charged by private com
panies. Every policy holder feels
thai he has the whole nation a- a
guarantee behind his risk.
'■'■ The government i- now perfect-
Ing plans In regard to national fire
insurance. •
10.. The government has practi
cally established a state or national
bank. South Australia was first to
■ova in the establishing of a national
government bank, which is managed
in the interests of the people. There
i* no object In the government forc
ing; citizens Into bankruptcy in time
of depression. ]'.; j
11. The government controls and
i* responsible for the administration
of all estater, for which service a
very nominal fee is charged, and the
widows and orphans are protected
from legal troubles.
1-. The government charges a
graduated succession tax of from 2 to
10 per cent, according to the value of
the estate.
13, The government owns and
operates all the railroads excepting
one short line, which will also soon be
nationalized. The freight and pas
senger rates on the government roads
are such as give about 34 per cent in
terest on the capital invested. The
rates do not discriminate, neither arc
they differential nor preferential, nor
do the people pay freight .and passen
ger rates necessary to provide inter
est upon watered stock.
14. Women vote at all elections in
New Zealand, and also in South Aus
tralia, which has undoubtedly had a
very beneficial influence.
1.1. Bight hours constitutes a legal
day's work, for which fair living
wages are paid. This gives the
workers more time for mental im
provement, recreation, health build
ing, etc.: life is considered worth liv
ing, and shorter hours also compen
sate to some extent for the loss of
labor caused by the general use of
18. The large estates, principally
acquired by squatters, who located
their holdings early in the history of
New Zealand, and for which little or
nothing was paid, are being pur
chased by the government for the
benefit of actual settlers; that is. the
estates are assessed for taxation pur
poses at the owner's valuation, the
government reserving the right to
take over the land (excepting a home
stead, If required), at the owner's
valuation, plus 10 per cent, if the
owner's valuation is considered too
IT. A conciliatory board has been
established in every town or city
where any difficulty is likely to arise
between capital and labor. These
boards are composed of three repre
sentative business men, three repre
sentatives from the trades union and
a district judge. A strike is impos
sible in New Zealand.
18. Public libraries, museums,
parks and gardens have been estab
lished in every city and town: public
baths are also found in many places.
19. Considerable of the land ad
joining the cities and towns is held as
public domain, and for small home
steads for the artisan classes.
20. Wednesday afternoon is the
usual half holiday. The law compels
a half holiday during each week.
1 do not know of any country where
there are so few very rich and so few
very poor as In New Zealand. The
laws lend towards providing an mjual
opportunity to all, and to check the
over-reaching el those possessed with
wolfish propensities.
It is quite true that party politics
still prevail, and that the government
Opposition in New Zealand is dissatis
fied, also the money-lending and land
monopolizing classes, likewise those
who have had or who wish to have
special privileges, and their cause is
championed by a financially strong
wing of the press.
The writer spent over sight month*
in the Australasian colonies and
never met a man who could give good
or valid reasons why the so-called
radical laws should be repealed. The
general opinion is that an honest ad
ministration of the laws will secure
for the people of New Zealand un
precedented contentment and pros
perity.— [T. .1. Mcllridc, in Citizen
and Country, Toront3.
And History Repeats.
In France before the great revolu
tion the condition of the peasants was
In most districts, miserable in the ex
treme. Exactions of all sorts which
went to feed the luxury of the court
at Versailles left them with barely
the means to sustain existence. They
were Impoverished to the level of
brutes, and were not even well fed
.indwell housed animals. Wilting
under these conditions a great French
statesman denounced the economic
system which took from a thousand
men the necessaries of true human
life to feed the immoral extravagance
of one courtier. A thousand men, he
said, were debased by poverty In or
der that one man might be corrupted
by wealth too great for his • virtue.
This description of the condition of
the people of France yesterday may be
accepted as a fair portraiture of the
condition of tbe people in many na
tions today. Will history repeat it
self, or will a higher civilization in
fluence a peaceful, rather than a
bloody revolution? -[Ex. i
Men don't believe in a devil now, as
their fathers used to do:
They have opened the door of the widest
creed to let his Majesty through,
And there isn't a print of his cloven foot,
nor a fiery dart from his bow,
To be found in earth or air today, tor
the world has voted it so.
But who is mixing the terrible draught
that palsies heart and brain?
Who loads the bier of each passing year
with ten hundred thousand slain?
Who blights the bloom of the earth to
day with the fiery breath of hell?
If the devil isn't and never was, won't
somebody rise and tell?
Who dogs the steps of the toiling saint?
Who digs the pits for his feet?
Who sows the tares in the fields of time
wherever Cod sows the wheat?
The devil is voted not to be, and of
course the thing is true:
But who is doing the terrible work which
the devil alone should do?
We're told that he does not go about
like a roaring lion now,
But whom shall we bold responsible for
the everlasting row
To be heard in Church and State today,
to earth's remotest bound,
If the devil by unanimous vote Is no
where to be found?
Won't somebody step to the front forth
with and make his bow and show-
How the frauds and crimes of a single
day spring up? We'd like to know.
The devil is voted not to be, and of
course the devil's gone,
But simple people would like to know
who carries his business on.
- New York Tribune.
• a-
The system of competition, the striv
ing on the part of each unit to obtain
the upper hand, the same desire on the
part of each man to make his neighbor
a stepping-stone toward his own pros
perity—this process we euphemisti
cally style "the struggle for life."
The vulgar transcribe it in less ele
gant but mono forcible and realistic
language: "Every one fur himself, ami
the devil take the hindmost." Ami
when he has got them we shrug our
shoulders with another ready-made
euphemism: "Well, que voulez vous?
— it is nature's law, 'the survival of the
fittest. Now, the question is. are
we quite sure that l] is nature's
law? If we are quite sure, is it right
tor us to build workhouses, to take
Cam of the cripples., tile blind, the old.
the helpless, the useless —in short, of
all those who, from one cause or another
hare been Incapacitated or come to
grief in this "struggle for life"? If we
are in any way logical, there is but one
answer: "No," If they are not "fit,"
nature say* let them die. Why are we
moved to oumpassion by the misery and
degradation and suffering of our fellow
creatures—by a desire, ever taking a
more active form, to remedy the pres
ent sad state of things, which desire is
1 now manifesting itself in a strong
movement—in which most of the finest
and noblest natures are joining to re
place the present system of competition
by that of co-operation, to replace the
system of selfishness and hatred by that
of altruism and love.- On the proper
solution of those questions depends to
our thinking the answer to the initial
query: Individualism or collectivism?
It is usually asserted that among
plants and the lower animals the strug
gle for survival In very fierce, and car
ried on with relentless vigor. Hut
when we descend into nature's work
shop and observe her closely we find
that this general stetement, like most
statements of its kind, contains only a
half-truth and requires qualifying. In
a very interesting and fascinating book.
"The Sagacity and Morality of I'hints.''
Dr. J. I. Taylor -jives highly instruc
tive examples in that respect, showing
that evolution works towards co-opera
tion and altruism, and. what is more,
proving that co-operation has invari
ably worked for the benefit of the Indi
vidual as well as for that of the com- j
munity. Speaking of the Legumlnosae,
he says: "Compare the solitary flowers
of the lovely grass pea with the minute
but similarly constructed flowers collect- j
ed to form the heads of the clovers and
trefoils, No Bower* are perhaps more
specialized to the visits of the most in
telligent of I Besots than those of clover;
but what would they be If they grew
singly? Co-Ope has been the
secret of their success, as, indeed, it is
innumerable species in other orders of
plants where the same plan has been i
adopted." And, after giving many more
examples of this i rinciple of co-opera
tion arid its unvarying success, Dr. Tay
lor makes this pregnant remark:
"Floral altruism is a fad i i the sege
table kingdom, only found in the most
differentiated floral societies, just us we
meet with it only in the highest-devel
oped of humanity, although we antici
pate it will be --till more developed as
mankind grows out of It i lower into Its
higher life." That the same co-opera
tion exists among animals in innumer
able instances Is so well known thai we
should only be burdening our paper
with superfluous details by giving cases
in point. Let any reader refer to the
extremely fascinating experl i ents
made, for instance, by Si." John Lub
Now, what conclusions are we able to
draw from our short excursion into the
plant and animal kingdoms, which ex
cursion should, however, be prolonged
by each reader at his leisure, so that he
may be thoroughly convinced of the
facts, and consequently of the correct
ness of such conclusions? Surely none
other than these; 1. That there is a
gradual dawning, a gradual manifesta
tion of reason (or reasoning Instinct)
already distinctly traceable in plant
life. _. That the struggle for life is,
fiercest among the lowest forms, grad
ually softening and modifying as these
evolve into higher types, and transform
ing itself ultimately into altruism and
cooperation, both plant and animal life
showing many and startling cases in
support of this fact. .'i. That this co
operation is invariably to the benefit
and progress of the community.
The next question which we have to
consider in our pilgrimage would be
this; Can this gradual and continual
modification, this tendency towards al
truism and CO-Operation, be traced for
ward in man? We think it would be
an insult to the reader if we were not
to say at once that asking the question
is already answering it. Indeed, this
tendency toward altruism and collec
tivism has become so pronounced and
unmistakable that Mr. Spencer is quite
alarmed and has written very power
i fully against it. although he is con
vinced that ho is preaching to deaf ears.
and thai collectivism will sooner or later
become an accomplished fact.
And if all our facts arc correct and
our reasoning Logical, our last and final
conclusion from th« foregoing would be:
That the law underlying the evolution
ary process) makes for collectivism, and
that there Is a deeper significance in
!the old saying that man is a "social
animal. than we have yet realized.
And this tendency toward collectivism,
growing ever stronger as man evolves
into higher and higher life, by no means
weakens that desire to compete, that
love to excel, which nature ha* so firm
ly implanted within us. and which Is to
i essential to our advancement that, with
out it, evolution would, to to speak,
come to a standstill. Have we not all
' a craving to excel, be it in a mental or
physical combat, though there is no re
ward of any kind attached to such ex
cellence? Why, even the thief, who'
will so skillfully rob us of our watch or
purse, will, under other and more fav
orable circumstances—where this pur
ler craving, or, as we say, his better
| nature, has an opportunity to manifest |
I —do a noble act. and rescue a drowning
child, or perhaps a paralytic old woman ;
[ from the burning flames.
And as little as we - .nil lose our ile
sire to excel, so little need we appre
hend thai a general free education will !
raise us all to the same level. But jus-!
lice will be Isn't d, inasmuch as every
boy and girl will have the same chance
and the same privileges. The genius. I
the student, the highly ..... will
form the aristocracy, We shall have
an aristocracy of the mind, instead of
one of the purse. It will be an aristoc- i
, racy in dance with evolution, in
; accordance with nature'! law, tit to as-1
sume the highest offices [the offices of
honor) and to direct the affairs of the]
j community for the common good. At!
; prevent you cannot.expect men of edu
ration and refinement to "hobnob' with
the coarse and vulgar. It is against
nature, which says, "Qui se resemble, I
•'assemble," and collectivism does not
expect it.
We are now in a position to realize
the fallacy contained in such unfortun
ate books as "Social Evolution* 1 by Mr.
Benjamin Kidd) and their kindred.!
What shall we say of a writer, calling
himself an evolutionist, who does not
scruple to speak of altruism as a 'new"
fjrce which yvas "born" into the world
with the Christian religion? If such
writers would only study plant and ani- i
mal life they would not publish such 1
mislead books. They would realize i
thai altruis n and co-operation have t
nothing to do with religious Instinct^ (
although they may be fostered by it. 1
but thai they are the working forces of 1
evolution, already traceable deep down i
in nature, and gradually but securely f
evolving from among her lowest ehil- i
In i:. '
Based on the facts, which we are (
afraid we lave but all too feebly stated 1
—it would almost require the writing c
of a book to do them full justice — our ;
own conviction is that evolution makes i
for collectivism] We believe that this ;
collectivism, instead of being feared. I
should be welcomed. It will not come
about by violent means— means .
would rather be Instrumental in retard- i
Ing i:—but travel along the slow path ]
which is evolution's own. Its advent 1
will he gradual, one advance post fall- i
Ing at a time, and it will be in posses- |
slon of the whole Held before mankind i
is ell aware of its arrival. 1
Competition has been called the >'
life of trade. That, however, was a
notio l conceived In old-fashioned
days when men were honest and .
trusts had not been cradled and fos- j
tered by the Republican party. Noth
ing hurts trade so much in these mod
ern days as competition. It interferes
with robbery, and robbery has become
a synonym for trade. This fact is
made cheerfully prominent by the
course taken in offering bids to make
armor plate for the United Stat-I-
government. Carnegie and Bethle
hem work together in unity, and, but
for the law of congress forced
through by men who failed to recog
nize the fact that thievery i* quite
legitimate, would have made a much
larger steal than has been accom
plished. But both these armor-plate
plants have been robbed up to the
full limit. Carnegie has bid for one
class of armor and Bethlehem for the
other class, and each Is to receive
-$400 a ton. bow delightful it is that
there should be no vulgar competi
tion. How cheering to Carnegie and
Bethlehem must be the fact that the
old Idea that competition i- the life
of trade has become a creed outworn. '
: —[Chicago Dispatch.
Do you know a good reason why any I
agent, officer or employe of the govern
ment should receive a larger compensa
tion for a day's work than a skilled
laborer gets? If there '- any good rea
son let us hear it. Can you not see
i that in paying higher wages for cleri
cal or official work, such employment is
raised in rank by this rating and hard
labor degraded? It is astonishing that
such a discrimination should be toler
ated for a single Lay 1 1; shows only
the ignorance of the people who can
accept only degradation, official sal
aries have eased for 30 years while
wages and prices have fallen 50 per
cent. The lower prices the better for
officials. They are thus converted into
public enemies by being lid to rejoice!
j in low prices which enlarge their sal
aries by increasing the purchasing
i power of money. Let slaves go with !
' prices. The highest paid tb any should
be graded by the wage of skilled labor]
i Thus tbe official class would share the
bad times with the people! Now they
j flourish upon tin- ruin of public pros
perity. They are tempted by a great
I bribe to stand i:-. with the workers who;
j plot to make low price.-- by a scant sup
ply of money! Ileduce all salaries to
the past standi) of the daily wiiges of 1
the laboring man! This Is radical, 1
know, but it is simply just, and must be 1
done at last. -The Canadian Starch-'
The Spaniards call the people of
the United State* a nation of pigs,
and they are not so very far from the
truth. The Anglo-Saxon race is a big
hog. it- Idea baa always been to
reach out and conquer in order that
it might enjoy the wealth of it- con
quest. The difference between the
Anglo-Saxon race and the Latin race. |
as it .- represented by Spain, is that
Spain is a wild boar while the United I
States and England are just tin- or
dinary domestic hog. 'Spain delights
In blood and torture as well as rob-'
bery; all that we want is a good bel
lyful, and if others suffer in conse-'
quencc, that Is their lookout.—Ex. |
No. 21
Republic cr Empire,
A volution Is at the door. It im
pends like a clem! on the horizon.
Whether we shall accept it rind it?
result remains to ie determined: but
that a creat transformation of politi
cal society is in.the dawn let no man
longerdoubt. What a few thinkers
save been able to foresee and foretell
md' what the. have been ridiculed
for foreseeing and foretelling, ha*
risen like an exhalation of the night.
The swift whirl of events becoming
even swifter, has brought the nppre
hended change "upon us, and ere the
century closes we are obliged, looking
around upon .v.: . Is virtu; the
wreck of tur old institution^ to Bee
arising over them the spectre of Im
The proposition to transform the
American Republic into an Empire i=
not only put forth, but it has ti l( .. sup
port of all the special interests in the
United States arid of the partj In pow
er as their organ. They do not openly
propose, any more than the leaders
at Home proposed at the middle of
the first century 3. C, to cast's
the name of the republic : id adopt
the name of the empire, but they pro
ceed insidiously to use the old
terminology and to discard the facts.
The democracy of the New World is
to be deceived with Ike retention of
the name of the Republic while the
Republic is being robbed of Its charac
ter and substance.
In America the new Imperialism ist
favored most of all by the plutocratic
cl isses. The plutocracy has succeeded
by taking advantage of the conditions
of American life, in accumulating the
means out of which to construct the
empire. The few thousand millionaire!?
and billionaires who have risen to
more than princely rank by the spoli
avion of the American people know
well that the democratic Republic
does not furnish them with adequate
means for defending and increasing
their spoil. They have he.i] up their,
enormous resources in the most deitnr*
sible forms, 1 ir. they shbwjan il'-Jis...
guised dread of danger,and would fain
have stronger bulwarks.
My countrymen, we thus have three
facts In which Imperialism expresses
its purpos;. The first of these is ter
ritorial acquisition-^ for the empire
must conquer and expand^ The second
fact is that inflamed political lust of
power which seek? to frejitea govern-
Iment apart from the leo"^, over
them, without their consent, *&&'
pressing them down against their pro-'
test. The third fact is the Institu
tion of plutocracy, whlchdemarids the
other two for its maintenance and
promotion.—[Historian Ridpatb In
September Arena.
A Goad Object Lessee:
I think it will be well that we annex
the Philippines. 1 will find grim de
light in the result, inevitable of itueh
action. Wages are only Id cuts a day
there, nd then are several million
laborers in the 1,200 islands compris
ing tbe group. As soon as it becomes
a part of the United State- all tariff'
differences will cease, because prohib
ited by the constitution. Then our
capitalist.- will put up factories there.
and employ this 10-cent docile labor,
and ship its products right into our
prosperous land and sell it against the
products of like mills here, who will
have to shut down or cm down the
wages of their.wage-slaves to the level
of the Philippines, Already the con>
jietition of the Japanese and Chinese
fait jrles built on modern plans i- play
ing havoc with the products ol tho
factories of the "civilized" nations. 1
think the white labor of tile United
States can be induced to work for !J
cents a day. It only requires a little
more starving to bring them to it.
The? may kick a little but thai will
no; do them any good, because they
will continue to vote the saraa old
ticket, and so long as the property
class are e'.eeted to office arid have com*
maud of the law and army arid navy,
the people wi'.l work for any price
their masters ure willing to pay them.
In fact, they will bo roaminj around
the neighborhood like so many recou
ccntrados, that they are, begging for
some master to employ them ut wage*
enough to keep them from starving.
Yes, annexing the Philippines will Iks
a gn;at point gained in settling the la
bor question—settling it means to have
the wages settle down lower.-Coming

xml | txt