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The labor journal. (Everett, Wash.) 1909-1976, December 17, 1909, Image 3

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Friday, December 17, 190').
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Labor's Altitude on the Matter
of Trade Education.
Principles of the Various Trades Should
Be Imparted by Competent Teachers.
Courses of Instruction Outlined —A
Public Function.
i Organized labor's attitude on the
vital questiou of iudustrial education j
was set forth in a report to the con
vention of the American Federation of
Labor in session at Toronto by the spe
cial committee appointed by authority 1
of the Denver convention to investi
gate the subject. The committee, of
which John Mitchell is chairman, held
three meetings during the year in New
York. Washington aud Toronto.
"it is believed." says the report,
"that tbe future welfare of America
largely depends on the industrial train
|Bg of our workers and in protecting
them. The inquiries of the committee
seetn to indicate that if the American
Workman Is to maintain the high stand
aid of efficiency the boys and girls ot
the country must have an opportunity
to acquire educated bands and brains
such as may enable them to earn a 11 v
ing in a self selected vocation, and ac
quire an Intelligent understanding of
I the duties of good citizenship. We fa
vor the establishment of schools in
connection with the public school sys
tern, at which pupils between the ages
of fourteen and sixteen may lie taught
the principles of the trades, not neces
sarily in separate buildings, but In Sep
urate schools adapted to this particular
education and by competent and train
ed teachers.
"The course of Instructlos In such a
school should be English, mat hematics,
physics, chemistry, elementary mechaii
i |ca and drawing, the short Instruction
' for particular trades aud for each trade
represented, the drawing, mathematics,
mechanics, physical and biological sci
ence applicable to the trade, tbe his
tory of tbat trade ami a sound system
of economics, including and euiphusiz
| ing tbe philosophy of collective bur
gaining. This will serve to prepare
' the pupil for more advanced subjects
and. lv addition, to disclose bis capac
ity for a Spacific vocation. In order to
keep such schools iv close touch with
the trades there should be local ad
vlsory boards, including representa
tives of the Industries, employers and
organized labor.
"The committee recommends that
any technical education of tbe work
ers lv trade nnd Industry being a pub
lie necessity. It should not be a private
but a palbiiC functlou. eouducted by
tbe public aud the expense Involved at
public cost."
Tbe continuance of progressive de
velopment of supplemental trade edu
cation as Inaugurated by trades unions
was also recoinuieuded.
"The one trouble of America today,"
says tbe report. "Is that too many of
i our youths who bare graduated from j
the grammar or high school ore mis
fits Industrially, it we are to secure
industrial supremacy or even main
tain our present standards In tbe in
dustrial world we must In some way
in our educational system acquire an
equivalent to our old apprenticeship
"Organised labor's position regarding
the injustice of narrow and prescrib
ed training in selected.trades by both
private and public Instruction and tbe
flooding of the labor market with half
trained mechanics for the purpose of
exploitation is perfectly tenable, and
the well founded belief in the vicious
uess of such practices and consequent
condemnation is well nigh unassail
"Organized labor's record for years
in regard to better sanitary conditions
in factories and workshops and its
continued efforts toward safeguarding
', women and minors have beeu the sub
ject of wide discussion aud much help
ful legislation.
"Its advocacy of free schools, free
text books and the raising of compul
sory school age has beeu religiously
adhered to. and closely allied to these
subjects is that of industrial education,
and any serious discussion of the
proper kind of vocational training pro
motes disc ussion of the former.
"There is a strong reaction coming
in general methods of education, and
that growing feeling, which Is gaining
rapidly In strength, that the human
element must be recoguized and can
not be so disregarded as to make tbe
future workers mere automatic ma
"Experience has sbowu that manual
training school teachers without actual
trade experience do uot and cannot
successfully solve this great problem
and that progress will necessarily be
slow, as new teachers must be pro
vided a new set of text books will have
to be written and tbe subjects taught
In a sympathetic and systematic man
"In the last analysis it is of greater
moment to those engaged In industry
whether this .jtiestion should be dis
cussed freely aud fairly than it is to
mere theorists who advocate ISjdttS
trinl education without having any
definite plan or purpose (other than a
selfish onei In their advocacy of tbe
same, and it is believed tbat n unifica
tion rather than a multiplication of ef
fort Is needed In order to help solve
this immense problem."
The committee advised a continua
tion of its life and a final report to
the convention of 1910.
The IWWfI wage of the working
woman Is $I' - iH ■ year.
A total of 5.000 painters have de
serted Martin IV Maddens Associated
Building Trades council In Chicago,
i The fiftieth anniversary of the Broth
erhood of Carpenters and Joiners was
generally celebrated by local unions.
The Industrial problem is the prob
lem of fair play. True capital is tbe
friend of labor, and true labor is the
friend of capital.
The Russian and Polish printers of
New York, having observed the sue
i cess of the Yiddish printers, who re
ceive a minimum wage of $'24 per
week for n four hour day, ha-ve started
a movement to organize a union of
their own.
Less Entailed by Injury Should
Not Ec Eorne by Them.
Cost Should C; Charged Against Ex
pense of Operation—Law Ought Not
to Suppose That the Toiler Assumes
"Risk of Business."
Discussing the proposed plan ot tbe
New York Central railroad to pension
| its employees, the New York American
The announcement of the New York
Central (tailroad company that it is
about to Introduce a penaion system
for its superannuated employees win
; generally he regarded as a good exam
. pie and a measure of Justice that all
1 groat employers of labor Bb mid fol
This matter of providing for otd age
out of a man's surplus of earnings in
his working years should be dealt with
ou a businesslike basis and should not
be thought of as having any tincture
of condescension or gratuity.
If the New York Central people Im
agine that they are bestowing favors
ami earning the gratitude of their em
ployees their false attitude in the mat
tor will induce false methods and viti
ate the whole pension scheme.
Workiugmcn will uot welcome the
idea of being Heated ns objects of
If a wornout railroad man is to have
ns good treatment at the hands of rail
road corporations as an old horse gets
from a good farmer it will be because
railroad employees have, on the whole,
won their way to a position where
such treatment can be demanded.
it is worthy of remark lit this con
nection that Mr. Adclbert Moot, presi
dent of the New York State liar asso
ciation, said a sound legal word for
railroad and other employees in a
Speech in Buffalo.
Speaking of the enormous number of
accidents to life and limb suffered on
railroads and in factories. Mr. Moot
said that in a case whore the accident
is due neither to the special negligence
of tlie employer or tin' employee, but
to the mere inevitable "risk of tbe
business." it is grossly unjust that the
injured workman should bear the mon
ey loss entailed by the misfortune.
1 He said that, in spite of the ancient
English rule to the contrary, tbe law
ought not to suppose that the "risk of
the business" is assumed by the man
that takes the job. Such risk and the
1 losses caused by it should be thought
'of us .i part of the natural cost of the
' undertaking. And it should be charg
ed, not against the Workman, but
against the business itself.
That is to say, railroad companies
ought to make provision for paying,
and ought to he made to pay, adequate
money damages for all the injuries in
curred by workmen in the ordinary
course of railroading.
Tbe cost of such accidents should be
regarded as a part of the fixed charges
of the railroad business,
! Pensions providing for the inevitable
march of a man's years should no
loubt be comprehended under tbe
same rule and the same reasoning,
i Following n similar line of reasoning,
' the Now York Times has the follow
There could hardly be a more impor
tant task for a legislative committee
properly constituted—as to the inten
tions and capacities of its members,
that is—than the investigation of tbe
whole subject commonly described as
"employers' liability." Past practice
and laws dealing with industrial acci
dents and the responsibility for them
have beeu and for the most part still
are grotesquely unreasonable. Illogical
and Inefficient and. while cruelly un
just to the worker, have been no real
protection to the employer, in spite of
the fact that he was the one who de
vised aud perpetuated them.
Until very recently the employer's
one aitu and effort has been to limit
his direct liability when he could uot
avoid it altogether, and in the execu
tion of this purpose there has grown
up a grout system of precedent and
j law, with the three foundation stones
lof "contributory negligence." "the fel
low servant rule" nnd "voluntary as
sumption uf risk." for each of these
principles there is something of excuse
ami even of reason, but as they have
worked out in combination the em
ployer pays his money to lawyers in
stead of to Injured workmen, ami then
>he nays it again as a member of tbe
community lv which lie lives in sup
porting as paupers tbe direct and indi
j rect victims of accidents whose claims
his lawyers are hired to Tbe lis
bility Insurance companies have siiii
further complicated the problem aud
diverted still more of what may tie
culled the ace ident Hind from it
(mate use.
Now there Is a growing Inclination
to abandon entirely the venerable
foundation stones just mentioned and
to build up a system of remuneration
and support based on the idea that ee
cideuts are a natural and inevitable
part of every boaioeaa and that the
cost of such of them as cannot be pm
veuted by Intelligence and cave should
be added to aud then drawn from the
price of tbat business' output "t prod
uct. In other words, the consumer is
to pay for the men worn out in Indus
try exactly as he does tot tbe DM
chines that are worn out He does
that now in a way. nnd a very bad
way it is. but he Is to do it better,
more economically and as a matter of
natural obligation instead of as a re
luctatit or extorted favor.
Shorter Hours For Women.
The Chicago Federation of Labor is
doing good work In undertaking to lim
it women's working time to ten hours
a day. if eight hours is enough for a
man to labor and If he does tils best
work in the shorter day. then certain
ly ten honrs Is fully enough for a wo
man The time should hare passed
when women work more hours than
men smipl) because tbey cannot help
themselves. Kvery wntnaii working
ten hours is a menace to the eigbt hour
day of at least one man.—Fuel.
Pressmen Turn Down Plan For Sani
tarium In Tennessee.
it seems that tbe International
Printing Pressmen and Assistants'
| union is not to have tbat Tennessee
l home for Its superannuated members
after all-at least not yet awhile. The
preliminary proposition was to route
$100,060, which tbe union put to a ref
erendum vote. The proposition did
] not carry for tbe rensou. as alleged,
| that If any Special amount were to be
I raised it should be raised to aid In fur
titer organising end also in strength
suing the various local unions.
At tbe twenty-first annual conven
i tion of the union, held In Omaha In
June, a commission was appointed to
consider the feasibility of erecting 0
home for tuberculous members and to
report on tbe project. In order to put
the matter before the rank and Die I
program was submitted to all men
in good standing containing tbe t* \
lOWlng points:
The institution of a national campaign
lor the cleansing of workshops and iho
Improvement ot sanitary working condi
Tlio Institution of a national course of
education tn regard to the nature of tu
beiculosis nnd the methods of prevention.
' • :
bereulosls commissions to Work with
national commission along lines ot pre
The establishment of ladies' auxiliaries
to assist In the educational campaign and
In the raising of funds.
The establishment of n home for those
members now afflicted with tuberculosis
or Who may become afflicted tn Hawkins
county. Term.. at an approximate coal Ot
The cost of maintenance of the home Is
not to exceed 10 cents a. month per mem
Finances for the erection and placing In
I operation of the home are to be : .
I under the follow ing conditions:
(a) A call upon the membership for ona
day's pay in a certain week, which will
be known as tuberculosis home week.
(b) Calling for a popular contribution
from the members throughout the conti
to) The acceptance of contributions from
! union publishers, employers and friends
jof the International union outside the
(d) The raising of finances through la
dies' auxiliaries by entertainments, fairs,
The proposed site for the home is
thirty-eight miles from Asbevllle, N.
O.i at an elevation of from 1,600 to
3,200 feet and comprises 619 acres. 260
lof which are under cultivation. It has
I a complete electric power plant, bath
; bouse, farming Implements and sev
! era! cottages. Tbe option cost is IfS.OOO.
Trades Unionism a Strong Factor In
Promotion of Temperance.
The question of labor and the Saloon
; was discussed by prominent labor lead,
--; ers attending the federation conven-
I tion at Toronto iv Mussey hall one
Sunday afternoon.
The Rev. Charles Stelzle, a fraterual
delegate to the convention of the
American Federation of Labor from
the Federal Council of tbe Churches
of Christ In America, presided and
made the principal address. saying-.
The saloon and the labor hall must bo
divorced, in too many cities of our coun
try trades unionists are compelled to pass
through the saloon tn order to get to
their meeting places, and woe betide the
man who doesn't sio;> to take a drink!
j Oftentimes the saloon keepers have a mo
nopoly of the meeting places In the city.
5 and many of the worklngmen of America
are helplessly tn ths power of these hall
it Is the duly of the municipality to
provide centers which may be used fur
the gathering places of the people In their
i organizations, in many Instances work
' Ingmen themselves havo taken the mat
' ter in hand, and tn some of the leading
1 cities they have erected labor temples.
which are used for the social, physical,
i intellectual and moral uplift of the people.
The day will come when practically
I every labor leader will be a total ab«
, stabler. In England practically every la
bor member in the house of parliament ts
an abstainer. The majority of the meni
: hers of the executive council of the Amer
' lean Federation of Labor refrain from
drinking Intoxicants.
John Mitchell declared that organ
tied labor. In its tight for better con
ditions for the wage earner, was doing
more to promote temperance than any
other factors, and he denied that short
er hours of labor and Increased w ages
resulted in added profits to the saloon.
I John B. Lennon, treasurer of the
American Federation of Labor, said
the liquor business lowered the stand
ard of efficiency of the working aian
and prophesied that tho time would
conic when the forces of labor would
be arrayed against the saloon.
The United Mine Workers. Thomas
1.. Lewis said, had prohibited their
members from selling intoxicants, even
at picnics. Education of the masses,
he argued, would go a long way to
ward eradicating the liquor traffic.
Tbe Indian.i child labor committee
J has effected permanent organisation.
The closing of the tin plate mills nt
Bridgeport, 0., and Martins Ferry, 0.,
threw 5,000 anion men out of work.
The new label department of the
1 Federation of Labor has 400.1t00 uuiou
! men and women in affiliation with it
1 and expects soon to see added to that
number at least 300,000 more workers.
President Lewis of the United Mine
Worker- of America bus issued a cir
cular showing the present paid up
membership of tbe organisation to bo
282,747. This is a pain of 1,500 over
the figures of auy year siuee IBM.
There has been practically uo Change
iv the wages of railway employees
Since the autumn of 1900, when the
Pennsylvania granted an increase of
lit per cent. That increase was sub
sequently granted by all of the roads
Tie American Federation of Labor
possesses 1107J05.46. of which 1115,.
N7T.lt is in the so called defense fund
for local trade and (Men] labor mi
ions aud can be used for strike bene
fits, while the balance, $01,4°0.32. Is lv
tbe general fund.
Labor Wants Cabinet Place.
Tbe recent Washington meeting of
I tbe esoouUve coliuell of Ibe Aiuor
!ieau Federation of Ijibor went on rec
ord as favoring tbe creation of a now
portfolio in the cabinet of President
Tafl to bo known as Secretary of the
depart cent of labor. A committee was
appoiuted to take tbe Question up
witb favorably disposed trpresentu
tlves tn congress aud to arrange 1M
Lthe introduction of a measure estab
lishing such department.
.<• 17 ot Unionism Are the High-
A i ago it was said "The
G mj a newspaper has
. tto, The newspaper
always vol ed tbe sentlmenta
of tbe j.i'ii iii, hut tbe people have al
d tbe will of God. If
any mail would know what Cod is
thinking about let him keep cluae to
Mr. Gladstone once said.
"I painfully reflect that in almost cv
.i i ontroveray of tbe
last i.ii.v years tbe leisured classes, the
es, tbe wealthy classes,
tbe titled - bare been In tbe
wrong." The common people, the
toilers, the men i ( uncommon sense—
to these we owe a debt of gratitude.
Twenty-five years ago a famous
French stntesn tn a tid thai the social
problem is a tad upon which serious
minded statesmen should waste no
time. Today no thinking man will
deny tbat the social problem is tbe
mo.it Important which confronts us.
being deluded by the vain hope tbat
they will have solved the labor ques

1■ ' '
. I peace conference at The Hague

Used work logmen of the world shall de
to shoot down their fellow workers in
order to satisfj the greed, the selfish
ness the ambitions, of their rulers, no
matter who tbey might be. In other
great universal peace strike, for who
suffers more than docs tbe working
man, bis wife and bis children during
The principles of organised labor are
Christian prim Iples, tbe highest prin
mau. If I

; .'■■'.!:■
i] le, and it
A litt c i go a Chicago trades
of 1 . ' ::• . c
moi cbs-old baby. I have thought about

parents will dedicate their children to
the cause i f in hi r us Samuel was dedi
cated to tbe temple service, nnd when
Christian men will enter the work of
the labor movement In tbe same spirit
and with the same devotion as others
who arc consecrating their lives to tbe
work of the Christian ministry, nnd
when. In the name of God, tbey will
ty. No nobler task could couie to
any man, .nnd that task may be yours.
Newark Hat Trimmers Prove That
Girls Do Stick.
The following Is from the publicity
committee of the Women's Trades Un-
All organised women should join in
congratulations to the hat trimmers of
Newark, a: the close of the ninth
iol I g strike three facto
ries have opened under union condl
tl and now it is only a question of
a few wee Us when the rem. lining tlve
w ill follow their example. It has been
a hard struggle. Last January 20,000
men and women refused to make bats
without the union label. There was
suffering among the ranks of tbis little
army. Yet they Stood tirm. In dune
the 1! ttters' ass a tion began to weak
en. Brooklyn and New York factories
■ 1 under fair conditions, then tbe
Dai bury and Orange. Only Newark,
ihat stronghold of the Hatters' asso
ciation, refused to use the label, the
union's only guarantee of fair condi
tions. Now Newark shows signs of
The hut trimmers are also to be con
gratulated on the splendid way they
have stood together. Out of a mem
bership of -400 only nine have left tbe
union, and three of these backsliders
are daughters of bosses. Every lu
lu ement baa been offered to these 400
brave girls. As the long months pass
ed a id work elsewhere grew scarce tbe
temptation to accept the offer of tbe

Have not the bat trimmers
of Newark forever laid tbe old bogy,
•1> . ' si: !,
Victory For Eight Hours.
a satisfa tory adjustment of the dif
farencos between the photo-engravers'
unions of Troy and Albany aud their
empl i jra bod a few days
i si lie lv ting three weeks.
The negotiations for the unions were
carried • a by international Vice Pres
ident Peter J. Brady and International
Seer I ry rreusurer Louis A. Scbwarz.
an I ii ! s due to tbe patience and tact
of these two officials tbat the matter
was Bti ill] arbitrated. Tbe men
rease of Si In their scale.
|: 1. and a reduction ot
tbe working hours from fifty-four to
forty-eight. There are only a few
more ulue hour towns in tbe 1. P. E.
U. jurisdiction, and tbey will be visit
ed ! y the International organizers and
effort made to bring them into the
'•The Dignity of Labor."
The paeans that are perpetually song
to tbe dignity, honesty and worth of
manual labor by our ministers, teach
er- and po'ittelniis n re natural and. in
r way, sincere enough, for it is recog
d that if there were u< no to do
tbe hard laboi there would In.' no ease
and comfort for tbe retainers. But for
all tlio honesty, dignity and worth of
his toil the manual laborer ts com
mon ooked upon as a socially tnferlor
being.—lf, .1. (Ihent In "Mass aud

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