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OF THE EVERETT TRADES COUNCIL VOL. XXVII. COLLECTIVE BARGAINING FIRST AID OF INDUSTRIAL DEMOCRACY Pertinent Comment By Labor's Chairman on the United States This world war has provided the beginning of a splendid education in democracy. Democracy has been our great fighting slogan and we have—some of us—begun to analyze democracy and to find out, in the concrete and in detail, what our slo gan means. Industrial and Political Democracy In this re-examination the country has discovered one thing at least about democracy—that it must mean more than old-fashioned political de mocracy. The old idea that when everybody votes you have a democ lacy —that is pretty well exploded. When one or two men, assisted by a Wall Street bank or two, can silent ly and secretly corner the steel sup ply of the world and obtain control over one after another of the basic materials of industry, as well as hun dreds of thousands of workers in the factories, raising prices and manipulating markets at will, any one who is honest knows that that is not what people mean when they talk about American democracy and volunteer to die for it. When a labor man, convicted of a heinous crime by the use of the blackest perjury, can be blocked for two years in a nation-wide demand, voiced by the President of the Unit ed States himself, for a fair trial on honest evidence, the thinking cit izen knows that this is not what the American people mean by democracy. Democracy surely means that peo ple shall control the condition of their lives. And no one krfWs bet ter than the trade-unionists that the average wage-earner has had very little control over the condi tions of his life, especially over that part of his life which is the core of all the rest of his job. The Diminishing Purchasing Power The wage-earner sees the purchas ing power of his dollar diminishing. (It is worth about 65 cents compared with its value at the beginning of 1916.) In other words he sees his wage decreasing steadily and relent lessly, month after month, while his wife and children sink lower and lower in the scale of living. He asks his employer, let us say, to re ceive a committee representing him self and his fellow workmen, to dis cuss the matter. He is told that the firm "doesn't employ commit tees" and won't deal with them. He suggests arbitration. He is told there is "nothing to arbitrate." And the suspicion begins to take root in his mind that this is exactly the way he would be treated if he were a German subject appealing to the Kaiser for some political reform. He begins to understand that he is, in relation to his job, up against the very thing that makes Germany hideous—autocracy. The country, I promise you, is be ginning to understand that we may have 100 per cent democracy in the form of our political government and yet have autocracy of the most des potic type in industry. It is a fine thing to elect our representa tives to legislative halls, but it is a more practical and useful thing to elect our own representatives in in dustry. It is a necessary thing to have full share in the varied politi cal activities of the community, State and Nation; but it is infinitely more vital to have a compelling voice in the industrial policies under which we work every day in the year. It is now clear to all understand ing men, and especially to those who work for their living, that to attempt to control the conditions of one's life through the roundabout way of political oratory and legisla tive action is futile, and that this old-fashioned attempted substitute for a direct and common-sense con trol through the wkorshop must be thrown into the scrap heap of pre war absurdities. Political democracy is a delusion unless builded upon and guaranteed by a free and virile industrial de mocracy. The Growth of Collective Bargaining Now, just as the people of the country, under the searching criticism of war conditions, are becoming fa miliar with the idea of industrial democracy, so the industries of the country are becoming increasingly familiar with the new industrial dis pensation. Under the National War Labor Board scores of industrial disputes have been settled in the National War Labor Board. last four months, involving In the aggregate hundreds of thousands of wage-earning men and women. And in every case where collective bargaining has been denied the work ers heretofore, it has been installed by order of the Board. In the Pittsfield, Mass., plant of the General Electric Company, for example, no form of group represen tation of the employes had ever been permitted by the company, and men were hired under an individual con tract which in effect prohibited union membership. The Board ordered these contiacts abolished, at the same time protecting the employes n their right to join the union of their trade. Farther, the Board itself installed, through a represen tative, the machinery for collective bargaining in a form acceptable to the men, a form which they will make their own and improve upon in the future as their experience suggests. The system introduced provides not only for collective bar gaining in the restricted sense, but also (what is still more important) for securing to the men a voice in the technical operation and day-to day routine of the shop. The Board ordered that "the elec tion by the workers of their rep resentative department committees to present grievances and mediate with the company shall be held, during the life of this award, in some convenient public building in the neighborhood of the plant to be selected by the examiner of this Board assigned to supervise the exe cution of this award, or, in the case of his absence, by some impartial person, a resident of Pittsfield, to be selected by such examiner. Such examiner, or his substitute, shall preside over the first and all sub sequent elections during the life of this award, and have the power to make the proper regulations to se cure absolute fairness." Duties of Department Committees "The duties of the department committees shall be confined to the adjustment of disputes which the shop foremen and the division su perintendents and the employes have been unable to adjust." And this scheme of democratic co operation has been introduced by the War Labor Board in plant after plant where an autocrat has here tofore reigned supreme. These department committees, to gether with the representative of the employer with whom they meet, might well be called the two houses of the local or State legislature of this new industrial democracy. Here is the provision for the "Fed eral Congress": "The department committees shall meet annually and shall select from among their number three employees who shall be known as the commit tee on appeals. This committee shall meet with the management for the purpose of adjusting disputes which the department committees have failed to adjust." In practice this committee on ap aeals will deal with many of the broader questions of policy which \ffect the shop as a whole. Per haps this "Federal legislature" might be better likened to the English Parliament, with its House of Com mons representing the citizenry and ts House of Lords representing vest ed privilege, than to our American forums of legislation. But it is well here to remember that the English of Lords recently lost 'ts veto power over those measures most vitally affecting the welfare f the people. The War Labor Board, by proc 'amation of the President, must in stitute collective barganiing in ev i»ry case which comes ufider its jur isdiction, for its first principle -ends: "Right to Organize" Affirmed "The right of workers to organize 'n trades-unions and to bargain col lectively through chosen representa tives is recognized and affirmed. This right shall not be denied, ibridged, or interfered with by the amployers in any manner whatso ever." Moreover, the Government does not wish the workers to be unrepre sented; it realizes that the national welfare demands the common-sense and economy, the collective loyalty and collective responsibility, which SJm i£ahm Journal free collective bargaining insures. It does not wish to have industrial autocrats in this country who can say, Kaiser-like, to their employes, "What you wish does not concern me. Ido not will it." With your aggressive asssitance 1 believe the process of democratiza tion will continue until there will remain not one wage-earner in the country deprived of full voice in de termining the conditions of his job and consequently of his life. (Signed) FRANK P. WALSH. Washington, D. C, Sept. 2d, 11)18. HOTEL MEN KICK ON THE MINIMUM WAGE FOR WOMEN And Want to Re-establish a Seven- Day Instead of A Six-Day- Week OLYMPIA, Sept. 10.—That a fight against the $13.20 minimum weekly wage for women duiing the war, rec ommended by the war emergency conference and adopted today by the Industrial Welfare Commission, will be waged by hotel men was indicated at the hearing held by the commis sion today when F. C. Marmaduke, of Seattle; Louis M. Davenport, and Attorney Witherspoon, of Spokane, entered a formal protest. Hotel Men May Appeal to Courts Witherspoon served notice that the hotel men regard the new minimum waire as applying for a seven-day week and will act accordingly. The commission informed him that the wage was based on a six-day week, which would be adhered to in en forcing the ruling establishing the new scale. Witherspoon intimated that legal proceedings may be in stituted, and it is expected that if the hotel men block the new min imum wage, a special conference for the hotel industry will be called to fix a hotel minimum wage for wo men. The new rulings go into effect November 10. The Welfare Com mission adopted the six-day week as a basis for the minimum wage four years ago. The Commission adopted nil the recommendations of the conference with the exception of the resolution to prohibit women from working in certain factories, garages and mills between the hours of 7 o'clock in the evening and C o'clock in the morn ing. This ruling was postponed to give time to investigate the effect of such a measure on war work. The Robinson Manufacturing Com pany at Everett asked the commis sion to consider this point, stating that the company is engaged on war contracts, with women employed at night. The Everett Pulp & Paper Company also urged that this rec ommendation of the conference be investigated. Equal Pay for Equal Work The commission adopted, besides the $13.20 minimum wage, the rec ommendation to prohibit women from working as bellhops, on section crews and on certain work in mills and fac tories, or underground or in occu pations the Commission may decide are injurious to women. The Commission adopted the rec ommendations requiring employers to post in advance time schedules for part-time work, prohibiting the em ployment of women for a shift of more than six hours without a rest period of fifteen minutes, requiring iqual pay for equal work with men employed at the same occupations and ordering the establishment of higher standards or conditions of work and sanitation. JOHN J. PERSHING Today the people of many cities and towns in the United States are celebrating the birthday of General John J. Fershjng, commander of the American armies in France. Gen. Pershing is a native of Missouri, is a graduate of West Point Military academy and has spent his life in the military service of the United States. He is a quiet, unobtrusive, democratic gentleman who does in an efficient soldierly way with out making a show of it. Pershing is a military genius, loved and obey ed by his soldiers, honored and re spected by his fellow citizens. Long live Pershing. SHIP KEEL LAID IN TEN SECONDS The national wooden ship keel lay ing record was broken Tuesday morn ing at the Grays Harbor Motor Company's shipyard, in Aberdeen, ten seconds being the official time. The previous best time for placing a wooden keel was eleven seconds. EVERETT, WASHINGTON, FRIDAY, SEPT. 13, 1918. TRADES COUNCIL Wednesday, Sept, 11, 1918. The Council was called to order at B p. in. by President Vingen. Delegate Stevens was called to the Vice-President's chair aud Delegate Gulley appointed Sergeant-at-Arms. Bro. A. P. Baillif presentee cre dentials from the Pilcdrivcrs and was seated to succeed Delegate ('has. Vann. Bros. Powers and Thompson pre sented credentials from the Brother hood of Railway Carmen and were seated. Bros. Peck, Bruno and Johnson presented credentials from the Ship yard Laborers, Riggers and Fasten ers, Local 38-A, and were seated. Bros. Wm. Owens and Wm. Dur ham of the Butchers presented cre dentials from the Butchers and were seated. Industiious knockers having cir culated a report ill the East that there exists a shortage of shipyard labor in Everett, President Vingen was instructed to send a telegram to James E. Barns of Philadelphia, denying the reports that there is either a shortage of labor or hous ing in this city. A letter was received from Frank Morrison, Secretary of the American Federation of Labor, which will be found in another column of this issue. Secretary Stanley received a let ter from F. T. Hawley, Director of the Industrial Plants Division of the I Labor Department, saying he would keep organised labor as fully inform ed as possible of the undertakings of his Division. The letter concluded is follows: "We want the co-operation of every man and woman in the coun try whether or not engaged on Gov ernment work. Every American is vitally concerned in the triumph of American principles in this great conflict between autocracy and de mocracy. "Democracy must win. "And we must all buckle down and do our part by performing faith fully our industrial duties, by work ing steadily, by conserving material, hy thorough attention to every de tail—in short, by eliminating all waste in production. "The country needs man-power; it needs workers; it needs you. "And I am confident when every worker realizes his great respon sibility and his relation to the fight ing forces, he'll be there with the goods." The Sumner Iron Works Commit tee was given another week to make its final report. The Mooney committee reported the sale of 403 pamphlets and sug gested that more be ordered, the first consignment having been dis posed 11 f. The Legislative Committee report ed that Commissioner Clay was not receiveing that cordial support in his efforts to establish a municipal market which is desired. The Labor Day committee was given another week to make its final report. The dues amendment to the Con stitution and By-laws was put upon its final passage and adopted 21 to 5. This amendment fixes the Trades Council Dues at 10 cents per capita and provides larger rep resentation for the large unions. A motion that amendment to By- Laws be printed and copies sent to the affiliated unions was adopted. The Cooks and Waiters reported three initiations and voted against the dues amendment. The Electrical Workers had a good meeting and voted in favor of the dues amendment. The Fire Fighters had a good meeting with one initiation. The Lathers, Machinists, Molders and Painters reported good meet 'ngs. The Tailors reported two initia tions and the adoption of a new Wale of prices—ss per day and time-and-a-half for overtime. The Piledrivers had a good meet ing at which they raised their scale $1 per day, to take effect October Ist. They voted for the dues amendment. The Shipyard Workers reported a fine meeting with eighteen initia tions. Brother E. P. Marsh was a wel come visitor at the Council meeting uid this drew an unusually good at tendance. He was received with applause and handshaking. Bro Marsh expressed his pleasure Reports of Unions iat being able to visit his old friends and said that when the war is over he would return to their midst and «oik and live with them as of yore. He delivered a short address upon the war activities in the "Capital of the world," saying that is what Washington city is today. He spoke of the chaotic condition of the governmental policy of hand ling the labor question at the be ginning of the war and told his hearers how order was restored and the co-ordination of labor policies was affected in the several govern ment departments. There was formed the War Labor Policies Board with representatives from the several de partments having to do with labor policies. Then came the appointment of the War Industries Board clothed with power to enforce its edicts. And lastly the National War Labor Board, with Ex-President Taft and Mr. Frank Walsh as chairmen—a con ciliation board which has made so many unanimous decisions in labor conflicts that it has become the wonder of the nation. Our readers are aware that this board is formed of five labor representatives, five anti-union employers and two chair men, one appointed by each group. These boards have in hand all la bor matters affecting industries di rectly and indirectly connected with the prosecution of the war. He spoke eloquently of the bear ing of our armies In France and urged labor to "keep the home fires burning" In order that our boys who are fighting our battles may not fight in vain. Bro. Marsh left yesterday morn ng on his return to Washington by way of California. Thursday, Sept. 5, 1918. The Council was called to order in adjourned meeting by President Vingen at Bp. m. Delegate Gold thorpe was called to the Vice-Presi dent's chair and Delegate Ruby ap pointed Sergeant-at-Arms. The Sumner Iron Works inves tigating committee reported and was riven another week to make its final report. Reports Hy Unions The Carpenters reported a fair meeting with three initiations and he admission of three by card. The Painters had a rousing meet ing and listened to three visitors from Seattle who spoke on the fed eration of the metal trades. The Stage Employees received a con mittee from the Managers' As sociation who asked a reduction of scale. The union did not comply with the request. The Tirnberworkers discussed the per japita tax feature to the dues amendment to the constitution but did not instruct their delegates on the question. The Railway Clerks reported fif teen new members. The Piledrivers reported a good meeting. They unanimously ap proved the 10 cents per capita prop osition. Their delegate made a good report of the Northwest Conference of B. B. & S. 1. W. recently held in Portland. The next conference will be held in Everett Delegate Francois announced the full membership of the Community Labor Board. They are E. M. Metz ger, George Bergstrom and E. A. Francois. The Council discussed the quali fications of candidates before the primaries but made no indorsements. The Council adjourned. COME. BURLESON, FOLLOW McADOO Declaring that they have been | locked out for five months and de spite promises of the Secretary of Labor that they would be reinstated should they call off the general strike for which orders were issued and then canceled. J. P. Rohan, Inter national Vice-President of the Com mercial Telegraphers' Union, Tues day sent a telegram from Seattle to F. J. Konenkamp demanding that he issue an ultimatum to Postmaster General Burleson setting a date on which the loched-out telegraphers should he reinstated if the depart ment wished to avoid a strike. Mr. Rohan states in his message that the telegraphers have "waited pa tiently for five months expecting the Department of Labor and the War Adjustment Board to make good the President's promise that the right of employes to organize in trade unions was renewed and affirmed, and that they now consider it neces sary to take some action that will riven them the rights promised in the proclamation." CALIFORNIA MAKING AN EFFORT TO ELIMINATE THE MIDDLE MAN A Comparison of the Methods of Relief Sought in Two States From Profiteering in Food and Other Necessities. In Washington Organized I .abor and the organized farmers presented a petition to the voters of this state initiating a measure which would ef fectually rid consumers of the ex tortion and graft practiced by mid dle men if adopted an the general election, but it did not receive a sufficient number of signatures to entitle it to a place upon the bal lot. Following is the measure which the organized industrial workers and farmers sought to initiate: "An act concerning counties, cities, towns, townships and port districts; authorizing them to buy, sell, deal in or market food, fuel and other commodities, to create and maintain by taxation a fund for such pur poses, to own anil operate grain mills, ice, gas and electric plants, terminal railways, water transfers and other freight transportation sys tems, and to fix prices and rates for their products and services; au thorizing such municipalities, except ing port districts, to own and oper ate telephone and telegraph systems; conferring the power of eminent do main and authorizing the assessment f property, and the issuance of bOnds for such purposes." The consumers know they are be ing robbed by middle men and a few of them had nerve enough to permanent relief from this non ssential bunch of distributors—men who pocket enormous profits on food and other products without doing anything to increase their value. Put the consumers—a vast ma jority of the people inhabiting the state —were too apathetic to even take the trouble of signing their names to a petition initiating a law •o abolish this class of extortioners. C.ifford rinchot. representing the federal hoard of farm organizations, "n arldressint? a recent convention of the American Federation of Labor, said: "What power is there in this coun try that can stand against the just demands of the men and women who produce the raw material and the men and women who make up the finished product? One-third of all the people of the United States are farmers; at least one-third are wage earners. One-third and one-third make two-thirds of the people of the United Banded together is there any power under heaven that can stand against the just demands which this two-thirds unite upon?" This utterance of Pinchot's shows the majority they have the power to right their wrongs and also shows that that majority has made no ef fort to use that power in protecting themselves from extortion. What California Is Doing From a statement of Paul Schar renberg, Secretary of the California State Federation of Labor is taken the following relating to the forma tion of the California Union of Pro ducers and Consumers: Thoughts along these lines have actuated the organized farmers and the organized wage-workers in Cali fornia to get together, first unoffi cially and informally, and more re cently, at their respective conven tions, in formal and official fashion, to determine upon what issues and problems there can be real co-opera tion. Here is the declaration of principles which the California Farm er-Labor Alliance approved on Jan uary 19th of this year: Principles of Alliance "No. 1. The California division of the Farmers' Educational and Co operative Union of America, the Cali fornia State Federation of Labor and the Pacific Co-operative League, Inc., of California recognizing the mutual character of their interests and realizing the need for closer and more intimate association hereby form an alliance for mutual aid and support. "No. 2. The name of this alliance shall he the California Union of Pro ducers and Consumers. "No. 3. Believing that the general aims and objects of each party are common to all three parties it is desired to bring the united support of the three bodies to the work of each one insofar as mutual interest and united opinion warrant. "No. 4. It is understood that no public action in the name of the California Union of Producers and DEVOTED TO THE INTEREST OF ORGANIZED LABOR Consumers shall be taken except when the three component parts of the union shall have agreed upon such action. This is not intended to prevent any one of the three or ganizations from acting in its own behalf on any subject. "No. 5. It is proposed by the California Union of Producers and Consumers to bring joint action to bear on pressing legislative changes; to further public ownership of all public utilities including transporta tion and communication; to free the land and society from privilege and monopoly and to provide a practical plan of co-operation for the equit able distribution of food and other necessities of life." When this newly formed "Union of Producers and Consumers" had thus defined the principles which ire to govern its future activity steps were at once taken to draft a joint political and economic plat form relating to state issues. After a number of meetings twelve olanks were finally unanimously adopted on May 25th. (This plat form will be published in a later issue of the Labor Journal.) It should be understood that there has been no intention to put up can lidates during the present campaign, nor has there been any desire to copy the methods of established po litical parties. The aim has been to make a state-wide campaign for the principles contained in the platform presented herewith, and one phase of this campaign has already been carried out. All candidates for the coming legislature have been supplied with a copy of the plat form and have been requested to •rive their views upon the twelve "lnnks contained thcrein v Foundation of Farmer-Labor AUiaare Trade unionists throughout , ♦'<- state ran materially help ir. this work by impressing upon the dif ferent candidates the fact that his own constituents are interested in the farmer-labor program. Fred Millard, (a farmer) of Los Gatos is the president of the new alliance. Daniel C. Murphy, (a worker) of San Francisco, is the secretary. Any inquiry sent to the latter at the Underwood Bldg., San Francisco, upon any phase of this great progressive movement will re ceive prompt attention. So far as can be judged from per sonal expressions, letters and news paper comment the new movement is decidedly popular. Throughout the state, central labor councils and local unions have unani mously approved the platform. Of course, the future of the Cali fornia farmer-labor alliance will de pend entirely upon the interest and activity of the rank and file—the really useful two thirds of Cali fornia's citizenship. WHAT YOUR SUB SCRIPTION MEANS When you subscribe to a Liberty Loan you subscribe to the sentiment that the world must be made safe for democracy and subscribe to the fund that is to make the world safe for democracy. You subscribe to the belief that innocent women and children on un armed ships shall not be sent to the bottom of the sea; that women and children and old men shall not be ravished and tortured and murdered under the plea of military necessity; that nurses shall not be shot for deeds of mercy, nor hospital ships be sunk without warning, or hospitals and unfortified cities be bombed or cannonaded with long-range guns. You subscribe to the doctrine that small nations have the same rights as great and powerful ones; that might is not right, and that Ger many shall not force upon the world the dominion of her military mas ters. You subscribe, when you subscribe to a Liberty Loan, to the belief that America entered this war for a just and noble cause; that our soldiers in France and our sailors on the sea are fighting for right and justice. And you subscribe to the Ameri can sentiment that they must and shall be powerful, efficient and vic torious. Smoke Chas. Sheets' CHALLENGE 10c Cigar. Number 20.