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FOURTEEN PAGES. DAILY EAR OREGONIAlf, PENDLETOW, OREGON. SATURDAY, MARCH 21, 1908, or As many republicans aro blaming Mr. U'Ren with being the father of tbo Initiative and referendum, tho public will bo interested in reading the following urtlcle from George Ogle of Molalla, to show It was the off-spring of Mux Hurgholser of Washington county, says tho Hulom Journal: Seeking to answer the question, "Who la tho father of the referen dum?" one 18 reminded of tbo obser vation Qf Alexander Del Mar, that "Searching for the beginning of a custom Is like traelng a river to its source; we soon discover that It has not one source, but many." A like difficulty Is encountered in definitely marking tlio boundaries of credit to be assigned to the so-called dlcoverers of great scientific or eco nomic truths, for as Hubert River La Mone has recently pointed out and termed "the law of double or multi Die discovery." that, "When the con ditions are ripe, the new idea always o.cjsurs to more- than one man, that Is tho name upon different minds," and cit let, as instances, the simultaneous independent discovery of the "theory of nutural selection" by Alfred Rus sell Wallace and Charles Darwin, and also the discovery or recognition of the three basic theories of "scientific" socialism by Kary Marx and Freder ick Kngels. Although U Is questloable If this theory of "multiple discovery" can be elevated to the dignity of a law, cer tain It is that direct legislation Is not the product of one man's brain, but In rather a growth not Invented by anyone but aided and directed by many. ' While having existed in a more or lesn form from the earliest antiquity In the Ger'man states and probably In Greece and Rome; direct legisla tion as now understood and applied is of comparatively modern origin for even In Switzerland, the no-called home of the referendum, the federal referendum dale only from 1874 and the federal Initiative from 1891. True, the practice was applied somewhat earlier in many of the can tjns. or states but us late as 1S60 only about one-third of the Swiss possess ed the referendum. Who wus the "Father of the refer endum?" Hard to tell, because there were so many, but the one who per haps nearest deserves the title, and uhrme wrlilnKM most Influenced the Swiss legislators, was Martin Rittlng house, a German social reformer, who published In Paris, In 1850, that series of articles entitled "Direct Legisla tion by the People," which published In book form, stand today ns models of .literary and economic merit. The Referendum l Owroii. Tinl 'I unnrier from the text. Come to our own state, who was the plo neer of the Oregon-movement? Was it W. S. U'Ren, or Alfred Luelllng. or J. H. McMahan. or W. S. Vanderberg? None of these, although each, as well as dozens, of others too numerous to mention, rendered valuable service. No real "Father of the referendum In Oregon; who made the first clar ly defined effort to popularize the "Swiss system" preceding these oth r nrnrlv a vear and whose name should always be held In greatful re membrance. Is Max Hurgholzer. for merly of Buxton. Washington coun tv. now of Eugene. Proof? Plenty. The files of the "N. W. Reform Journal," published In Portland by T. H. McGIll, are evl dence thnt Max Hurgholzer antedated hv n vear those who received their lnsnlratlon from J. W. Sullivan's "Dl rect Legislation" (not published till 1892), and made the first systematic affitntion of the domocrutlc form of government in Oregon. A sketch of the Swiss system In a California labor paper first sot him thinking these lines and he began "hammering away," as he expressed It, on his new hobby; subscribing for Swiss periodicals, translating and adapting to Oregon conditions. One of his first articles, the earliest that I have, was "Defect in Our Con stitution," published In the "Reform Journal" of May 2, 1891. July 25, same year, argument for lncorporat lng direct legislation tn stare plat form of Farmers' Allance, also sug gesting for equal suffrage, with edu cational test for voters. August 15 letter on money question. August 29 one on "Referendum." September 5 another "Referendum" letter, giving some Swiss political history, also showing usciessness of our Institu tion of date senates and urging abo lltlon of same. April, 1892, letter of "Land Loans,' closing with direct legislation argu ment and urging his readers to send for Sullivan's book (Just published) July 21, 1893, letter on "Banks and Taxes." August 25, same year, began series of articles on "Initiative and Referendum," running for .several months. Later ho write for the "Hlllsboro Democrat," then the "Missouri ' World," nnd other populist papers, also tho "Capital Journal" (Col Hof er's paper), where he punctured Dr, Driver, who wns talking against di rect legislation. But his efforts have not been confined to writing by any means, for Instance, in the campaign of 1900 he made a house-to-house canvass of his county (Washington) distributing literature nnd talking di rect legislation. So thnt Oregon waa permeated to omo extent with direct legislation Ideas before Sullivan's book was ever published to such an extent that, 1 am Informed, was owing to the In fluence of the Oregon delegation and Nathan Pierce In particular that di rect legislation was recognized In the Omaha platform of July, 1892. Story of Bnrgholier. So msch for Max Burgholzer's work, now for a few words In closing about the man himself. Like Ritten hausen. his Illustrious predecessor In the cause of good government, Max in Burgholzer Is also of German stock, worthy descendants of those liberty loving barbarians who stood beside Armenians in those gloomy German forests 1900 years ago, when the mighty Roman army went down to defeat and annihilation before the northern fury. Barbarians? Yes, but free barbarians, those of whom Henry George says "The beams of liberty glinted from the shields of German warriors and Augustus wept his legions," The subject of this sketch was 'born and raised on a farm n Bavaria, a little more than 60 years ago, and after serving In the German army, took a trip through England, Ireland, Holland, Belgium and Austria, came to the United States In 1881; spent seven year as a flour miller, two years In sawmill and logging camps, two summers on a steamboat and the remaining time farming. Tills I the story of the pioneer of direct legislation In Oregon. Why Is It asked if he has. done so much 1 he not better known? First, because most of the papers he contributed to were not of general circulation; sec ond, because he has not been before the people In a public capacity; third, and perhaps most Important, because he has never sought notoriety, "play ed to the gallery," nor advertised himself in any way, for this soldier, miller, logger, steamboatman, farm er and Tom Watson populist, I mod est and, on his Lane county farm, re mains content to "hammer away" in lie cause and leave the glory to those who enre moro for It. But, If Justice Is done, when the historian of the future writes the Oregon reform movement, prominent among the names of the truly great should rank that of modest, unassum ing Max Burgholzer. BOUGHT CANADIAN TIMBER. Symlicute of 42 Aiwrieaim Take Over an InniKMwo Tract. Consul Abraham E. Smith of Vic toria, reports that on American syn dicate composed, of 42 capitalists, have purchased perhaps the largest single land transaction made in the province of British Columbia, con cerning which he adds: There was unusual Interest In Vic toria In this matter. A number of rullroad men and wealthy Investors. residents of the middle western states, chartered a large steamer and exam ined timber and coal properties on the Queen Charlotte Islands In which they held options. Th syndicate, which Is to be known as the Moresby isiana ium ber company, closed their options on 49 square miles of timber on Mores liy Island. They also purchased out right 8000 acres of the choicest crown rant lands In Graham Island. The Investment reaches several millions of dollars, the Initial payment Deing J25O.OO0. As a result of the trip a sawmill, to cost 1400,000, win De ai once erected by the company and lo cated on Cumshewa Inlet on Graham Island. Various members of the party also hold options on 10 miles oi semi-n-thractte coal lands on Graham Island, hut It Is reported that coal experts advise against the purchase, declar ing that tho coal Is limited in quan tlty and unworkable, owing to th broken formation and wck or ini. iip.ik In the veins. The northern part of uranam island is already In possession of an- American syndicate, Known the B. F. Graham L.umoer i-Bmpa-?, and embraces ootn umucr lands. GRAZING SPACE ATTRACTIVE. SunMlMor Flooded With Applica tions by Stockmen iot wbuumi wr est Reserve. Applications for practically all the rrin snace on the Wenaha forest n,..i m.iiK ITnresfAr reserve nave oeen uu - t m Rrhmltz and have been ap proved by him, says the Walla Walla statesman. Not more than half tho cattle grazing permits have been Is sued, however, and no sheep permits hnvo been written as yet. This Is due to dolay on the part of the rrazers, who have to send their mnnev tn Washington after their ap nllcatlons are approved and no not get their permits until Forester Schmltz get their receipts. As there is more or loss red tape connected with the process, the rounds have not been yet completed. The reserve will be all tuken up, however, before the season opens. Moro Rangers' This Year, There will bo little or no work done In the way of the Improvement of the forest until July. All the money ap preprinted for this purpose has been used in the building of trails, con structlon of cabins and other neces sary Improvements which were push od with much energy by Mr. Sohmltt last summer and fall. If the Dresent bill before congress for the appropriation of $2,000,000 la passed, the Wenaha reservation should tot hbout J12.000 Of tnis. sucn an amount would go far In towards lm proving the reservation and would build many miles of trails and make a good number of rangers' cabins. There are at present seven rangers on the reserve, but this number win be Increased to 10 In the near future These mon will watch closely me grazing lands this year and an deavor will be made to reduce difficulties between grazers to minimum. en the the STEER ROPING FEAT. MlVton Healer of Oklalioma, Beats the World's Record by Tielng Steer in Twenty Seconds. Before 10.000 person Milton Beat or of Nlnnekah. Okla.. broke the world' record for lassoing and rop lng a wild steer the other day at Enid Okla. BeaUr's time was 20 seconds The Most Beautiful Homes Built Today, Are Being Made of Concrete Blocks. They are pret tier, more sub stantial and far more comporta ble In either hot or cold weather. See my many beautiful de signs In con crete blocks before you build Your . home. Contractor and Bolder ' fl 1 1 I D. flat. The former champion was W. E. Corroll of Mangum, Okla., who had a record of 21 3-4 -seconds. Cor roll witnessed Bealer's great feat and declared him the world's champion. Thirty steers from the Panhandle of Texas, specially Imported for this occasion, were the objects of the las- They came from a 20,000 acre ranch and were as wild as the plains of the southwest could produce. Twelve widely known cowboy ropers participated in the contest, each mounted on his own pony. When one of the range steers was released from the corral he was chased across the field until he came n front of the judges' stand, and if then running at a high rate of speed flag was dropped and the fleet foot- ed pony,' with his rider swinging a lariat, dashed down the field after the steer. The time made by Bealer appears Incredible in view of what he had to o. His pony ran 100 yards before the lasso's loop fell over the steer' iant horns. That moment the pony turned, digging his hoofs into the ground, braced himself and waited. The rushing steer reached the lim it of the rope and turned a complett somersault, landing on his side with thud. Unable to use his head, the steer could not rise. eBaler was not on the pony. The very moment he saw the lariat land well over the steer's horns he slid from the pony' back and ran toward the roped steer. With six feet of rope he tied all four feet togeuier In such manner that they could not b freed, Jumped on the beast, raised his hand and removed his hat as a signal to the judges and the spectators that he was through. All this was done in the third part of a single minute. Milton eBaler Is Just past 22 years old. He has spent his life on a ranch. Good for Everybody. Mr. Norman R. Coutler, a promi nent architect. In the Delbert Build ing, San Francisco, says: "I fully en dorse all that has been said of Elec tric Bitters as a tonic medicine. It is good for everybody. It corrects stomach, liver and kidney disorders In a prompt and efficient manner and builds up the system." Blectrlc Bit ters is the best spring medicine ever sold over a druggist's counter; as a blood purifier it is unequaled. 60c at Tallman & Co.'s drug store. One District for Cannon. Danville, 111., Mar. 21. Great en thusiasm marked the gathering of the dolegates to the republican conven tion of the Eighteenth congressional district In Danville today, this being the home city and district of Joseph G. Cannon. Two delegates will be elected to the ' national convention and will be instructed to vote persist ently for Cannon. Many pictures of Cannon, Inscribed "Our .Next Presi dent," were displayed in public places. Notice to Public Having disposed of my Implement store In this city, all parties knowing themselves Indebted to me pleas call and settle their accounts. FRED WEBER. 30 days' trial $1.00 Is the offer on PIneules. Relieves Backache, Weak Back, Lame Back, Rheumatlo pains. Best on sale for Kidneys, bladder and blood. Good for young and old. Sat satlsfactlon guaranteed or money re funded. Sold bv A. C. Koeppen & Bros. INSURANCE Livcrmore & Bickers Room 12, Judd Bldg. Pendleton - - Crescn Lots mw W3 H. MHY "Known For What If Many people do not know what a bank's capital means to its depositors, or the differ ance between a bank of little or no capital, and one with a large capital. One of the functions of A Bank's. Capital is to protect its depositors from possible loss; therefore the larger it is, the greater protec tion the depositors have. This bank has a Capital of .... 200,000.00 Surplus Fund of . . 50,000.00 Undivided Profits . . 25,000.00 Additional Shareholders Liability "... . 200,000.00 A TOTAL OF 475 000.00 This means that this bank must lose prac tically half a million dollars before its depo sitors could lose a cent. This protection is for YOU. The First National Bank PENDLETON, OREGON SECURITY IP You want a motor-car for what it does. Not what it pretends. You want power that carries passengers, not power that has a job to carry itself. You want weight that gives strength and safety, not weight that only gives trouble and expense. 98 per cent of Franklin engine-power is always a vailable at the rear wheels and it is not handicapped with useless over-weight. Franklins have no stiff steel frame and half-elliptic springs to jar you ; no water-cooling appratus to lug ; no plumbing system to leak, burst or freeze, But they combine efficiency and strength with light-weight and give you ready service all the year round. Come in and let us give you a demonstration of Franklin light-weight, ability and comfort. , 20 Franklin horse power does more than 40 horse power on other cars. PENDLETON AUTO CO. McCormmach Withee East Court Street. Concrete stands unsurpassed for Basements, Foundations, Walls, Fences and Curbing. It looks better and lasts longer than stone, I will furnish you estimates for any class of Work on application. Cor. Rail road amd WilloWgSts. 1 , 3 Its Strength" .loans ttCLI M Candidates Announcements Candidate for re-nomination by ths Republican party at the coming pri mary election to be held April IT, 1908. FOR STATE REPRESENTATIVE. C. A. Barrett (Present incumbent) Candidate for the nomination by the republican party at the coming primary election to be held April IT, 1908. FOR STATE REPRESENTATIVE. L L. Mann I hereby announce my candidacy for the nomination by the repabllcaa party at the coming primary election to be held April 17, 1908, FOR REPRESENTATIVE. C. W. Steen For Umatilla and Morrow counties. Candidate for the nomination by ths republican party at the coming pri mary election to be held April 17, 1908. FOR JOINT REPRESENTATIVE T. J. Mahoney t herebv announce my candidacy for ths renuhlican nomination for re-elec tion as district attorney, sixth Judic ial district, subject to tn acuon oi the renublican voters at the coming primary election, April 17, 1968. FOR DISTRICT ATTORNEY. G. W. Phelps I hereby announce my candidacy for the re-nomlnatlon, at the primary election to be held April IT, 1908, tot sheriff. FOR SHERIFF. T. D. Taylor (Present incumbent) Candidate for re-nomlnatlon by the Republican party at the coming pri mary election to be held April 17, 1908. FOR COUNTY CLERK. Frank Saling (Tresent Incumbent.) Candidate for re-nomlnatlon by the Republican party at the coming pri mary election to be held April 17, 1908. FOR COUNTY TREASURER. Geo. W. Bradley (Present Incumbent) Candidate for re-nomination by the Republican party at the coming pri mary election to be held April 17, 1908. FOR COUNTY COMMISSIONER. Horace Walker (Present Incumbent) Candldato for the nomination by the Republican party at the earning primary election to be held April 17, 1908. FOR COUNTY COMMISSIONER. A. H. Sunderman I hereby announce myself as a can didate for the nomination for the of fice of County Commissioner, subject to the approval of the people at the primaries, April 17. FOR COUNTY COMMISSIONER. Joe Bailey I hereby announce my candidacy for the nomination by the democratic party, at the coming primary election to be held April 17. 1908. FOR COUNTY RECORDER. John Q. Peebler Candidate for re-nomlnatlon by the Republican party at the coming pri mary election to be held April 17, 1908. FOR COUNTY SCHOOL SUPERIN. TENDKNT. Frank K. Welles (Present Incumbent) Candidate for re-nomlnatlon by ths Republican party at the coming pri mary election to be held April 17, 1901 RECORDER OF CONVEYANCES. Fred W. Hendley (Present Incumbent) v Candidate for the noflnatloa by ta republican party at the coming pri mary election to be held on April 17, 1908. FOR COUNTY RECORDER. Chas. E. Macomber Candidate for re-nomlnatlon by the Republican party at the coming pri mary election to be held April 17, 1908. FOR COUNTY CORONER, Ralph Folsom (Present Incumbent.) PASTIME PARLORS. RUTHERFORD & MOLTTOR, Props, A quiet resort for the healthful exer cise of HOWLING, TOOL AND BILLIARDS. Only first-class tables used. Cigars, confectionery, tobaccos and soft drinks.