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THE NEBRASKA INDEPENDENT DECEMBER 24, 1903, The Philosophy of Freedom An Open Forum for Singlo Taxeri THE PARAMOUNT QUESTION. , Editor Independent: I see you put the money question paramount to all other questions. I did, too, until I learned of the single tax. I was a greenbacker since Seymour ran on a greenback platform, and am yet a greenbacker. I have studied the mon ey question to the point of profundity, but I know that all Reforms in gov ernment like all discoveries in the sciences and inventions of labor-saving machinery accrues to the landlord and does not benefit the producer of wealth. All structures to be durable, whether material or social, must be foundationed on the earth. I care not what social structure you build, if built in the air, it may be blown down by the first adverse wind. All social structures must begin on the land to be durable and of benefit to the masses. The land question must be the first plank in any platform to succeed. All platforms have been cas tles in the air and all governments a failure because not foundationed on the earth for all. Money is not so essention as life, liberty and the equal pursuit of happi ness, which cannot be without free access to land. Money Is not a rear necessity. Com merce would go on, but not so well, even without money. Money is more of a function than a substance. As Herbert Spencer shows, in order to understand sociology, one must under stand biology. Society is a body politic in more than a metaphorical sense. Society has every organ and function 'that an animal organism ""has, and I have searched in vain to find an or gan or function in an animal organ Ism corresponding to money. Money is a convenient counter of wealth and facilitates the barter of wealth, but it is not wealth nor is it absolutely necessary to the production of wealth. Money is an excresence growing on the body politic like the mistletoe on the oak which the Druids worshiped as we do the greenback. It is like worms in children till they pass the age of adolescence. We are in our transition stage of evolution, through our worm age or money age, but will slough It off soon. But land will al ways be a prime necessity. Money has been erroneously called the blood of a nation. Money circu lates and so does blood but there the simile ends. Blood is wealth it is carried by our arteries, our rivers, lakes, and railroads, and deposited to build up broken down tissue and de velop muscle and strength. Money is not deposited as wealth is. Money simply represents wealth and is not wealth. A piece of gold or sil ver is not wealth while it is used as money. If the wealth in a gold piece was utilized for a ring or a watch case it would cease to be money. The two values, the real and representa tive, do not co-exist in a piece of gold. One or the other is in abeyance or an nihilated. While a piece of gold is money it has no value. Then how foolishly wasteful it is to make money of so valuable a commodity as gold or sliver. A twenty dollar gold coin cost twenty dollars in labor fifty years ago, and the interest on tbe la lior at 5 per cent amounts to fifty dol lars, which added to its original cost makes seventy dollars a twenty dollar gold coin has cost the people wnen a piece of paper would have performed the function of exchanging wealth as well. Men speak of money as a measure or standard of value as though there could " a standard or measure of val; allies vary, like any other emotion. Value depends on desire, aud desires vary with people which makes commerce. Thero can be no more a standard or measure of value than there can of love, hate, beauty or any other emotion. A man wna tossing an onion In his hand plaj fully In Bawson and a by stander naked him what he would take for It. He answered that he would not sell It he brought it from his mother' garden, "I will give, you Ave dollar In gold for It," said the would m purchaser. "No, 1 will not soil It ald the owner. The blunder carnally remarked that he would nut Rive o imnh for It, but he had a uk friend who longed for an onion. "Ta' o it and give It to your Uk friend," paid the owner, and would take no ritCney fur It. Now, whhh w.m the fttar-dnrd of value, the onion, the roJI lr the iiiplthy for the nick? So loni a we hive money, the rov eminent tdiould Untie It nil to time It uniform, atd tal e It out of corpora Hon Hutehm, Hit let u nettle the land o.uetlon and the money question will settle itself. Most business is done without money anyhow, but no business is done but on land. A good platform would be: One tax (on land values), one money (of pa per) , one brotherhood of the race; free land, free tra.de and free men. Any party taking the above for a platform could win. There would be a clear cut difference in principle between it and all other parties. There has not been a difference, but a mere distinc tion, in per cent of perfidy between the two old 'parties. Both want gold and silver, both want a tariff, both want war when it s'uits them, both pay pensions to soldiers to encourage butchery,' and there has been no dif ference on principle between them. With a president nominated on a S. T. platform, men can enter the campaign with enthusiasm and dem onstrate every plank in the platform. The people can see It, and the people are honest and want a change. The platform would simplify government and eliminate many laws and officers. We are too much governed. "That people least governed is best gov erned," said Jefferson. And Spencer said: "The freest form of govern ment la only the least objectionable form." The great aim of the people should be to abolish government as far as possible instead of complicat ing It with more laws. Simply abol ish taxes, abolish tariffs, abolish wars, standing armies and navies, abolish pensions and chaplains encourage peace, homes, and the production of wealth. Abolish poverty by giving all equal access to land upon which all can make wealth. Repudiate our na tional debt. I did not make it and my name was forged to the bonds. J. C. BAxvWES. Hindsboro, 111. (Where several things are vital nec essities, it Is quite a matter of taste which shall be regarded as THE nec essity. Men are just as necessary as land; sunlight is just as necessary; fire is necessary; SOME government is necessary and some revenues are necessary. ' Now, the fact is, until we make a radical change in our revenue laws, which include the coining of money, the single tax as many single taxers present it is lame. Dr. Barnes be lieves that to abolish all taking of revenues except economic rent, would settle the money question. Would it? If so, how? How would the economic rent be paid? Could the government use, and would it accept, a piece of land or a piece of land value as revenue? Dr. Barnes' own definition of value shows how ridiculous such a thougnt is. "Emotions" do not pay officers sal aries. Then how would the ret be paid? Under our present system the rent-payer would be obliged to seek the owner of a disk of gold, duly stamped by the government, and sac rifice some portion of the products of his labor applied to the land in ex change for the disk; and then present the disk to the tax collector. How would the abolition of customs duties render it unnecessary to make terms with the gold gambler? If each occupier of a piece of land could- pay his economic rent with a portion of the things he produces for sale, then Dr. Barnes' contention would be correct; but to make that possible the money question would have to be settled that way. It makes little difference upon what taxes are levied; so long as the taxes tnem selves must be paid In a particular thing, which no one can produce for himself, yet Is made as a gift to the owner of gold bullion, just so long will the money question be the most important subdivision of the ques tion of taxation. Dr. Barnes makes no distinction be tween "money" and "coin" or coined money. "Money," the system of ac- ovntlng, Is almost Indlspenslble to ex changebut "coin" I not. Yet "coin." an the system has evolved. Is nn absolute- necessity In paving taxes and cancelling court judgments, "Coin" may not be blood. Suppose we liken It to Rail, It ha Ha place In the human economy and there li no substitute for it. It I not blood-but the bkHd need It Associate Kdltor.) Trad Balances HdUor Independent: I commend to your nolle an article of mine entitled What Become of Our Trade Bal ance?" In the July-September Issue of the Bewaneo Uevlew (published by th t'nlverslty of the South). It U an rnUrpement of a previous article In the (New York) lUnkm Magailne, July, H72. The article aims to solve one of the most important financial and economic problems of the day; namely, why it is that instead of getting any cash from abroad in payment for our great ex ports of merchandise, we have t,o bor row immense sums from foreign bank ers to avert panics in the stock and money markets. (The New York Even Post, October 11, 1902, estimates these foreign borrowings at the enormous sum of $500,000,000.) In support of my views of this mat ter I have cited the reports of foreign dealings in our stocks on the New York stock exchange for the years 1893, and 1898 to 1902, which have nev er before been given to the public. The reports for 1893 will certainly surprise those who remember that for the past ten years it has been claimed that the panic of that year was caused by the return of stocks by for eign investors who had become alarm ed over our silver policy. In his ar ticle on this subject in the Yale Re view, November, 1900, Mr. N. T. Ba con says: "The heaviest losses of English investors were made in the panic of 1893, which was immensely aggravated by their dumping all man ner of securities on the New York slock exchange for anything they would bring.", Mr. Bacon is considered the highest authority on this subject and his la ter article in the New York Times, January 15, 1902, has been quoted ap provingly by leading Wall street press agents. But the above statement proves that he knows very little about the matter. The reports show that in 1893 the purchases of stocks for for eign account on the stock exchange exceeded the sales in eleven months out of the twelve. The net excess of purchases for the whole year amount ed to over 800,000 shares. I trust that you may find the ar ticle sufficiently Interesting to repay perusal. W. H. ALLEN. 348 Reid ave., Brooklyn, N. Y. Buy a FARM That Will Pav you 50 to 80 per cent annually. Rented will pay you from 20 to 30 per cent an nually. A sure crop every year, and the brightest prospect of doubling your investment in two years or less. These farms are located In the Box Elder valley, northern Colorado. There are six million dollars in vested in sugar beet factories in this valley. Farms are paying enormous ly, as they have a sure crop and a big one every year, ample water supply, 14 reservoirs, and more than enough. We are selling farms in this valley at $50 and $60 per acre, and several have been rented during the past year at $10 per acre cash rent, paying 20 per cent on the investment. Four miles down the valley from where these farms are located farms are selling at $150 to $200 per acre. Twenty miles further south in the valley, farms are selling at from $200 to $250 per acre, paying on this valuation annually 20 per cent. Land that we are offering is equally as valuable when fully de veloped and improved as the farms that are selling at $250 per acre. The crops this year will run about as follows: Alfalfa, 6 to 8 tons per acre. Wheat. 45 to C5 bushels per acre. Sugar beets, 20 to 30 tons per acre. Oats, 50 to 110 bushels per acre. Barley, 65 to ISO bushels per acre. We have yet about 4,000 acres of this land to sell with perpetual water right and are of the opinion that any one purchasing a farm In this valley will double his money w ithin one year. Wo will certainly have all this land sold soon. The man who has a good farm In an Irrigated country, and a good irri gation right, knows Its value. He never sella out and goes back to the farm In the east where too much rain or too protracted drouths distress and disappoint. In any line of bnslnehsf, certainty is the element most desired. Farming under Irrigation la the neat est approach to a sure thfe covered. Some question of chance en ter into almost every business cal culation excepting Into the eonibina tlon of pood noil, and Rood water, (liven these two, and a man's note Is p.vld, his credit li established and hi bank account U assured. Irrigation Is simply putting enough water on the growing crop, at ex4tly th time tnont necessary; not too much anj nut too little. That la rrlitloi,riOihing more and nothing less. Then, Um, th J lilt In the water fertilize the s.ll and r'.ewi It from yenr to year with out either labor or expense. This nat ural fertilization, and the exact amount of moisture at the exact time brings the greatest yield of all crops, doubling and sometimes quadrupling the returns over farming in the east ern states. - Wheat, oats, barley, potatoes, sugar beets, alfalfa, fruit, all vie with each, other in quantity and quality. The re sult is, farming by irrigation is ideal, and peace and plenty abound. In comparing irrigation farming with rainfall farming, the Wyoming Experiment Station Bulletin on irri gation says: "The increase from Irrigation is sometimes four-fold and seldom hss than double. It is estimated that if only one acre in four could be re claimed it would still bring the prod uct of the arid region of the United States up to the product of the bal ance of the country." The clippings furnished by us speak for themselves, for they are the story of the contented and prosperous farm ers of northern Colorado, whose lines have fallen in pleasant places and among whom discontent is unknown, and poverty never met with. It is probable that nowhere on earth are there as many prosperous farmers as in that section ofhich Fort Collins is the center. ' The building of the new ditches and the cultivation of the new lauds in this vicinity, together with the erection of the great sugar factory at Fort Collins, open up new opportuni ties and provide a place for new farm ers, who have only to see and investi gate to appreciate the wonderful priv ilege extended to them. Which is the better investment: buy Nebraska land at $50 an acre and rent it at $3 an acre or buy Colorado land at $50 and rent it at $10 the Ne braska, farmers gets 6 per cent and the Colorado man gets 20 per cent on his investment. EXCURSIONS EVERY WEEK. ; For excursion rates and further in formation apply to Woods IIIVEStMENT COMPANY Office, Lincoln Hotel. Lincoln, Nebrask Property to Trade No. 662. Ranch with 155 head of cat tle, worth , $9,000, to tradei for good farm.JNo. 714. $4,500 equity in ranch to trade for farm. No. 659. Ranch worth $2,000 and 25 head of cattle to trade for a farm.No. C65. Ranch worth $4,000 to trade for farm land or income property. rNo. 699. Ranch worth $10,000, rented for $1,000 per year cash rent, to trade for farm land or good income property. No. 696. Choice stock farm worth $8,800 to trade for good farm land. No. 720. 400-acre stock farm, improvements worth $4,500, irrigated land, first-class in every particular, worth $12,000; will trade for grain farm in eastern Nebraska. No. 608. Ranch worth $3,500 and 80 head of cattle to trade for farm land. t No. 611. 320-acre stock farm worth $8,000, to trade for farm land. No. A42. 640-acre stock farm worth $25 per acre to trade for well improved grain farm. No. A15. Ranch worth $12,540 to trade for any good income property. No. 6721&. 1,440-acre ranch and 100 head of cat tle, 12 head of horses, etc., worth $14,500, to trade for good clear land., No. A45. $2,000 hotel to trade 'for laud. , $6,000 equity In hotel worth $12.'" to trade for land.vNo. 650, $1,500 law library and some cash to trade for good farm land., No. 787. 3-story brick block, rented so that it pays 5 per cent on $60,000 above all expenses, mortgaged for $2.000, will trade equity for land. No. AR3. Beautiful 5-acre tract near College View, good buildings, etc., worth $2,500, to tr ' for lamUNo. A81. $3,500 Lincoln residence to trade for a farm., No. r.,i $2,000 residenco In Valparaiso, Neb., to trade on a good farm. No. AC9. $9.8.10 equity In farm In Merrick county to trade for stock of meichan dlse.No. fif7, $,ooo stock of marble and building worth t2,f0 to trade for good land. No. 57!. A splendid build ing and stock of general merchandise worth l.noo to trade for land or city property.. No. MS. Building and stock of hardware to trade fur l.nd and Rome money worth No, All Spier did two-iit or y brick block and ttix k of renrrnl merchandise fof traie for farm hnd. ,N'o. ATS. Stok of dothlng and dry good worth 2". ixl and bulldlnr worth $l2.Vo to trndrt for pood furni land. Hundred of other properties fur exchange; If oi fciv anrihlnx to trad wrle; we can find whftt joi want. Weber A Iirrls, Lincoln, Nb.