THE NEBRASKA INDEPENDENT
MARCH 3, 1904.
THE CRIME OF 1666,
Editor Independent: "Barbara Vi
liers, or A History of Monetary
Crimes," is the most interesting and
' instructive of Mr. Del Mar's books.
But, why should the name of Bar
bara Villiers be so prominently con
nected with "Monetary Crimes?" She
was no worse than the people of her
time and country. She was the mis
tress of Charles II. of England, and
to her he granted (in 1663) two pence
on every pound of silver coined (for
twenty-one years). This was in ad
dition to the two shillings a pound
which- he received as king.
At that time they made, at the
Icing's mint, sixty-two shillings out of
every twelve ounces of silver; and,
therefore, those who brought silver
to the mint to be coined, received in
return sixty-two shillings (less two
shillings and two pence) for every
pound. The two shillings was seign
iorage for Charles; the two pence was
seigniorage for Barbara.
Ever since the time of Quetn Eliza
beth (1680) the seigniorage for the
crown had been two shillings on ev
ery pound of silver coined. ; The only
change Charles made (in the year
1C63) was to add two pence for his
mistress. This made Barbara more
honorable and of more consequence
than a aueen.
But it did not last long. After
three years (in 1660) he revoked the
grant (of twenty-one years) by open
ing the mint to free coinage of silver
and gold, which took away all seign
ii 'tge, both for himself and Barbara.
When it is said that Barbara Vil
liers was no worse than the people
of her time and country, it is meant
that she represented aoout as much
morality as the ordinary lord or lady
of the court and parliament. It is a
matter of history, that .he had great
influence in the house of lords, which
shows that she was no better or
worse than thty. Her husband, the
rich Roger Palmer, was "-made by
Charles Earl of Castlemame and con
sequently the earl and his vlie , be
longed to the court circle. She was
? ne widow of Sir Edward Villiers,
Then she married Roger Palmer, and
had been married to Sir Edward (at
the age of sixteen), wno died within
, & year after their marriage. At her
second marriage,, therefore, which
took place immediately after the pre
scribed Interval of mourning, sho was
an experienced woman, although un
$o wonder, then, tha'. she was cap
able of exercising more influence on
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legislation than any other person in
the realm. She is mentioned by all
the historians of England as a great
gambler and as a person who took all I
tte money Charles could get ior ner,
4.ut rone of them, except Mr. Del War,
spfaks of her a? the person, who did
as much as any other, and more, to
induce Charles to opea the mint of
England to free coinage of sflver and
In fact, the other historians could
not speak of her, in connection with
lice coinage, at all because they do
not mention the fact, that the mint of
Eugiand was opened for free coinage
in the time of Barbara, or at any
ether time before or since. Indeed,
they are ignorant as to when free
c.'I)iage commenced in England and
the other countries.
Mr. Del Mar specifies five great
monetary crimes, as follows:
1. The crime of 16C6.
2. The crime of 1742.
3. The crime of 1868.
4. The crime of 1870.
o. The crime of 1873.
The crime of 16G6 consisted in open:
ing the mint of England to free-coin
age of silver and gold.
It is difficult to see how this can
be a crime, unless it is a crime to take
from a dissolute king the power of
coining and issuing money and trans
fer it to a few rich men. If King
Charles had retained the power he
would not have used it for the good
of the nation.
He would have looked upon the
right of coinage as a means merely
of getting some money for his purse.
He was incapable of considering, that
the prerogative of coining and Issu
ing money might be the means of
giving the nation an equitable meas
ure of value, besides furnishing a con
venient medium of exchange and a
convenient method of paying debts in
He could not comprehend the mean
ing of a measure of value, for the na
tlon. He could not understand that
the volume or quantity of money, Is
sued would determine the level of
prices: that the price of every com
modity would be Influenced by the
quantity of money put into circula
tlon. He could not see that If a com
modity should have a tendency to
rise in price, on account of its scarcity,
it would rise still more by a greater
supply of money.
Nor could ho understand that If a
commodity should have a tendency to
fa.l in price, on account of Its abund
ance, this tendency might be over
come by a greater supply of money.
In short, the philosophy of price-level
was not at all comprehended by
His crime, therefore, if it was a
crime, consisted in surrendering his
high prerogati'e of coining and Issu
ing money, simply because he was
paid by a few rich men for doing it.
It was corrupt, because his motive was
corrupt. He ought not to cave al
lowed himself to be influenced, in leg
islation, by what he himself made out
of it On he contrary, he should
have considered that the right , of
coinage should be held by himself
for the good of the nation. If he had
taken this view he would lave in
sisted that he should not only ke-p
control over th coinage, but that be
would see to it that only so much
money wa3 coined and issued as
would maintain an equitable measure
Instead of this, he sold his high
prerogative to a few fich wen (the
Ea.t India Co.); and they coined and
issi cd as much or litl'.e money as
suited their purpose of getting richer
If it suited their Interest to have low
prites In EnplanJ and b!g tikes
abioad, they not only coined, but they
exported tho coin. The power en
abkd them to take tho money out of
England, when England most nettled
it. If it suited their purpose to have
low prices abroad and high pi Ices at
home, they could Import silver, coin
H and make money plentiful In En
gland and prices correuponuituily high
In England and equally low abroad.
It must be remembered that whn
th rl h merchant, and banker of
i:r.t!ar.4J nrq.ilrcd the ilsht to rn.n
aiul Iww money this wns in KM
thi also acquired th riRht to rxtor
silver coin and bullion.
Ilfvloim to thi.i tlmp, It Tuvl brctt
a t ! io fxport tllTrr coin or tin.
Hot;. It tnd Ik en tho policy of thr?
crown to M'op control ivn th o!
utf of money and r.nt allow thi
l;wfr to nJlp Into th hnndt of rl
vU Individual, ('otmcqtirntl, when
lhr rkh wn applied to th King ft.
a lw allowing thnn to ft In the I
lhr at thv Mnst' mint, wlthou
This cut, made from a photograph of alfalfa grown m California, .
shows its marvelous development under the most lavoraoie con
ditions. Once supposed to be suitable only for semi-arid sections
it U now a standard crop in the middle west. Our seed is all
home grown and produces the most abundant growtn ior
this section of country.
Turkestan Alfalfa. We have a (rood itock of extra high quality seed,
It is Uiought to be hardier than thJ common variety.
Fodder and Forage Plants. fiWSs
complete line of these seeds. Millet; all standard varieties Penclilarts;
the eiant millet. Crows 10 to 12 feet high il permitted. Carte J wonderlally
prolific, greatest food value. Cow Pe, Soy Beans, etc. Genuine Dwarf
Essex RapeL."Slend 25c for aeed-et 25 tons of feed." All tn the catalog.
Allnlfa fR.80 to 89.50 per Bn. Turkestand Alfalfa til to 112 per
Bil i German and Siberian Millet 60c to 70c pT Iiu. Cane 65 to
70c tier hu ixA Uu. grain bntta Extra at 20c racb. Cow l'eaa $1.90
to 12 25 per Jtu. Koy hoans t2.90 per Hu. Dwarf Essex Uape 16
lbs tor fl.00, MJ lbs lor f2.t!6, 100 lba for J5.U0.
C.niSVf OLD 8BKU CO. 1411 SO 10th T LINCOLN, NEBRASKA."
plied for a iaw allowing them to ex
port silver to foreign countries. This
put all control over tne voiuine 01
money Into their hands and took It
out of the hands of the government.
As soon as tn is was done me ncn
men the foreign merchants and
bankers could rob the common peo
ple of England as much as they
plf&sed. This was tne crime wmcn
Charlos II. authorized In 1666, and
whkh has been continued In England
from that day to this. We copied tne
crime in 1791-2,. when we enacted oar
first coinage law. Our statesmen were
almost as Ignorant of the philosophy
of price-level and of money as a meas
ure of value (for a nation) as Charles
II. was when he alfowed the mint of
England to bo opened to free coinage
of silver and gold.
Th evident of corruDtion. short-
Rich tedness and ignorance on the part
of Charles ia to be found In the stat
ute, which wa3 passed at the same
time, imposing a duty on Importation
of sttirits. wine. beer, cider, vinegar.
The receipts from these duties made
up for what Charles and Barbara lost
on account of their seigniorage. This
statute shows that he looked no fur
ther than getting money for support
of himself and government. It wasi
running a government for revenue
only. This is the crime or. our time,
as wen as or ine.ume.oi viuariea.
The subsequent crimes v mentioned
by pel Mar I will, perhaps, refer to
later on. JNO. S. HART.
Jersey City, N. J.
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6 Concord grape, 1 yr.: '4 Pomona enrranta,
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i'ATKOl" N Mitt ASK A
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I ll'u.O11' . " ..... , , . - - - - - -
i-tmattlrs anl U ihrrrtora autrortil to rMt
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WltnrMiroF iana ann ina ri mi m aimumt
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lolls 1 riFltcr. Aui;uri! rui.no Afimn
It. C I'stet A Ct Unmn-I t lor l 1' l.
I llmiUtion or fit ti9t, trtcy &Uo up
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