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AUGUST 3, 1905 IN THE WORLD OF PRQGRE . 56? Nebraska. Independent Luther Burbank Is perfecting a new potato, which he says will rival anything the world knows, not even excepting the famous Burbank. It is large and smooth-skinned, and probably by another season will have attained the quality of sweetness required in a good . product. The government is sending , out Frank Ben ton, a bee expert of the agricultural department, to scour those portions of the globe wherein de sirable types of honeymakers are believed to ex ist. ) In his tour he will visit India and the Phil ippines for the purpose of studying, the giant bee of those countries. Camilla Flammarion's new, perpetual calen dar starts the year at the vernal equinox, March 21. Every quarter should contain two months of thirty clays and one month of thirty-one days. This would make 354 days. .The same dates would occur on the" same days of the week and one calendar would last a life time. Sitka, Alaska, has just been found to overlie an immense deposit of ochre having a radius of at least ten miles. The ochre undoubtedly had its origin in Mount Edgecorab, once an active volcano, which stands at the entrance to Sitka harbor. The refining process is simple and the product is worth $18 per ton. Its color ranges from light yellow to a dark brown. It is being used in Sitka as a substitute for whitewash. It is said that a peculiar state of affairs ex ists on one of the islands on the Pacific coast that is famous for its fishing. One man has the sole right to catch fish in a net on the coast of the island, and then to offer them for sale as bait. Fishing is all that there is to do on the island, so everyone is dependent on this man. But he has a trit of getting drunk once a week or so, and then does not catch any bait, so no one can go fishing until he sobers up again. John D. Rockefeller has decided to economize. The first of his luxuries to fall afoul of his new policy is his Lakewood estate. Notice has been served on the superintendent of the estate that his service will not be required after July 31. All employes have been informed of a reduction in wages from10 to 20 per cent. The five super intendents' helpers who have been paid $1.50 a day, must be content with $1.25 a day hereafte. A big saving will be made by the discharge of the superintendent. He was paid $100 a month. There are 1200 clerks In the pension office. Of these nearly 400 are men who had prepared themselves for the professions of law, medicine and theology. The graduates in law numbered 267, in medicine 100 and in theology 20. Forty clerks had been authors, 43 were editors, 18 were editors and publishers, 27 were printers, 151 were newspaper correspondents, four were reporters, . three were proofreaders, 33 were magazine writ ers, and one confessed to have been a poet. A total of 144 clerks held diplomas from colleges and universities. The government is preparing to install a wire less telegraph system throughout the lower Yu kon country to replace the land lines that have proved a failure to a large extent owing to for est fires, floods, cold weather and other obstacles. Captain Wildman, the government wireless ex pert,. Is now on the Yukon experimenting be tween Fort Gibbon and Nome. He installed a wireless apparatus on the steamer Susie and was in constant communication with St. Michael's on the trip up the river to Fort Gibbon, and St Michael in turn was connected with Nome. The three hundredth anniversary of the dis covery of the Hudson river by Henrik Hudson is to be celebrated by the opening in New York City of the greatest international exposition the world has ever seen. A committee, consisting of the following societies: The Empire State society, Sons of the American Revolution, Amer ica Scenic and Historic Preservation society, Hudson Tri-Centennial association, the New York Society of the Order of the Founders and Pat riots of America, Holland society, St. Nicholas society, National Arts club, Municipal Arts society communicated with Governor Frank W. Higgins of New York state as well as with Mayor George B. McClellan of Greater New York, requesting each of these officials to name a committee of fifty or more representative citizens to consider the plan. Mosquitoes as malevolent insects were well known in Ceyjon 1400 years ago, according to an ancient pamphlet written in Sanskrit, found in Ceylon, a translation of which has been sent by the governor to the British Medical association. The unknown Sanskrit writer said his investiga tion had shown that there are 67 varieties of mos quitoes not 57 and that 40 of them carry ma laria. The ancient savant did not say they car ried the germ of disease, so the pamphlet leaves the germ theory ! standing as a modern achieve ments He contented himself with the assertion that the Insects carried the disease. In view of the fact, the pamphleteer suggested that they probably also carried other diseases. In that way he covered the whole field of discovery, or sup posed discovery, made by Dr. Reed and officers of the United States 'Marine Hospital service. Englishmen have been alarmed within the past few days by the reports that have leaked out by the disappointing record in gunnery made by the Atlantic fleet . during the recent practice maneuvers off Brest and some comparisons have been made with the recent records made by the fleet of Rear Admiral Robley D. Evans when the Alabama's gunners made twelve hits out of a possible twelve. These comparisons are so dis agreeably bad for the English navy that some public men are seriously alarmed lest, in the case of a war with a great nation, Albion's boast ed naval prowess may suffer as severe a shock as did that of the czar in the encounter in the Korean straits. The flagship fired at 1,400 yards, while going at various speeds, at a target 330 feet in area, and only scored three hits out of fifteen shots. The Burlington railroad's post factory has been quite active for some tjme, and this season has made 14,000 posts. It is still in the business and the foreman stated that it would continue till the coming of freezing weather. The post, which is simply a worn out engine flue placed into a concret3 base, has proven a great winner where the road needs posts for the protection of its right of way. It is cheaper than the ordinary wooden post and lasts for many years longer. In fact, it is practically indestructible. Some specimens have been in the ground for fifteen or twenty years and show no signs of wear. This is to be expected from the use of concrete for the base. The flues rust away in time, but as a preventive they are kept painted to insure longer life. The post was the invention of T. E. Calvert, former ly general superintendent, but now chief engineer of the entire Burligton system. He saw a chance to utilize an immese , number of locomotive flues which were otherwise worth nothing except for dumping in the scrap pile. and the gas issuing from the spring were all capable of stopping the development of the micro-organisms, while the germicidal effect of the sediment was most marked and strong, de stroying the bacilli within a few hours. Now if this water is bottled longer than forty-eight hours none of the effects are to be , observed, .and the water from the springs does not act at all differently from ordinary water. Dr. Kall: man asserts that it is the presence of the quickly evanescent radium constituent in the water that produces the beneficial effects in bathing, and this would account for the lack of success often attending the use of bottled mineral water or of salts derived from it. In the possible event of radium becoming more common it might be feas ible to impart radioactivity to certain mineral waters for medicinal purposes, and thus secure all the advantages of the natural substance. Harp er's Weekly. The United States government is going to try a labor experiment on the Panama canal. Two thousand each of Italians, Chinese, and Japa nese will be imported for work there. The ex periment will be tried in order to test the capa city for work of Italians, Chinese and Japanese, and also the contract methods of securing and handling laborers. The canal commission im ports the men for a 500-day contract subject to removal. It is the object of the com mission to reduce the amount of this sort of labor as much as possible by the introduction of modern machinery, but it will be necessary to secure several thousand additional workmen. The number of 2,000 was chosen because of being the approximate capacity of one ship at a time. The laborers will be furnished by contractors and will have to be delivered before the first of December next The government will furnish free hospitals and mediae! attendance, unfur nished quarters, fuel for cooking and water. Under a recent decision of the attorney general laoorers will work eight hours a day. This class of laborers going to the Isthmus will not be en titled to enter the United States because of ah act of the last congress which made the immigra tion laws of the United States applicable to per sons coming from the canal zone to the United States. All legal questions involved as well as precautions to be taken to obviate injustice and hardships to laborers hired by contractors, are now under consideration by the legal advisers of the commission. The navy department recognizes the lesson of the accident to the French submarine Farfadet, that equipment should be prepared in advance to facilitate the raising of such a . boat when out of the control of her crew. In the case of the Farfadet, the delay, which, under such distress ing circumstances, proved fatal to her crew, was caused by the difficulty in attaching a chain to the rounded hull of the submarine or in passing one completely around her, half-sunk in the mud as she was. It is thought that this difficulty can be obviated by fitting future submarines with strong exterior eyelets at bow and stern, through which divers could easily pass hoops or chains. Consideration has also been had of the possibility of getting a man safely out of a sunken submarine without help from above. Among other exped ients suggested is the heroic one of ' firing a man out through one of the torpedo tubes. This has been successfully tried with a dog. Those who remember the case of -. the workman who was accidentally, but safely, shot out of the tunnel under the river at New York will not regard it as wholly impractical, wild though it seems.. While comparatively large quantities of ra dium emanation have been found in certain min eral waters and their medicinal properties have been explained by their presence, it is only re cently that these waters have been tested from a biological standpoint. The famous mineral waters of the health-resort at Glastein, which were found by MM. Curie and Laborde to con tain the radium emanation, have been examined by Dr. Ilallman to test their effect on bacteria. For this purpose he used the bacillus prodi giosus and found tlat the water, the sediment During the past year the government forest service, in co-operation with, the American Tele phone and Telegraph company and the Postal Telegraph-Cable company, has been making an investigation to find the best methods of season ing telephone poles and of treating them with preservatives. The method of applying the pre servative is that from which the best results are expected. This method was applied to chest nut poles only. At Dover, N. J., in addition to the external applications, a number of seasoned poles were treated in an open tank, constructed to permit the treatment of 30-foot poles inclined at an angle of 20 degrees. In this tank the poles are boiled in creosote for several hours. They are then either shifted to a tank of similar con struction containing cold creosote, in which they stand for several hours, or are left in the hot oil to cool down gradually. This treatment cov ers the pole with creosote to a distance of from 8 to 10 feet from the butt. Up to this time a penetration of one inch and an absorption per pole of 35 to 40 pounds of creosote have been obtained. Changes in the method of operation are almost daily, increasing the depth of penetration and amount of absorption. This is the first ap paratus of this character constructed in the United Sates for impregnating te butts of tele phone and telegraph poles, and the success which is being attained with it indicates the practica bility of its widespread adoption in commercial practice. Since the life of such poles .is deter mined by the decay at the ground line, only the section from the bottom of the pole to about two feet above the ground line needs to be treated. Creosote Is expensiv , and if the whole pole must be treated the added years of service may not compensate for the outlay it may be. cheaper to use two untreated rather than one treated pole. But if an effective method of treating not more than 8 or 10 feet of a pole, can be found, there is every reason to expect that treatment will prove profitable to the users of poles as well as an economy of forest material.