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Greater Farm Efficiency
Cows That Make Most Money I By PROF. G. C. HUMPHREY, Wisconsin College of Agriculture «I ■' A dairy cow Is one of the specific ■dairy type and breed capable of malt ing a large and economical production of milk and butter fat. A careful study and analysis of this definition and Its application to cows whenever one has opportunity to apply it will greatly aid In getting in mind the correct Ideal of the dairy cow and In judging and buying cows. “Type" refers to the conformation of an animal and Is Indicative of util ity. “Specific dairy type" refers to an animal having a large, deep barrel, a prominent, well developed udder, and sharp, clean cut features about the head, neck, shoulders, back, hips and rump, due to the absence of thick flesh. Such a type Indicates dairy util ity and that she Is of little value ex cept for milk production. The dairy cow must be of distinct dairy breed as well as of dairy type; otherwise she may convert her feed Into flesh rather than milk and thus result in a beef animal. The National and International dairy shows of this country recognize the Holstein, Guern sey, Jersey, Ayrshire, Brown Swiss, and Dutch Belted breeds of cattle as distinct dairy breeds;' High grade and pure bred animals of these breedB are found In this state and rank In num ber In the order named. Pure bred animals possess 100 per cent, qf the blood of their respective breeds while the grade animals have a predomin ance of the blood of a given breed but less than 100 per cent. Grade cows are generally by pure bred sires and out of native or grade dams. A large production of milk and but ter fat Is a necessary requisite for a dairy cow. The production for at least a year should be taken Into considera tion because some cows make a large production during the early part of their lactation and then dry off soon. It Is characteristic beef cows and of many poor cows of the dairy breeds to dry ofT soon. A strictly dairy cow tends to make a large and economical The Dairy Cow Muit Have a Tendency to Produce Milk Rather Than to Lay on Fat. production of butter fat throughout her life time which means that she converts a comparatively large amount of the feed that she eats into milk and butter fat, and only a small portion of it Into building up the tissues of her body. The dairy cow Is a living machine which, when in perfect health and form, has four prominent features. These are. a body Indicating a large, strong digestive capacity, a dairy tem perament which Is nervous and results in milk production rather than flesh production, a large well developed ud der of healthy gland tissue, and a strong circulatory system that dis tributes the blood actively to all parts of the body and gives vigor, health, and activity. A cow usually fails in the production of milk as she fails in one or more of these essential fea tures. Each part of the body bears some relationship to one or more of these essential features and enables one to Judge of their prominence. Where one Is able to consider all the parts of the body and Judge these es sential features he Is not likely to err seriously in his Judgment. Digestive Capacity.—A large body, more especially the barrel In propor tion to the size of the animal, is in dicative of capacity. The body of the -dSflJry cow should be wedge shaped as YteWd from front, side and top. That is wra« r at the hlp P° lnts and be ' tween thte fore legs than at the with ers and meeper from the hip points to the loweiVline of the rear flank than at the fofre quarters. This char acter of the bo<itX has led to the term. triple-wedge-shapeH conformation, and In giving consideration to the di gestive capacity of the cow one should remember that it is the base ends of the wedges, rather than the sharp ends which indicate her capacity. Long well sprung riba, openness of chine, width of back over loins, size of barrel, depth and width between the hlpß, and fullness of rear flanks all combine to Indicate large digestive capacity. A wide forehead and a com paratively long face are indicative of the size and feed capacity of the body and likewise the broad muzzle, good sized mouth and strong, sinewy Jaw. The tall is often measured in Judging the cow and should reach to or below the bocks and carry a good switch. This renders it most useful in brush ing flies, which appears to be its chief purpose. The Udder. —The udder Is the milk secreting organ and its proper devel opment Is. therefore, essential In many Instances cows of large digestive capacity and of dairy breeding have failed in production apparently on ac count of poorly developed udders. The udder consists of two large glands, each of which is more or less distinct ly divided to correspond with each of the four teats and form the quarters. The duct of each teat enters a small cavity termed the fnllk cistern. The milk cistern of each quarter is more or less surrounded by lobes of gland tissue held in position and closely to gether by connecting tissue. These lobes may be likened to thick buncheß of grapeß since each lobe has several lobules corresponding to the grapes. The lobules are made of small divisions called alveoli which correspond to the seeds of grapes. These alveoli are constructed of small cells surrounded by a fine network of blood vessels and nerves and It Is by these cells that the milk is secreted. The best cows'* have comparatively large udders with equally developed quarters extending well forward un derneath the body and a good distance up behind and between the thighs. Poor attachment giving a swinging or pendant type of udder and deficiency and irregularity in the development of the quarters are criticisms to be of fered on many cows. The quality of the udder when examined by handling should reveal gland tissue ot fine, plastic texture rather than fatty tissue or a texture that is coarse and hard. The Circulatory System.—This sys tem determines the activity of the eow with respect to all parts of the body. Only when In perfect health and all parts of the body are actively performing their respective functions can the dairy cow be expected to yield a large flow of milk. When the cow Is sick or by virtue of her poor Indi viduality Is dull and morbid there Is an Inactivity of all the glandß of the body resulting In a dry, harsh condi tion of the skin, a staring coat, and a low production of milk. The circula tory system Includes the heart, lungs, arteries and veins since these organs respectively force, purify and carry blood to and from all parts of the body. When food becomes digested and assimilated the blood must carry It to the parts of the body demanding It and In the dairy cow the glands ot the udder demand a large share of the nourishment of the blood for the secre tion of milk. The size and character of the milk veins, more properly termed "mammary veins," and the milk -wells on the underside of the body are the best Indications of how much blood passes through the uddsr. These veins do not cary milk as some people believe, but carry a large por tion of the blood away from the udder. The blood passes Into the udder through arteries located deep on the Inner side of the thighs. If one were standing below a mill propelled by a water wheel and noted the race filled with water from the mill he would have reason to believe that the mill was In operation and performing lta work. Likewise when one observes large, branching mammary veins en tering the body through wells of suffi cient size to avoid a vein becoming gorged he has reason to believe that the udder Is performing Its work well. Baking Economy. I By the use of perfect baking powder the housewife can derive as much econ omy as from any other article used la baking and cooking. In selecting a bak ing powder, therefore, care should be ex ercised to purchase one that retains Its original strength and always remains the same, thus making the food sweet and wholesome and producing sufficient leav , enlng gas to make the baking light. | Very little of this leavening gas is pro duced by the cheap baking powders, mak ing It necessary to use double the quan tity ordinarily required to secure good re sults. You cannot experiment every time you make a cake or biscuits, or test the strength of your baking powder to find out how much of it you should use; yet with most baking powders you should do this, for they are put together so care lessly they are never uniform, the quality and strength varying with each can pur chased. Calumet Baking Powder is made of chemically pure Ingredients of tested strength. Experienced chemists put It up. The proportions of the different materials remain always the same. Sealed in air tight cans Calumet Baking Powder does «?ot alter in strength and is not affected by atmospheric changes. In using Calumet you are bound to have uniform bread, cake or biscuits, as Calu met does not contain any cheap, useless or adulterating ingredients so commonly used to increase the weight. Further, it produces pure, wholesome food and is a baking powder of rare merit; therefore Is recommended by leading physicians and chemists. It complies with all the pure food laws, both Sf ATE and NATIONAL. The goods are moderate in price, and any lady purchasing Calumet from her gro cer, if not satisfied with it can return it and have her money refunded. Putty-Head Hard to Penetrate. Napoleon Bonaparte once said the hardest task his artillery ever essayed was the reduction of a mud fort in Egypt. It absorbed shot and shell as the desert absorbs rain. That’s why a putty-headed man discourages you. If you hit him in the side of the head with a sledge hammer you only make a dent In his skull. Then if you hit him on the other side, the second dent drives the first one out. He is capable of receiving and retaining but one dent at a time, and that on the outside. The only thing you can do to give him new impressions is to* lay his head out in the sun for a hun dred years, when it will harden like granite, which can be easily punc tured. When Your Eyes Need Care Try Murine Eye Remedy. No Smarting—Feels Fine—Acts Quickly. Try it for Red, Weak, Watery Eyes and Granulated Eyelids. Illus trated Book in each Package. Murine is compounded by our Oculists — not a “Patent Med icine**—but used In successful Physicians’ Prac tice for many years. How dedicated to tho Pub lic and sold by Druggists at 26c and 60c per Bottle. Murine Eye Salve In Aseptic Tubes, 26c and 60c. Murine Eye Remedy Co., Chicago The Reason. "You mark all your compositions forte,” said the friend. “Yes,” replied the composer. “They wouldn’t have any vogue among peo ple who live In flats if I hod them played softly.” An Objection. “He gave you some sound advice.” "That’s what he did. I would have liked It better without so much sound.” Important to Mothers Examine carefully every bottle of CASTORIA, a safe and sure remedy for Infants and children, and see that It In Use For Over 30 Years. Children Cry for Fletcher’s Castoris Gallant Blind Man. “Ah, you’re a pretty lady.” "What’s that? I thought you were blind.” “In a sense only. ' I never see the ugly women.” —Journal Amusant. If You Are a Trifle Sensitive About the size of your Bhoes, you can wear a size smaller by Bhaking Allen’s Foot* Ease, the antiseptic powder, into them. Just the thing for Dancing Parties and for Breaking in New Shoes. Sample Free. Address Allen S. Olmsted, Le Roy, N. 1. Idle Fund. “That man has a vast fund of In formation.” “Yes,”- replied Senator Sorghpm; "but he can’t put a dollar mark In front of it and use It for a campaign fund.” The Paxton Toilet Co. of Boston, Mass., will Bend a large trial box of Paxtlne Antiseptic, a delightful cleans ing and germicidal toilet preparation, to any woman, free, upon request. Knew Hie Weakness. Benham —I like to linger over a bath. Mrs. Benham —Yes, an internal one. ONT.Y ONE “BROMO QUININE.” That Is LAXATIVE BltOMO QUININE. Loot fot tho signature of B. W. GROVE. Used the World over to Cure a Cold in One Day. 26c. What ought not to be done, do not even think of doing. —Epictetus. Mrs. Wtnalow’s Soothing Syrup for Children .teething, softens the gums, reduces inflamma tion, allays pain, cures wind colic, 85c a bottle. Some of the charity that begins at home isn’t up to the standard. ••Pink Eye** la Epldeqnle In the Spring. Try Murine Eye Remedy for Reliable Relief A pretty girl never approves of men who flirt with other girls. PUTNAM FADELESS DYES Cursory. A huntsman called on Hodge to set* tie for damages done by a run to hounds, and found only Mrs. Hodge at home. "Has your husband,” he Inquired “made an examination yet?" "That he have, sir,” replied Mrs. Hodge with a courtesy. "Rather a cursory examination, I suspect." "Oh, dreadful, sir! Such langwldge I never heerd—never!" And the good woman held up her hands at the bare recollection.—Judge. * Bure Does. "The pen Is mightier than the sword.” "But the typewriter puts It all over the pen.” ~ ’“~ ' ' t FILES CUBED IN 6 TO 14 DATS Yonrdruggiat will rofnna money If PAZO OINT- i £KNT fall* to cure any case of itching, Blind, leading or Protruding Pile* in 610 14 days. 60a. , . i The commanding intellect should j have the command and be king.— i Schiller. ; I Be happy. Use Red Cross Bag Blue; much better than liquid blue. Delights the laundress. All grocers. An optimist Is a man who knows that his troubles might be worse. For Constipation, Biliousness, Liver and Kidney Troubles, take Garfield Tea. An old toper Is satisfied If he can keep his head above water. If the blood is poor and filled with the l'’T^Ul? l ft ■»■—. . 1 poisons from diseased kidneys or inac -1 I nr I** 1 ** ( Mh-A Ij r I tive liver, the heart is not only starved 1 ** •“ l 1 11-*/ I b u t poisoned as well. There are many A \ A conditions due to impure blood —such \ as dropsy, fainting spells, nervous debll* ity or the many scrofulous conditions, ulcers, “fever sores,” white swellings, etc. AU can be overcome and cured by Dr. Pierce’s Gofien Medical Discovery This supplies pure blood —by aiding digestion, increasing assimilation and imparting tone to the whole circulatory system. It’s a heart tonic and a great deal more, having an alterative action on the liver and kidneys, it helps to eliminate the poisons from the blood. To enrich the blood and increase the red blood corpuscles, thereby feeding the nerves on rich red blood and doing away with nervous irri tability, take Dr. Pierce's Golden Medical Discovery and do not permit a dishonest dealer to insult your intelligence with the “just as good kind.” The “Discovery” has 40 years of cures behind it and contains no alcohol or narcotics. Ingredients plainly printed on wrapper. Dr. Pierce’s Common Sense Medical Adviser is sent free on receipt of stamps to pay expense of wrapping and mailing only. Send 31 one-cent stamps for the French cloth-bound book. Address: Dr. R. V. Pierce, Buffalo, N.Y. © FOR PfEYE CATARRHAL FEVER rum lie. sir™ Cures the skin and acts as a preventive for others. Liquid given on the tongue. Safe for brood mares and all others. Best kidney remedy »6fl cents and Cl .00 a bottle; 15.00 and SlO.OO the dozen. Sold by all druggists and horse goods houses, or sent express paid, by the manufacturers, SPOHN MEDICAL CO., Chemists, GOSHEN, INDIANA Carbo ' a,ed Vaseline aim* The best dressing you can find for wounds, bites of insects, abrasions, etc. The Carbolic Acid helps to prevent Infection: the iTieSHRB "Vaseline” cleanses and soothes. Especially valuable where there are children. vaS®Jag 1 For sale everywhere in handy glass bottles. Be sure you get VSfel* w.. 1 .. «r a CSt ••Vaseline." Our various “Vaseline” preparations meke up a complete medicine flgkltyb I<c>> » ***'• g«e ySI, chest that should bo In every homo. Write for free booklet telling all kSfifl||i|j Jill about them. Address Dept. K. Chesebrough Manufacturing Company 17 State Street (Consolidated) New York W. L. DOUGLAS shoes •2.25 *2.50 *3.00 *3.50 MOO & *5.00 Jt M For MEN, WOMEN and BOYS Ml THE STANDARD OF QUALITY E«l FOR OYER 30 YEARS WAP THE NEXT TIME YOU NEED SHOES (KT WL give W.L. Douglas shoes a trial. W. L. '& '/ O Douglas name stamped on a shoe guar- ffyj antee* superior quality and more value fi/ for the money than other makes. His A name and price stamped on the bottom I protects the wearer against high prices Ji and inferior shoes. Insist upon having M, / k the genuine W. L. Douglas shoes. Take no substitute. If your dealer cannot supply W.l-Donglae Bhoce, write W. L.Douglas, Brockton, Hm, for catalog. Shoes sent V everywhere delivery chargee prepaid. East Color Eyelet* used. SWK&kflHHinaw f&£fia£bcal 4 TWO WEEKS’ TREATMENT AND MEDICINE FREE no matter what yoOr disease. If you suffef from Rheumatism.write. If you suffer frofli Kidney Trouble, write. No matter what you suffer from, write to MUNYON’S DOCTORS 03d and Jefferson Sts., Philadelphia, Pa. NOT A PENNY TO PAY Offer Is Good for the Next Thirty Days LADY AGENTS WANTED “Semy-Mayde” Garments for Children “Semy-Mayde” means garments cut and ready to sew, including all trimmings and bindings A Good Living from tha Start, with an ever-increasing and permanent patronage. Dressea for children are needed to-day, to-mor* row, every day. “Semy-Mayde” dr eases are ex* actly what mothers need and want. We want you to tell your neighbors the facta, show tha goods, and take orders for “Semy-Mayde** garments. No capital or investment required, clean, enjoyable, profitable, employment for spare time or all the time. Write for full detalla. WARMER-GOD FREY GO.. 86 WORTH ST., N.Y. CITY » THE BEST STOCK -rmX, saddles:?^ M lyable prices, write for frit W Xfl Illustrated catalogue. VV, A. H. HESS * CO. - ° M 3 Tr.rU SL. Boaitoa Ta W. N. U., DENVER. NO. 14-1912.