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PROGRESS IN THE PHILIPPINE ISLANDS
GOVERNOR FORBES of the Philippine Islands Is In this country telling of the great work the United States U doing In the archipelago. Among the evidences'of the resultß of civilisation which he brought'ls the accom panying photograph. It shows a Bontoc Igorot, a member of a savage head-hunting tribe, photographed when making application to join the Philippine constabulary, and the same “savage" as a member of the constabulary one year later. BETRAYED BY PUMP Two West Point Cadets Found Guilty by Contrivance. Student* Accused by Commander of Having Partaken of Forbidden Re freshments, Make Denial and Are Sent to Hospital. West Point, N. Y. —Because they were found guilty of following otber alleged transgressions by a violation of one of the most stringent rules or the army, Charles Carroll Fltsbugh, appointed frpm North Dakota, and Frederic Hurd Van Horn, from Con necticut, were dismissed from the Mil itary Academy recently by Ueneral Thomas Barry, commandant of the post. An Innocent but efficient stom ach pump used In the post hospital accomplished the downfall of the cadets. Both cadets were members of the fourth class and obtained permission to leave their quarters on April 27 to witness a baseball game on the post athletic field. They discarded their cadet uniforms, and, dressed In natty civilian attire, escaped tbd~ watchful eyes of their superiors after the game and slipped away from the reserva tion. The late afternoon and part of the evening of that day Fltsbugh and Van Horn were alleged to have spent In the village of Highland Falls. They were detected by one of the of ficers when they attempted, under cover of darkness, to slip unobserved back to their quarters. One of the - charges subsequently lodged against the cadets was that when absent from the post they had partaken of Intoxicants. Both denied the charge. To tell an untruth Is considered In the. army an- unforglvable offense. General Barry learned of the cadets' denial.' He ordered both to the hos pital. A report reached the office of the commandant soon after a vigorous application of the pump, that estab lished .to the satisfaction of Ueneral Barry that both had partaken of the forbidden refreshments. The order ot dismissal followed. SORCERY REVIVED IN FRANCE Two Women Discovered Practicing a Medieval Form of Witchcraft by Bergeant. London. —An extraordinary story comer from Calais. While a sergeant was on guard before the postern gate of the old citadel two black-veiled women glided slowly Into view, and one of the visitors Btretched herself out on the damp grass with arms ex tended in the rorm of a cross. Tbe other with a small spade began hastily to dig a hole In the ground. In It she placed a packet wrapped In wblte linen, covered It aa quickly as possi ble. Under the Idea thqt be bad wit nessed the closing scenes of an In fanticide, tbe sergeant notlHed tbe eutbo.-itles, and tbe packet wae die- Interred and taken to the police bead quarters. At the tame time a doctor wbb summoned, who at once began to unwrap the parcel. What was the astonishment or the Investigators finally to discover, not the remains of a child, but merely a pig's heart And In what a condition! It was pierced through and through In every direction with no fewer than 113 pins, and was also traversed by a dagger. 0 # In tact the authorities were raced with a case of "envoutement," one of the favorite forms of sorcery In the middle ages, which borrowed- It from antiquity. It was then practiced very generally, together with the “black mass,” the “reptile sacrament," human sacrifice, and other superstitious rel ics of barbarism. The method was adopted as rollows: Some hairs or articles of clothing of the person to be bewitched were pro cured, and an animal was chosen to represent this person, and was named after him. The creature was first placed In contact with the victim's be longings, and then slain with a magic dagger. Its heart was taken out and wrapped, If possible. In the person's clothes, and during three days pins and nails were driven through It to Fine Pasturage in Ocean Dr. oaul Portler Tell* of Vast Grazing Land* Under Water —Food Val ue* of Varloua Fishes. Paris. —Tbe food resources of the sea was recently tbe subject of an In teresting lecture at tbe Paris Institute Oceanogrnphlque. Tbe lecturer, Ur. Paul Portler, stated that In tbe sea. as on tbe land, there exist tracts of vege tation wblcb constitute tbe food or herbivorous animals, such as tbe sea horse or molluscs. These In tbelr turn are devoured by tbe carnivora, such as sharks, micro-organisms, put refaction Anally reducing botb animal and vegetable organisms to tbelr prime elements. Fish are most abundant on wbat is known as tbe continental plateau, which extends to a distance of Ml to 100 kilometers from tbe coasts and where tbe sea bas a maximum deptb of 400 meters. On this plateau algae or seaweeds abound. At greater deptbs they become rarer, because tbe light necessary for tbelr existence Is absorbed or reAected by tbe water of tbe sea. Marine mammals, such as the whale or tbe seal, are only exceptionally utilized as food by man. Porpoises, bowever, are occasionally sold in tbe Paris market. The food supplies of tbe sea are furnlsbed by tbe Ash. properly so called, such as soles, tur bots, mackerels, skates, herrings, sar dines, salmon, conger eels, etc. The nutritive value of Ash la ex tremely variable. Taking a certain weight of bread to have a food value of 6*. tbe same weight of sole would an accompaniment of curses and male dictions. It was believed tbat all the tortures Inflicted on the dead ani mal heart would be endured by the living Individual. A much more common wav. how ever, was to mold a wax Image ot the person to be bewitched and to dress It In the clothes he or she usually wore. The waxen doll was then cursed and tortured In the hope that the person would suiter the same. AT MERCY OF BIG MADMAN Pennsylvania Qlant Uses His Wooden Leg and Teeth as Weapons Against Officers. Berwick. Pa. —Big Joe. an alien, con sidered the most powerful man In West Berwick, became violently In sane, and, rushing from his home, spreaa terror In his path, taking to some open common and defying cap ture. It required the efforts of a Lum ber of men to capture him, and once In the lock-up he battered the door with his head so violently that It was feared he would fracture his skull. He was hurried to the Danville hospital and almost overpowered the four offi cers who had him In charge, biting two of them and with bis wooden leg almost knocked Chauffeur Creasy out of the machine. West Berwick has had a mad dog epidemic and it Is feared he was bit ten by a mad dog. bave a food value of 17, the skate 13. the salmon 42 and the eel 73. Tbe nutritive value of tbe salmon and tbe eel Is due particularly to tbe large percentage of oil, which renders them also less easily digestible. Potted fish are generally more nutritive than fresh fish, because they contain a smaller percentage of water, and fats are often added In tbe preserving process. On comparing tbe cost of Osh for equal nutritive values, taking bread as tbe unit of comparison, tbe follow ing figures are obtained as against tbe worth of bread: Herring, 4 francs, 60 cents; mackerel, tt francs. 36 cents; sardine, 8 francs, 36 cents; eel, 11 francs; salmon, 27 francs; tur bot. 28 francs: sole. 75 francs, 36 cents. As regard molluscs, mussels, oys ters, periwinkles, etc., these, says Ur Paul Portler, bave but' a very small nutritive value, and the same bolds good of tbe Crustacea Canals Effect on Fish. New York. —Scientists here will watch with great Interest the effect of the intermixing of the flsb of the Atlantic and Pacific oceans, which Is expected to follow the opening of the Panama canal. Accurate Informa tion on the gubject will be mada avail able through a faunal survey of tha Isthmian waters Just completed. A second survey will be mada In from five to ten yeara to verify the prognos tication of a complete Intermixing of species on tbe two coaata. Historic Blackguards By ALBERT PAYSON TERHUNE Copyright, by the Pna« Publishing Co. (The New York World). William Cunningham, Jailer of New York "Revolution Martyrs’* OLK of fashion do I comp lain right griev- «c; T; ously that the groanlngs 'and la mentable cries of the rebel prisoners (both here In New York and in the prison ship on the Breucklen shore) CAPT. WILLIAM CUNNINGHAM disturb their slumbers. And they pray that Master Cunningham, our provost marshal, will devise some means to keep the poor wretches quiet of nights.” So runs an old letter written In New York during the darkest days of the American Revolution. The Brit ish had captured New York and Phila delphia. To both cities —but chiefly to New York—they brought thousands of patriot soldiers, captured in battle, and many non-combatants who had risked freedom and life to help the cause of liberty by money, gifts or by patriotic speeches. These unlucky captives were not trected like prisoners of war. They were housed and fed —or, rather, starved—ln away the law nowadays would not permit for cattle or swine. And the man In charge of them was a blackguard whose own countrymen loathed him, William Cunningham. Cunningham was the son of a Brit ish dragoon and was born In the regimental barracks at Dublin. In 1774 he came. to America and settled In New York, where he made a living for some time by “breaking" colts and by giving riding lessons. When the Revo lution broke out, In 1775, he became Involved In a political row with some local patriots and was forced to flee to Boston, there to seek the protection of the British army. His noisy loyalty to King George 111. got him Into trouble there and at tracted the notice of Thomas Gage, the English general. Gage appointed him provost marshal to the royal army. His chance for "revenge" had come. Cunningham was sent back to New York and was put In charge of the Revolutionary prisoners there and in Philadelphia. There were several lm- Charles II, the Merry Monarch “Hero lies our sovereign lord, the King, Whose word no man relies on: He never says a foolish thing. Nor ever does a wise one.” I HIS acurrll o u a verse was found scrawled one T morning on the bedroom door of hla majesty. King Charles 11. of Eng land. The king read the rhyme, smiled carelessly at the horrified CHARLES II. courtiers and passed on. Another man might have taken oltense at being thus lampooned. But Charles had two remarkable traits that saved him much bother: He never carried a grudge and he never felt gratitude. When Charles 11. was a- mere boy his father, Charles 1., had been over thrown and beheaded by England's "Parliamentary Party." The young fellow had not stayed In England to light to the death In his father's cause. Instead he had slipped over to Hol land, where he was living In Jolly gecurity. But on hearing of the king's execution he promptly proclaimed himself "King Charles II.” The proc lamation did him little good. For the parliamentary party (with Oliver Cromwell at Its head) had for the time made England an Impossible place for kings. Still, the Scotch, ever restless (and probably forgetting they had betrayed and sold his fugitive father to the English), offered to make Charles their king If he would give them cer tain promises. These promises seemed to him disgraceful. Tet a promise was one thing that Charles was nlwsy willing to give, knowing he could readily break bis word later. He went to Scotland and In 1651 was crowned. Then be invaded England Cromwell quickly routed him out of both England and Scotland and sent him scuttling to France for safety. But when Cromwell died, England grew tired of Puritanism and the parliament's rule and the people gladly welcomed Charles home as their king. It was the beginning of modern England, and of a reign whose profligacy and scandals set the whole world agf>g. Charles embarked at promptu prisons in Now York where the patriot captives were lodged. One was the city hall, another the famous old “Sugar House," another, King's (now Columbia) college; another the "new gaol” (the old hall of records in City Hall park), torn down only a few years ago), and —worst of all— the "prison ship ‘Jersey,’ ” moored on tue Brooklyn shore. Churches were also turned into Jails. In the prison ship the captives were herded by hundreds in dark, foul pens, destitute of pure air and sunlight. They were given such food as a dog might well scorn, and in such tiny quantities as would not sufflce to keep a dog alive. The water they drank was filthy. No medical core or chance for cleanliness or exercise was granted them. Prison fever and other maladies scourged their ranks. They died like so many files. To such fearful condition were they reduced that the lowest city outcasts were touched by pity and secretly sent them food. The fate of the captives in the new igaol, or hall of records, was little bet ter. Here is an extract from Pin tar d’s account of their sufferings: "So closely were they packed to gether that when they lay down at night to rest, on the hard oak planks, and they wished to turn, it was all together, by word of command— ‘right’—"left’—being so wedged as to form almost a solid mass of human bodies." Ail war is cruel. But such torture as this was Inexcusable. And (though the British government might perhaps have bettered matters had they chos en to) the lion’s share of the blame was Cunningham’s. Cunningham went back to England after the war and took to riotous liv ing. Being short of money to squan der on dissipation, be forged a draft. For this crime he was tried, con demned, and, on August 10, 1791, was hanged. He is said to have been responsible for the shameful death of nearly 2,500 American patriots. Nor could mere hatred for the colonists account for this wholesale slaughter, since he dis honestly sold for his own profit the provisions allotted to them. once on a life of pleasure. He turned a deaf ear to the pleas of those who bad beggared themselves In behalf of his father and himself. He said he bad no money to spend on sucn peo ple. But he squandered fortunes at the gambling stable and In heaping wealth and rank upon such women as he chanced to fancy. He neglected and 111-treated his homely little wife, broke state pledges at will, lavished money on low favor ites and mismanaged the nation. Rochester In calling him “a merry monarch, scandalous and poor,** had but spoken the truth. Charles's chief advisers were five noblemen (Clifford, Ashley, Bucking ham. Arlington and Lauderdale), who aided him to defy parliament and cheat the people. The first letters of these men's names In order spelled "Cabal,” and the oddly coined word has ever since been used to describe any conspiracy against the state. To get money for his own purposes Charles sold two English towns to France. He also accepted a large yearly sum of money from the French king (Louis XIV.) to act In that mon arch’s Interests. All this did not add to hts popularity with his own people, who hated France. In 1663 war broke out between England and Holland. A Dutch fleet Invaded England, sailed up the Med way river as far as Chatham, destroy ing everything In Its path. London In 1666 was swept By the plague and In 1666 by fire. Plots, religious disturb ances, national discontent—all sorts of misfortunes piled up. Through It all the Merry Monarch pursued his calm, blackguardly way; seriously disturbed by nothing; enriching vice and allowing virtue to starve; his lire and his court the scandal of the civ ilized world. He would probably have been assassinated were It not that his brother James—duke of York, the most unpopular man In England— would have succeeded him as king. For Charles and the queen had no children. In February, 1686, Charles 11. died. To the last he was the Merry Mon arch, whimsically begging his cour tiers’ pardon “for being such a long time In dying.” Courage, wit and lolly nature were his only good qual ities. There were perhaps still fewer bad ones he did not possess.