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Washington as an
Object Lesson (Extract* from an address by Representative Philip Pitt Campbell of Kansas in the House.) B. SPEAKER, governments do not spring up; they are created. They do not endure; they may be perpetu ated. Is history u picture gallery con tabling few originals and many copies? Do the people of former periods set the exuniple for the peo ple of periods that follow? Is there u destiny that shapes our ends? An independent and free people may be originul, make and follow their own plans, and determine their own des tiny. This hour is full of Interest to M those who nre concerned with ques tions affecting the welfure of the people und the future of the republic. 80 It Is not my purpose todny to attempt to ex tend the fume or add to the renown of Washing coo. His fame Is secure even to the earth's remot est bounds; his renown will grow as the centuries unfold lhe scroll of the ages. While men care for wisdom and honor and patriotism and appreciate the achievements of those who have served man kind, Washington will have a place In the minds end hearts of men In all countries und In all ages. (Applause.) I shall therefore take occasion on this anniversary of his birth to note the government established by the fathers, the achievements made under It by the American people and its benefits to mankind, and at the same time consider the de partures thut liuve been made from Its funda mental principles and purposes thut endanger its perpetuity. It Is sufe to say that the creution and adoption of the Constitution of the United States, mark the world's greutest achievement In the art of self government. The fathers under the leadership of Washington undertook the delicate and difficult task of creating a government with such endur ing principles as would make It susceptible of be ing perpetuated. It wus provided that euch citizen who lived under It should for ull time be the politi cal equul of every other citizen and that every man Should have the opportunity of obtaining Individu al reward for Individual effort. The government created was of the people, by the people, und for the people. Its purposes and powers are simple, plain, and direct. It offers protection to the citl ** ten Iq his right to life, liberty, property, and in the pursuit of his happiness. The powers granted are enumerated with such other powers as may natur ally be implied from the written Instrument. These powers Impose upon the government cre ated the duty of dealing with nntlonnl and international questions affecting the life, the char acter. and the honor of the republic and Its people In their national and International relations. The right and duty of dealing with such questions as affect the Individual citizen are left to the states and the smaller political subdivisions. Under this division of political authority and duty the people of the United States have through a hundred and thirty years enjoyed the freest and best govern ment in all the world. Under the simple guaran ties of government thnt make the individual secure In his natural rights the American citizen hns been developed. He Is self-reliant, resourceful, cour ageous, Inventive, ambitious, patriotic, and appre ciative of bis heritage of freedom. There runs through his veins Ihe best blood of every people north of the Mediterranean seu. From the days Of the fathers every generation hns offered und freely given life and property for the maintenance of the honor, the preservation of the Integrity, und the advancement of the glory of the republic. It Is ours. We must preserve it. We must not im pose duties upon it that It cannot perform. We must not ask the exercise of functions for which It was not created. We must not indulge In the hope of things from It that It cunnot give. We must not Invite disappointments In the operation of Its activities. It Is enough thut It shall ulwnys offer protection to all thut man holds dour and shall continue to alTord opportunities to the in dividual citizen to obtain rewards according to bis Individual ambitions nnd efforts. This lends me to call attention to the Important duties of this hour that require us to take our beur- Ing and to nscertnin how far we have ulrendy been beguiled to depurt from it and divert nnd multiply tbe activities of the government In matters foreign to Its original purposes, and to contemplate the effects of such departure on tbe life of the govern ment and on the opportunity of the Individual citi zen. It would be difficult to enumerate all the de partments, bureaus, nnd commissions of the govern ment at Washington that have been created to ex ercise bureaucratic authority and paternal guardi anship over the people In every pnrt of the re public. There Is no activity, business, social, or domestic condition thnt is not the object of their supervision, their solicitude, or their authority. Over 600,000 civilian employees make up the army that oversees and directs the affairs of the people and assumes guardianship over them. Govern ment agents and inspectors, exercising every va riety of authority, are found on every Pullman OUt of and Into Washington. Government reports OB every subject from adenoids to rat traps fill the oill of offices that cover acres of floor space In Weehlngton. The mahogany and quarter-sawed oak office furniture already installed has cost many millions of dollars, and more is being purchased. If a yearling dies of blackleg on a farm In Kansas, the government at Washington acts on the case. If a hog dies of the cholera In a hog lot fp lowa, the 'government at Washington takes Sharpe. If s weevil bores through a boll of cot hSß #• • plantation in Texas, the government at Washington is stirred to action. Nothing escapes the vigllunt eye of the government and its Innura eruble functionaries. If the price of one article goes up, let the government tnke charge of the seller; If the price of uuother goes down, let the government take charge of the buyer. And thus the cumlval of government activities goes mer rily on. Government control Is the remedy for every ill, and government regulation the source of every good. The people pay all the expenses. In some In stances they pay It all through the government at Washington. In the case of other activities they pay half through the government at Washington and the other half through the governments of the states. But the people puy all the expenses of this complicated machinery of government, that hns Its agents looking over the shoulders of every busi ness man and directing affulrs of every citizen. The futliers embodied with rare wisdom those elements of strength und endurance which were essentiul if the government was to be perpetuuted through the uges. They avoided with the fore sight of statesmen the things that lead to disap pointment and discontent among the people. The fathers studied the experience of munkind In self government. They studied the lessons and prottted by the teachings of history. They sought and found the causes of failure by other peoples In the experiment of self-government. They did not wander Into the realms of fancy. They were cre ating a government for human beings whose na ture bus remuined the same through all the cen turies of time. They knew that the things that in other ages lud Invited criticism, provoked dis content, and resulted in disappointment and revo lution would leud to the same end in future ages. They therefore created a government adapted to the nature of man, a simple government of laws to be enucted and-enforced by the chosen representa tives of a free people. The purpose of the govern ment was to protect them In their natural rights, and to enable them to meet their nutlonnl and international duties and obligations. Its powers were limited. The fathers did not contemplate at any time under the Constitution they gave us a government by men. It was not In the scheme of the fathers that at any time the people should be beguiled Into using the government at Washington for supervising or directing their purely personal, lo cal, and domestic uffuirs. They knew that In a government of free people no man is big enough or wise enough or good enough to commnnd an other, his political equal, in whut he may or may not do. It Is fundamental that a free people may not be expected long to endure the annoynnces, the vexations, the arbitrary regulations, the restric tions, or the disappointments that are incident to government by men acting as the functionaries of a central authority, directing the affairs of and exercising police powers over the people in the remotest parts of their territorial limits. Even the assurances of government bureaus that the authority exercised over the liberty of the citi zens is for his own good will not long beguile the citizen Into a surrender of his right to live under a government of laws enacted by his authority and consent that merely protect him from Injury by others and protect others from injury by him. There Is no word In the discussion by the fath ers of the powers and duties of the government they have handed down to us that leads to the belief that it was contemplated In their plan that the head of any department or the chief of any bureau or the agent of any commission should at any time make restrictions or arbitrary regula tions affecting the life, liberty, property, or the pursuit of happiness of the citizen. Such restric tions upon the Individual as were contemplated runtvwWOT! WELLS RECORD _ PORTRAIT BY STUART, 1795 were to be made only by the states, and the lesser political subdivisions bavins immediate Jurisdic tion, and then only by the plain terms ot stututes enacted by the representatives of the people. The rapidly growing and alannlng tendency today Is toward a centralization of all authority and power incident to government In Washington. We have already ignored the admonition of the fathers; we have defied the laws of human nature, which have never chunged; we have overlooked tile lessons of history. All these have admonished us thut only governments of simple luws cun prop erly serve or long endure iu u country of free peo ple. We have already been led by the delusion that government bureaus, exercising bureaucratic authority and police power, not authorized by the terms or Implied by the provisions of the Con stitution, are better for the iteople than a govern ment of plain statutes. We have been lured by the promise that government agents would lead the citizen by the hand into green pastures, be side still waters, Into elysian fields, then on into the millennium. Already the citizen looks about him and finds himself in the midst of u fool’s puradise, entirely surrounded by government bu reaus. So many of the numerous bureaus of the government are exercising bureaucrutic au thority and police power that they meet the citizen everywhere lie turns—in his Helds, in his mills. In his mines, in his shops, in his factories, in his places of business, great and small—every where substituting the will and judgment of a government agent for the will and judgment of the individual citizen. No matter in whut direction the citizen muy turn, 10, the agent of the govern ment is there to forbid or to command. Instead of remaining his protector, the government has become his guardian. There are many matters that require more thun Individual attention, matters in which co-oi»erotlon Is not only desiruble but necessary. In all such mnttcrs the smaller political subdivisions and the states should be resorted to. In that way the portion of the public directly concerned are able to observe and intelligently determine whether those they have employed to do the particular things they require are rendering a service that Justifies the continuance of the activity and the expense Involved in carrying It on. It is a pro found truth thut that government is best that governs least. c The government of the United States | 8 ()t great national an,l lnternath.nl lmp„r t „ m . e t(> people even unto the remotest townshln i. let of the republic that Its place HSJr SScSS should not be Imperiled, nor should It be . ! the object of common criticism for failure „ do the citizen what the citizen alone cun do for dm self. A solemn responsibility and a great du v immediately confront us here. We nre the chosen representatives of the American people, sworn protect and defend the Constitution against af , . ernles, foreign and domestic. It is time to bogn the process of reestablishing a govern, nent of laws under the Constitution. It | s time to limit Th! activities and reduce the expenses of government at Washington (Applause.) The process of elm looting every element of weakness with which the government has been burdened and which now make It the object of criticism should be gradual but persistent, until we can again l„„ k upon u as the simple government of laws, given us by the fathers for the purpose of guaranteeing life ill! erty, property, and the pursuit of happiness of h! peoplo, with the hope that our children and thei! children from generation to generation may h„ V e in the centuries as they come and go the guaranties and the same opportunities and our nncestors have enjoyed under th. nl stltutlon of the United State* (AppuU > 000 APPROPRIATION FOR NAVY CUT SECRETARY OF NAVY’S ESTI MATE CALLS FOR REDUCTION IN PERSONNEL. DENBY PROPOSES SLASH CONGRESS THREATENS FIGHT OVER NAVAL RATIO FIGURE. (tVrstrrn Ne#(paprr Union News Benrlce.) Washington. Secretary Denhy, In nsklnft Congress for an appropriation of $880,000,000 for the navy next year, ran Into the edge of u threatened fight by advocate* of government economy to "scrap” the naval estab lishment ratio figure urrangetl by th» arms conference. In n frank und detailed statement as to wliat the Navy Department hoped to accomplish, Mr. Denhy told the House naval committee that his estimate called for a reduction of 10,000 in enlisted personnel which was made possible only hy putting about 100 destroyers out of commission und by sharp cuts in shore station forces. It was brought out In the discus sion that some members of Congress believed In urging a naval appropria tion hill carrying no more than *175,- 000,000 or .$200,000,000, but Mr. Denhy agreed with the view expressed by members of the committee that such a reduction would put the United States actually below Oroat Britain and .la part, while leaving the tonnage ratio at 5-5-3, as agreed to by the con ference. Believing that with a smaller fight ing force the navy should be kept “on its toes,” leaders standing behind Sec retary Denby’s estimate declared that to limit the appropriation under $200,- 000,000 would mean for the United States a nuvy really smaller than that of Japan. They insisted that instead of five-five each for the United States and (Ireat Britain and three for Jupun, the standing would he with the esti mate so widely slashed a ratio of (Ireat Britain five, United States two and Japan three. In opposing any reduction in the line officer personnel, the navy secretary also recommended that the first class at the naval academy be graduated and commissioned, leaving the statua of other classes to be determined by Congress. Mr. Denby told the committee the navy was under-manned, and that, while he had been giving the subject close study, it was only recently the idea occurred to him that he could recommend an enlisted strength of 90,- 000, or 10,000 below the authorized murk, by putting 100 destroyers out of commission. He stood firm on his esti mate, members of the committee de claring afterward that they were in clined to accept it. Most of the opposition in the House to “a 100 per cent navy” was reported to exist among members from the Mid dle West and plains states. Represen tative Mondell of Wyoming, the Repub lican leader, has been listed among those ready to fight to cut the navy to the bone. While members of the appropriations subcommittee, which will fix the navy’s total, were unwilling to be quoted, some of them intimated they had been impressed by the navy view that the only way to keep the ratio of the three biggest naval powers at the figures set by the arms conference was by giving every ship its compete complement of officers und men. Optimism Prevails In Washington. Washington.—Despite a further de cline of business activity during De cember and January, there was n con tinued improvement In “fundamental conditions and a spirit of optimism prevails in practically every industry that augurs well for the future,” ac cording to a review of the economic situation in the United States con tained in the survey of current busi ness, issued by the Department of Commerce. Considerable progress bus been made toward getting the country back to normal business. Ford Stands by Original Offer. Washington.—Efforts of House mil itary committee men to exact, u pledge for the manufacture of fertilizers dur ing the 100-year life of the proposed contract by Henry Ford, for purchase and lease of the government’s proper ties at Muscle Shoals, Ala., have failed. W. B. Mayo, the personal representa tive of Mr. Ford, declared the Detroit manufacturer was not willing to mod ify his offer in any of its existing pro visions, unless it was to clarify lan guage only and not to alter the plan itself. University Abolishes Honor Bystem. Philadelphia.—The honor system In examinations at the Wharton school of finance of the University of Pennsyl vania has been suspended temporarily because the classes have become so large as to make the system difficult of operation. Dean Emory R. John son declared that students of the pres ent day were quite as honorable as when the system first was installed, but that the faculty felt it would be better to return to the old form of supervised examinations. 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