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Atlanta Georgian. [volume] (Atlanta, Ga.) 1912-1939, January 18, 1914, ATLANTA, Image 52

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Persistent link: https://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn89053729/1914-01-18/ed-3/seq-52/

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The TURKEY
Is LOSING
Its WHITE
MEAT
THE interesting discovery lias been made that the
"white meal” of the turkey has steadily grown
less during the last two hundred years, while
the "drumsticks” have grown stronger, bigger and more
sinewy. The white meat, as every one knows, is the
breast, and the drumsticks are the legs of the turkey
The time is fast approaching when the choice turkey
breast will be so attenuated that the "Christmas bird'
will have to take second or even third place at the
board —unless steps are taken to curtail its man-made
tendency to run to legs.
Measurements that have been carried on in this
country and in England seem to prove that there is an
average of a quarter of a pound less white meat on the
turkey of to-day than there was on the domesticated
No Such Thins* as PURE WATER
PURE water is a ehemical curiosity; ii does not exist
in nature. The nearest approach we can get to
absolute purity in water is distilled water. Tills,
however, is not desirable as a constant beverage lor
a healthy person, because il lack: the mineral salts
which are particularly needed lor the bones and
muscles.
Although practically none of the water we drink is
really pure, this does not mean that it is all harmful
Water may contain as much as 300 parts per million
of total solids and still be perfectly good to drink It
is the character of the foreign matter in water, and
not its quantity, which makes it good or bad for us
1 Mineral matter is the most common foreign substance
'ound in water, owing to the fact that all water at
some time or other passes through rocks and soil.
When water contains an unusually large percentage
of minera l salts it Is known as "hard” water. Mineral
salts are not only the most common, but the least ob
jectionable kind of matter found in water. In mod
erate quantities they make water better, rather than
worse. Water, however, that contains more than 100
grains to the gallon of such salts as magnesium or
sodium sulphate is a mineral water, rather than a good
drinking water, and should be taken only as medicine
It used to be thought that calculus, goitre and various
othei diseases were caused by drinking "hard" water,
but no satisfactory proof of this has yet been estab
Halted. But, although "hard” water probably does no
harm to our bodies, it certain!}; doos to our pocket
SNOWBALLS for Your HEADACHE or St
By Dr. L. K. HIRSH BERG.
SNOW in the city loses its beauty so quickly
and is the source of so much discomfort
that we are apt to regard it as anything
but a blessing. Yet snow does many very neces
nary things for this earth ami the creatures who
inhabit it. One of its chief benefits is tile pro
tection it gives the soil ami all vegetation dur
ing the cold Winter months
Another important service is rendered man
kind by snow through its power to strain the
atmosphere of its smoko, dirt, dust ami the
germs of pneumonia, tuberculosis and a host of
other diseases.
"I prefer dry snows to wet ones.' you often
say. The reason for this is your intuitive un
derstanding that the crisp, fluffy crystals of dry
snow act like absorbent cotton, clearing the air
of all the terrible microparaeites and dirt.
Dry. crisp snow for the most part never melts,
but is worn away by friction, and this process
does a great deal toward purifying the atmos
pltere.
How the TANGO Trains You to DO BETTER WORK
WITH tlte capable man to think is to act. His
sense of kinesthesia, the sense by which
lie ieels movements ami makes his muscles
instantly responsive to suggestions from his brain -is
highly developed, and this is why lie is able to do
things quicker and better than other persons
Although from a psychological standpoint vision is
the most important of our senses, kinesthesia, accord
Ing to Dr. George Van Ness Dearborn, takes first
rank when considered from the standpoint of physi
ology.
The motor centres of the brain, you see, have no
occult power of foreseeing what any one muscle or
set of muscles is about to do Their power of care
fully co-ordinating the movements of muscles which
an far removed from the brain as, for instance,
those in the foot or the hand depends entirely upon
a continual telegraphing along the nerve fibres of in
formation regarding the relation of the different muscles
;o each other Without this information the motor cen
ires would !>• helpless to co-ordinate our movements
properly ami it is the function of the sense of kin
esthesia to supply this information
Psychologists defend the tango and other new dances
because they say they develop our sense of kinesthesia,
and consequently make us more efficient in everything
.ve have to do. As can be readily seen dancing or any
exercise which strengthens and quickens the re polish i
less between our muscles and our brains make- our kin
esthetic sense keener \ eoursi at dancing school
mi kes an awkward girl graceful by den ioping her sen-i
.if kinesthesia
i
Less Getting Bigger and
turkey of 1880, and that there is an average of three
quarters of a pound less white meat on the domesti
cated turkey than there is on the wild fowl, which is
his progenitor.
The reason for this is simple when one learns it.
It is simply that the-turkey, under domestication, has
been discouraged from flying, and has been taught to
use his legs more.
The breast meat is formed by the great flight muscles
of the bird’s wings, and naturally these can only hold
their own by constant use.
The wild turkey uses its wdngs as much as any flying
bird, and so the breast muscles which work the wings
are strong and thick. The tame turkey has been en
couraged to stay within limited domains, and discour
aged from flying. The consequence is that it uses its
wings rarely, and depends more upon its legs. The in
evitable result is that the wing? grow smaller, as all
disused or little used organs do, while the legs get
steadily bigger and tougher. This is the process that
has been going on ever since the bird was first domes
ticated, and the results show to-day in a marked de
crease in the size of wings and breast.
Much the same causes have worked in the cases of
the duck and goose. Everyone knows what little meat
here is on the breasts of these two fowls. The wild
■;oose and wild duck have much more breast meat than
tile tame. This is simply because they fly more. The
domesticated birds have specialized so in swimming
books, for when used for washing purposes it necessi- >
tates an excessive amount of soap.
Water that lias a brownish or yellowish-brown color >
is not necessarily harmful. That color is often due to >
its having flowed through a swamp or accumulated in S
a hollow where it came in contact with decayed leaves, S
roots, bark and other vegetable matter. According to )
Prof. Henry X. Ogden, of Cornell University, a pond
which drains a swamp is often to lie preferred as a )
water supply, because the water from it is, as a rule, S
less subject to decay and putrefaction.
Much of the pollution that comes from the presence
of cow's, sheep and horses on a watershed is no more
harmful Ilian certain kinds of vegetable pollution; but.
to be on the safe side, one should avoid such water \
wherever possible.
lust what effect water has on us is still a good deal 'i
of a mystery. Most physiologists do not consider it as >
a food, because it has little or no value as a force pro- J
ducer. it does, however, enter into the structural com
position of all foods, as well as all the tissues of the !
body, and. even though it cannot itself build tissue. J.
repaii waste or produce heat or energy, it is an essential
element of every human being’s diet.
Water composes about seventy per cent of the, entire
weight of our bodies. The elasticity of our muscles. 1
cartilages, tendons, and even our bones, is due to the
water which these tissues contain. As one scientist :
lias said, " the cells of the body are aquatic in their j
habits." \
Perhaps one of the best uses to which snow is
v put is that of saving noses, ears and other ex-
l posed parts of the body from frost bite. Peary,
Scott. Amundsen. Steffanson and other explor
ers have all profited by tills use of snow.
r) When the privations and fatigue of polar ex
plorers lower their vitality a bit. the icy blasts
nip their toes, lingers, noses and ear tips. If
something is not quickly' done, gangrene of the
flesh may result, ami the parts affected may
actually fall off.
To prevent this extreme degree of frostbite,
it is unwise to suddenly heat up the exposed
I- parts. By the application of snow with a little
friction the affected parts may be saved.
Stiff necks are a very common ailment in tiie
ii Winter One of the best methods of treating
them is to fill a rubber napkin, rubber bottle or
y even a flat glass bottle with well packed snow
r ami place this alongside the sore, stiff area.
For son l throats, tonsilltis or anything of that
sort a collar of clean, closely compressed snow
s held near the neck when the pain is at its
; height will aid greatly in getting rid of the
fever and inflammation.
"Blindfold your eyes, take a pencil in your hand, and
have some one with open eyes guide its point over the
lines of this figure. Then, while you are still blind
folded. try to duplicate this figure on a piece of paper.
The nearer you can come to duplicating it. the better
your sense of kinesthesia is."
l>r. Dearborn has devised a number of ways of finding
out whether a person’s kinesthesia is in good working
order. In one of these tests the person’s eyes are
•blindfolded and then a pencil held in his hand is guidea
>ver the lines of a figure which looks like the letters
W. I and X joined together. Then the person, still
blindfolded, tries to duplicate this figure on a piece of
paper. The nearer he comes to duplicating it the bet
ter his sense of kinesthesia is.
\ French musician of repute. M. Jaques-Dalcroze, has
liscovered that those of his pupils who beat time with
' ivir hand while singing, sing more rhythmically and
with greater ease than the pupils for whom some one
-Is.- -eat- time. This indicates conclusively, he thinks,
timt .' certain power resides in the muscles to aid
the brain in increasing its rhythmic efficiency, and to
«•«»!>> ugh,, Itm
Toucher, Its Food Value Lessening Because We Won’t Let It Fly
-
- -4 «■
The Wild Turkey. Showing the Great Stretch of Wing That Demands Strong Breast Muscles and so Plenty
of “White Meat.” The Legs Are Smaller Because Comparatively Little Used. To the Right Is the Average
Domesticated Turkey. The Wings, Little Used, Have Grown Smaller, and the Breast Muscles Have
Shrunk with Them. The Legs, Being Used More, Have Grown Larger and Tougher.
and waddling that the wings are
practically negligible. With them
has gone the breast.
Turkeys could easily be brought
back to their normal degree of “white
ineat” if only some way could be
found to let them fly without flying
entirely away. They revert to the
wild state more quickly than any
other bird. The trouble is that they
do not thrive in enclosures. It has
, been suggested that enormous net
5 ted courts could be used, big enough
J to give the fowl all the freedom nec
s essary for full wing growth and still
? keep it within bounds. It is doubt
> ful if such an enclosure would be
? successful.
i Perhaps you have often had a tur
< key with one claw missing and have
S wondered what happened .to it. The
Plants and Animals That MAKE THEIR OWN LIGHT
\ ... •« .. t, fine rtf thp ivllirth nrrtfLiino this nhonrtmonrxn
AMONG the most remarkable of
all nature's phenomena is
the marvellous light-giving
power of many of our common plants
and animals.
> Under certain conditions nastur
\ Hums, sunflowers, dahlias, tube
• roses atid yellow lilies may be seen
’ to glow with a soft radiance, vary
ing in color and intensity. Only
( those flowers that have an abun
dance of yellow or orange shades
' exhibit this phosphorescence. The
best time to see the light is after
dark, when the atmosphere is clear
i and dry. The light is sometimes
steady, but often intermittent and
flashing.
Otten, in the early Fall, the ground
will be illuminated by the glow from
? the dead leaves. The Australian
poppy is the most remarkable of all
IRE THROAT
Headaches are more quickly cured and with . )
decidedly less harm by keeping clean snow S
upon the forehead than by taking headache ‘
remedies, such as caffeine, seltzer, antimigraine,
antitodes and the like. Many of these contain
antifebrin, acetanilid. antipyrine ami other coal
tar poisons. <
in Switzerland, at Saranac Lake. N Y„ and
other health resorts, on bright, crisp Winter
days, sufferers from tuberculosis are urged to
go snowshoeing in the brilliant sunlight across
the blinding snow. They are made to wear
colored lenses to protect their eyes from the
powerful ultra-violet rays which are shot down
from the sun and reflected back from the white
earth.
These rays are very powerful when the ground
is covered with snow, so powerful that they
cause what is known as “snow blindness" if the
eyes are unprotected. But they are of the great
est benefit through their destructive influence
on the tubercular bacilli and their invigorating
effect on the red corpuscles. They kill the
former and Increase the latt r in number and
improve their quality.
perfect the harmonious functioning of body and mind.
His system of “Eurhythmies'* is calculated to help the
student, through the medium of dancing, to express
herself or himself. It is noteworthy that no two pu
pils, taught by M. Jaques-iDalcroze’s method, when
asked to dance to music, will invent the same move
ments and gestures for the same music. The great
musician claims that small children, after being taught
by him, will invent “rhythms’’ such as skilled music
ians would have difficulty in finding and inventing, if
untaught and ignorant of his method. He believes that
his “Eurhythmies” by strengthening the subtle rela
tionship of mind and muscles, is a great help to indi
vidual well-being.
Dr. Montessori was the first educator to recognize
the importance of what is in reality “kinesthesia,” al
though she calls it “touch." By the method employed
by the famous Italian, children of from three to four
years of age learn the alphabet and how to read with
out being aware that they are receiving instruction.
The letters of the alphabet are cut out of fine sand
paper and mounted on colored cards, which are handed
to the children to play with. The little ones pass their
fingers over the outlines of the letters and are told the
names of the individual letters. Short words are pre
pared in the same fashion. Dr. Montessori found that
the children learned the different letters very quickly
in this way, but very frequently confounded letters if
asked to merely look at them. If the child, by looking
at letter could not remember its name it was permitted
to “feel" it, when the correct answer was almost in
variably forthcoming.
4. by the Star CulTipanj Great Britain Kistils Reserved
missing claw is really a brand. Farmers have recog
nized the necessity of allowing the fowl some freedom,
and in the Spring time turn their flocks loose with clip
ped wings. But these flocks met and intermingled with
flocks belonging to other farmers. So that each owner
can tell his birds, they get together in the Spring and
Farmer Jones will say, 'TH cut off the last claw on the
left foot of my turkeys;” Farmer Smith will say. “I’ll
cut off the middle claw,” and so on. In the Fall the
turkeys are all rounded up. and by their clipped claws
their owners know them.
If there be any one who doubts the truth of what is
said to be happening to the turkey let him contem
plate the dodo. Everybody knows vnat this long de
funct pigeon might have been in existence to-day if it
had but retained use of its wings. But it had the mis
fortune to live in a country where, for countless gen
erations, flight was unnecessary because its food was
abundant on the ground and could be had the year
round without effort. Also there were no enemies to
harass it The dodo therefore lost the use ot its wings.
the luminous plants, for it has been
found to send out a light of its own
of quite notable brilliancy.
Mushrooms growing on decayed
wood often have a degree of brill
iancy that, when they are placed on
a newspaper, will enable one to
read the words in their vicinity with
no other light. One species of mush
room in Australia, sixteen inches in
diameter, was of such brilliancy
that, seen from a distance, its light
frightened the natives.
More interesting than the lumi
nous plants are the luminous ani
mals. The Pacific Coast, famous for
its many curious specimens of plant
and animal life, is the home of
many of them.
Os all these, the Ascidians are
most noteworthy. One of them, the
Pyrosama, was seen first as a blaze
as big as a bucket. When captured
it was found to be a foot long and
' open at one end, at which there was
a faint light. When touched, the
I light at once blazed forth into a vivid
This Little PARROT KILLS SHEEP
SHEEP-KILLING dogs we have too many of, but a
sheep-killing bird is rather a rarity. Neverthe
less, New Zealand, the home of the marvelous in
animal and bird life, can claim as a resident the
strangest of all feathered folk, the sheep-killing kea,
or mountain parrot.
At first thought one would think that to kill a sheep
a bird must be at least as large as an eagle, but such
is not the case. The kea found in New Zealand is
hardly larger than a pigeon. Yet thousands of sheep
have been destroyed by it and for years war has been
on between the kea and the sheep owners.
It was about forty years ago that several sheep
were found torn in a peculiar manner and a little later
keas were discovered sitting on the carcasses of dead
sheep enjoying a good repast. This led to investiga
tion and evidence was brought forth showing very con-
clusively that this little bird really
did the killing. Then the extermi
nation of the birds was begun.
The kea, which lives in the south
ern part of New Zealand, is dark in
color with black-edged feathers and
a red lining to his wings. His beak
is strong and hooked. The killing
I A NEW Kind
UNTIL lately the varieties of weather
furnished the earth by Old Sol and
Jupiter Pluvius—otherwise known as
\ Pluvius —were limited to sunshine, rain, wind,
s snow, hailstorms and cloudiness. Now
i comes Professor Charles F. Brooks, of the
/ Blue Hill Meteorological Laboratory and Ob
; senator}’, near Boston, with the announce
ment that ice storms must be added to this
> list.
> Ice storms have been growing more and
more frequent in recent years, and in a
short period of two weeks last Winter three
of them occurred in Boston and vicinity.
An ice storm—the newest kind of "weather"
—occurs when drops of what is neither snow
nor hail, but what also is not exactly water,
fall upon the earth and cover it with a thick
coating of ice. it becomes a distinct variety
. of precipitation when the tailing drops are
just "betwixt and between” water and ice
The instant these drops strike upon anything
they become congealed into icy crusts which
beautify everything as if touched by a tnagic
-■ ' ' 'jrx-?' ' " lr !t was simply a great beak and stom-
g/n ach perched on a pair of enormously
JfMF tough legs.
Man did not discover their island
fastnesses until thy had lived so long
in the lap of luxury that they had
mUT WiCXjnot only forgotten how to fly, but
had also lost the power to do so. In
W cles vanished, but with them the
H NA ‘~ w great upstanding “keel” of the breast
It \ to these muscles are attached.
—The moa and the grea auk have
It is not suggested that the turkey will become ex
tinct. It is predicted, however, that the succulent,
pleasant “white meat,” the real joy of Christmas, is
running an enormous risk of so becoming.
So far as history can inform us, the turkey, a native
of North America, must have captivated his captors at
once. In England, it was courted wuth as much eagerness
as are American dollars to-day. It is surmised that
England has to thank Cabot for its introduction in that
country early in 1500. This is as it may be, but the
earliest documentary evidence of its existence in Eng
land is’ furnished by Cranmer, who, in a “constitution”
dated 1541, refers to the “turkey cock” as one of the
greater fowls” of which an ecclesiastic was to have
"but one in a dish,” which injunction may be inter
preted as a pious ordinance against the lusts of the
flesh, even “one in a dish” being then evidently a
luxury. During the next thirty years, hoiWver, its
numbers must have been enormously increased, for, in
1573, Tusser is found referring to the part it had begun
to play in “Christmas husbandlie fare.”
silver phosphorescence. One or tne
animals, kept in a dark room, fur
nished enough light for the reading
of medium-sized print.
The creatures are of almost in
describable beauty, and by their ra
diance. when moving about under
water, nearby fish can be discerned.
Bibra. the British naturalist, utilized
the animals for light, and a half
dozen of them at one side of a small
room would furnish sufficient light
for the reading of a newspaper at
the other side.
Crabs are notable light-givers,
end the Salpa. of California, is the
most wonderful of all. Bodies of
water twenty miles square have
been seen glowing with them, and
in the Santa Catalina channel one
naturalist reported that as far as the
eye could see the creatures lay
gleaming like gems in the sunlight.
Many luminous frogs have been
discovered from time to time, and
dqy frog may be made luminous by
inoculating it with certain bacteria
usually takes place in the evening or early morning and
usually one or two birds alone do the killing.
The birds are very particular as to the quality of
the sheep, for they always choose the best in the flock.
The bird settles on the ground near its quarry and be
gins hopping around. When a good chance offers, he
leaps upon his prey, usually perching on the loins, and
, begins tearing out the wool, finally getting his beak
into the flesh. Then the sheep begins tearing around
wildly endeavoring to throw off his tormentor, who
balances himself by his outstretched wings.
When the sheep stumbles the bird rises into the air
until the beast regains his feet. This manoeuvring is
kept up until the sheep falls exhausted and thus be
comes an easy prey to the birds, which then flock
around him. the birds apparently eat the fat.
Why birds that were formerly insectivorous should
become flesh eaters is not easily explained, but there
are many theories. One is that the natural curiosity
of the bird led him to attack the sheep and thus satisfy
his bump of inquisitiveness as to what manner of crea
ture that might be.
Another theory is that lack of food caused the birds
to feed on the fat thrown out at sheep stations, thus
creating an appetite which led to the desire to sample
the live sheep. Another explanation, and perhaps the
most reasonable one, is that the birds attack the sheep
for the maggots that are in the wool.
shared a like fate, and for the same
reason. The ostrich, the kiwi and
the cassowary have escaped destruc
tion, but only by luck. The moa lost
his wings before he lost existence.
wnicn produce tms phenomenon.
Birds having luminous plumage
were mentioned by Pliny and other
early writers. The phenomenon is
observed especially in owls and
herons and is due probably to fun
gus growth on the wings.
By rubbing the surface of an in
candescent bulb over the hand or
face and then withdrawing it quiet
ly, a luminous film will be discovered
on the surface of the bulb. By : lib
bing the bulb over one part of '
body and then touching another pc
tion with it, the contact will o
duce a faint glow.
Many theories have been brouglr
forward to explain the phenomena
of luminosity, but as yes very lit
is known about it. In many it
stances, such as the cases of dcr ’
leaves or decayed wood, luminosity
is evidently due to fungus growth,
but in other cases, where no growth
can be seen, the riddle remains un
solved, along with many other mar
vels of nature.
of WEATHER
wand of some polar fairy. It is expected that
these ice storms will grow commoner year by
year.
frofessor Brooks has devoted his best scien
tific knowledge to the study of these ice
storms. One of them occurred in the night of
February 16-17. Until it broke the wind was
from the south, and the thermometer eight
points above freezing. By sunset a fog bad
filled the entire Back Bay and basin of Boston.
Three hours later, as the fog spread its ten
tacles in various directions, the drops began
to fall. They looked like rain drops, but they
painted an icy coating upon everything.
Another similar storm occurred in the morn
ing of February 27. It lasted twenty-four
hours, and the ice attained a thickness of one
inch everywhere. A third storm of the same
nature some time later extended from Texas
to Michigan and Maine.
Ice storms are to be dreaded because of the
havoc they cause to telegraph and telephone
lines, as well as to railroads and other sys
tetas of transportation.
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