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SNORT MESSAGE Address to Congress Is Read by Regular Reading Clerk. EXPLAINS HIS STAY ABROAD Imperative Duty Make* Absence of Chief Executive Necessary—Sub ject of Labor Unreat Dealt With Exhaustively—Sugges tion* for Domestic Legislation. Washlngton, May 20.- For the first time to history a message from the president of the United States, cabled from Europe, was read to the congres* today. It wnB a* follow*; "Gentlemen of the Congress; 1 deeply regret my Inability to be pres ent at the opening of the extraordi nary session of the congress. R still seem* to tie my duty to take part In the counsel of the peace conference ami contribute what I can to the solu tion of the innumerable questions to whose settlement It has hud to ad dress Itself; for they are questions which sffect the peace of the whole world and from them, therefore, the United State» cannot aland apart. I deemed It my duty to Cali the con gress together at this time because it was not wise to post|>one longer the provisions which must be made for the support of the government. Many of the appropriations which are abso lutely necessary for the maintenance of the government and the fulfillment of Its varied obligations for the fiscal year 1919-1020 have not yet been made; I he end of the present fiscal year la at hand; and action upon these appropriations can no longer be pru dently delayed. It is necessary, there fore, that 1 should Immediately call your attention to this critical need. It Is hardly n< that It may recelfe your prompt at tention. * "I shall take the liberty of address ing you on my return on the subject* which have most engrossed our at tention and the attention of the world during those anxious months, since the armistice of last November was signed, the International settlements which must form the subject matter of the present treaties of peace and of our national action In the Immedi ate future. It would be premature to discuss them or to express a Judg ment about them before they are brought to their complete formulation by the agreements which are now be ing sought at the tuble of the confer ence. I shall hope to tay them before you In their many aspects so soon as arrangements have been reached. Rights of tbs Worker. "The question which stands at the front of all others In every country amidst the present great awakening la the question of labor; and perhaps I can speak of It with as great advan tage while engrossed in the considera tion of Interests which affect all coun tries alike as 1 could at home nnd amidst the Interests which unturatly most affect my thought, because they are the Interests of our own people. "By the question of labor I do not mean the question of efficient Indus trial production, the question of how labor Is to be obtained and made ef fective In the great process of sustain ing populations and winning success amidst commercial and Industrial rivalries. and more vital question, how are the men and women who do the dally la bor of the world to obtain progressive Improvement In the conditions of their labor, to be wade happier, and to be served better by the communities and the Industries which their labor sus tain! and advance*? How are they to be given their right advantage as cltl sens and human beings? "We cannot go any further In our present direction. We have already gone too far. We cannot live our right life as a nation or achieve our proper success as an Industrial community If capital and labor are to continue to be antagonistic Instead of being part ner*. If they are to continue to dis trust one another and contrive how they can ret the better of one another, or what perhaps amounts to the same thing, calculate by what form and de gree of coercion they can manage to extort on the one hand work enough to make enterprise profitable, on the other Justice and fair treatment enough to make life tolerable. That bad road has turned out s blind alley. It is no thoroughfare to real prosperity. We must find another, leading In another direction and to a very different desti nation. It must lead not merely to ac commodation. but also to a genuine co-operation and partnership based upon a real community of Interest and participation In control. "There Is now in fact a real com munity of Interest between capital and labor, but It has never been made evi dent in action. It can be made oper ative and manifest only on a new or ganization of Industry. The genius of our business men and the sound, prac tical sense of our workers can certainly work such a partnership out when once they realize exactly what It Is that they geek, nnd sincerely adopt a coin pion purpose with regard to It. "Labor legislation lies, of course, ury for me to urge mean that much greater ehlefiy with the «täte«; but the new spirit and method of organization which must be effected are not to be brought by legislation so much as by the common counsel and voluntary co-operation of capitalist, manager and workman. Legislation can go only a very little way In commanding what shall be done. The organization of in dustry is a matter of corporate and Individual initiative and of practical business arrangement. Those who re ally desire a new relationship between capital and labor can readily find a way to bring it about ; and perhaps federal legislation can help more than slate legislation could. Industrial Democratization. "The object of all reform In this es sential matter must tie the genuine democratization of industry, based up on a full recognition of the right of those who work, In whatever rank, to participate In some organic way In every decision which directly affects their welfare or the part they are to play In Industry. Some positive legis lation is practicable, has already shown the way to form which should be world-wide, by establishing the eight-hour duy as the standard day in every field of labor over which it can exercise control. It has sought to find the way to prevent child labor and will, I hope and be lieve, presently find It. It has served the whole country by leading the way in developing the means of preserving and safeguarding life and health In dangerous Industries. It can now help In the difficult task of giving fm-in and spirit to Industrial organiza tion by co-ordinating the several agencies of conciliation and adjust ment which have been brought Into ex istence by the difficulties and mistaken policies of the present management of Industry, and by setting up and devel oping new federal agencies of advice and Information which may serve ns u clearing house for the best experi ence and best thought on this great matter, upon which every thinking man must be awure that the future de velopment of society directly depends. Agencies of International counsel and suggestion are presently to be created In connection with the league of na tions in this very field ; but It Is na tional action and the enlightened pol icy of Individuals, corporations and so cieties within each nation tlmt must bring about the actual reforms. The members of the committee on labor in the two houses will hardly need sug gestions from me as to what menus they shall seek to muke the federal government the agent of the whole na tion In pointing out, and If need be, guiding the process of reorganization a ml reform, Duty to Returning Soldiers. *T urn sure that It Is not necessary for me to remind that there is one Immediate and very practical question of labor that we should meet In the most liberal spirit. We must see to It thut our returning soldiers are assist ed In every practicable way to find the pluces for which they are fitted in the daily work of this country. This can be done by developing and maintaining upon an adequute seule the admirable organisation created by the department of lubor for placing men seeking work ; and it can also he done. In tit least one very great field, by creating new opportunities for In dividual enterprise. The secretary of the Interior has pointed out the way by which returning soldiers may lie helped to find and take up land In the hitherto undeveloped regions of the country which the federal govern ment has already prepared or can readily prepare for cultivation and also on many of Ute cut-over or neg lected areas which lie within the lim its of the older states; mid I once more take the liberty of recommend ing very urgently that his plans shall receive the Immediate and substantial support of the congress. "Peculiar and very stimulating con ditions await our commerce and In dustrial enterprise !u the Immediate future. present themselves to our merchants and producers In foreign markets, and large fields for profitable Investment will be opened to our free capital. But It Is not only of that that I urn thinking; It Is not chiefly of that that 1 am thinking. Many great Industries prostrated by the war wait to be re habilitated. In many parts of the world where what wtll be lacking Is not brains or willing hands or or gnnlxtiig capacity or experienced skill hut machinery and raw materials and capital. I believe that our business men, our merchants, our manufactur ers, and our capitalists will have the vision to see that prosperity In one part of the world ministers to pros perity everywhere; that there Is In a very true sense a sollilnrlty of Inter est throughout the world of enter prise, and that our dealings with the countries that have need of our prod ucts and our money will teach them to deem us more than ever friends whose necessities we seek In the right way to serve. The congress one re a new Unusual opportunities will Futur* Commerce. "Our new merchant ships, which hnve lu some quarters been feared as destructive rivals, may prove helpful rivals, rather, and common servants very much needed and welcome. Our great shipyards, new and old, will be so opened to the use of the world that they will prove Immensely serv iceable to every martlme people In re storing, much more rapidly than would otherwise have been possible, the tonnage wantonly destroyed tn the war. I have only to suggest that there are many points at which we can facilitate American enterprise In for elgn trade by opportune legislatloc and muke it easy for American mer chant ships where they will be web corned as friends rather than as dreaded antagonists. America has a great and honorable service to per form In bringing the commercial and Industrial undertakings of the world back to their old scope and swing again, and putting a solid structure of credit under them. Our legislation should he friendly to such plans and purposes. "And credit and enterprise alike will be quickened by timely and helpful legislation with regard to taxation. I hope that the congress will find It pos sible to undertake an early reconsid eration of federal taxed. In order to make our system of taxation more sim ple and easy of administration and the taxes themselves ns little burdensome as they can be made and yet suffice to support the government and meet all Its obligations, which these obligations have arisen are very great Indeed, but they are not so great as to make It difficult for the nation to meet them, and meet them, perhaps. In a single generation, by taxes which will neither crush nor dis courage. They are not so great as they seem, not so great as the Im mense sums we have had to borrow, added to the Immense sums we have had to raise by taxation, would seem to Indicate; for a very large propor tion of these sums were raised in order thnt they might be loaned to the gov ernments with which we were associ ated In the war, and those loans will, of course, constitute assets, not liabil ities and will not have to be taken care of by our tax-payers. Equitable Taxation. "The main thing wo ahull have to care for Is that our taxation shall rest as lightly as possible on the productive resources of the country, that Its rates shall be stable, and that It shall be constant in Its revenue-yielding pow er. We hnve found the main sources from which It must be drawn. I take It for granted that Its mnlnstnys will henceforth be the Income tax, the ex cess profils tax and the estate tax. All these enn he so adjusted to yield con stant and adequate returns and yet not constitute a too grievous burden on the taxpayer. A revision of the In come tax has already been provided for by the act of 1918, hut I think you will find that further changes can be made to advantage both In the rates of the tax and In the method of Its collection. The excess profits tax need not long be maintained at the rates which were necessary while the enormous expense of the war had to be borne ; but It should be made the basis of a perma nent system which will reach undue profits without discouraging the enter prise and activity of our business men. The tax on Inheritances ought, doubt, to be reconsidered In Its rela tion to the fiscal systems of the sev eral states, but It certainly ought to remain a permanent part of the fiscal system of the federal government also. "Many of the minor taxes provided for In the revenue legislation of 1917 and 1918, though no doubt made neces sary by the pressing necessities of the war time, can hardly find sufficient Justification under the easier circum stances of pence, and can now happily be got rid of. Among these, I hope you will agree, arc the excises upon vari ous manufactures and the tapes upon retail sales. They are unequal in the Incidence on different industries and on different individuals. Their collec tion Is difficult and expensive. Those which are levied upon articles sold at retail are largely evaded by the read justment of retail prices. On the other hand, I should assume that it Is ex pedient to maintain a considerable range of Indirect taxes; and the fact that alcoholic liquors will presently no longer afford a source of revenue by taxation makes It the more neces sary that the field should he carefully restudled In order thnt equivalent sources of revenue may be found which It will be legitimate, and not burdensome, to draw upon. But you have at hand In the treasury depart ment many experts who can advise you upon the matters much better than I can. I can only suggest the lines of a permanent and workable system, and the placing of the tuxes where they will least hamper the life of the people. "There Is. fortunately, no occasion for undertaking In the Immediate fu turt;, any general revision of our sys tem of Import,duties. No serious dan ger of foreign competition now threat ens American Industries. Our country has emerged from the war less dis turbed and less weakened than any of the European countries which are our competitors In manufacture. So far from there being any danger or need of accentuated foreign competition. It Is likely that the conditions of the next few years will greatly facilitate the marketing of American manufac tures abroad. Least of all should we depart from the policy adopted In the tariff act of 1913, of permitting the free entry Into the United States of the raw materials needed to supple ment nnd enrich our own abundant supplies. The figures to Tariff Revision. "Nevertheless, there are parts of our tariff system which need prompt at tention. The experiences of the war have made it plain that in some cases too great reliance on foreign supply Is dangerous, nnd that In determining certain parts of our tariff policy do mestic considerations must be borne in mind which are political as well economic. Among the industries to which special consideration should be given Is that of the manufacture of dyestuffs nnd related chemicals. Our complete dependence upon German supplies before the war made the In terruption of trade a cause of excep tional economic disturbance. The close relation between the manufac turer of dyestuffs, on the one hand, and of explosives and poisonous gases. -* - on the other, moreover, has given the Industry an exceptional significance and value. Although the Untied S f ates will gladly and unhesitatingly Join In the progress of International disarma ment, It will, nevertheless, be a policy of obvious prudence to muke certain of the successful maintenu. ice of many strong and well-equipped chemical plants. The German chemical Indus try, with which we will be brought Into competition, was and may well be again, a thoroughly knit monopoly capable of exercising competition of a peculiarly Insidious and dangerous kind. "The United States should, more over, have the menus of properly pro tecting Itself whenever our trade Is discriminated against by foreign na tions, In order that we may be assured of thnt equality of treatment which we hope to accord and to promote the world over. Our tariff laws as they now stand provide no weapon of re taliation in case other governments should enact legislation unequal In its hearing on our products as compared with the products of other countries. Though we are ns far as possible from desiring to enter upon any course of retaliation, we must frankly fnce the fact that hostile legislation by other nations is not beyond the range of possibility, and that it may have to be met by counter-legislation. This sub ject has, fortunately, been exhaustive ly Investigated by the United States tariff commission. A recent report of that commission makes very clear that we lack and that we ought to have the instruments necessary for the ance of equal nnd equitable treatment. The attention of the congress has been called to this matter on past occasions, and the past measures which recommended by the tariff commission are substantially the same that have been suggested by previous adminis trations. I recommend that his phase of the tariff question receive the early attention of the congress. "Will you not permit me, turning from these matters, to speak once more, and very earnestly, of the pro posed amendment to the constitution which would extend the suffrage to women and which passed the house of representatives at the last session of congress? It seems to me thnt every consideration of Justice and of public advantage calls for the immediate adoption of that amendment and its submission forthwith to the legisla tures of the several states. Through out all the world this long delayed tension of the suffrage Is looked for ; In the United States longer, I believe than nnywhere else, the necessity for it, and the immense advantage of it to the national life, has been urged and debated, by women and men who saw the need for it and urged the policy of It when It required steadfast to be so much beforehand with the common conviction; and I, for one, covet for our country the distinction of being among the first to act In great reform. assur arc now n courage a Telegraph and Telephone. "The telegraph and telephone lines will of course be returned to their owners so soon as the retransfer can be effected without administrative confusion, so soon thnt is, as the change can be made with least possi ble inconvenience to the public and to the owners themselves. The railroads will be handed over to their owners at the end of the calendar year ; if I were in Immediate contact with the adminis trative questions which must the retransfer of the telegraph and telephone lines. I could name the ex act date for their return also. Until I am in direct contact with the practi cal questions involved I can only sug gest in the case of the telegraphs and telephones, as In the case of the rail ways, It is clearly desirable in the pub lic interest that some legislation should be considered which may tend to make of these Indispensable instru mentalities of our modern life a uni form nnd co-ordinated system which w II afford those who use them as com plete and certain means of communi cation with all parts of the country ns has so long been afforded by the postal system of the government, and at rates as uniform and Intelligible. Ex pert advice is, of course, available in this very practical matter, and the public Interest is manifest. Neither the telegraph nor the telephone serv ice of the country can be said to be in any sense a national system. There are many confusions and inconsisten cies of rate3. The scientific means by which communication by such instru mentalities could be rendered more thorough and satisfactory has not been made full use of. "The demobilization of the military forces of the country has progressed to such a point that It seems to me en tirely safe now to remove the ban up on the manufacture nnd sale of wine nnd beers, but I am advised that with out further legislation I hnve not the legnl authority to remove the present restrictions. 1 therefore recommend thnt the act approved November 21, 1918, entitled "An act to enable the secretary of agriculture to carry out during the fiscal year ending June 30. 1919, the purpose of the act entitled "An act to provide further for the na tional security nnd defense by stimu lating agriculture and facilitating the distribution of agrcuitural pproducts." and for other purposes,' be amended or repealed In so far. as it applies to wines and beers. "I sincere)*' trust that I shall very soon be at my post in Washington again to report upon the matters «mich made my presence at the pence table apparently Imperative, and to put myself at the service of the con gress In every matter of administra tion or counsel tlmt may seem to de mand executive action or advice. "WOODROW WILSON." govern NEWS OF A WEEK IN OF THE IMPORTANT EVENT8 TOLD IN BRIEFEST MANNER POSSIBLE. RECORD Happenings That Are Making History —Information Gathered from All Quarters of the Globe and Given In a Few Lines. INTERMO'JNTAIN. The Northern Baptist convention at Denver unanimously adopted the re port of the national committee of lay men providing for the creation of a general planning board to co-ordinate activities of the church under one governing body consisting of 140 mem bers, Frederick Hansen, former first mate of the schooner Edward R. West, was Indicted at Seattle by a federal grand jury on a charge of murder. The in dictment charged Hansen threw Charles Hannan, second mater, over board during a storm off Cape Horn, May 31, 1918. "Day labor wages for Baptist cler gymen Is u blot on the denomination more than half the nation's Baptist ministers receive less than $1500 This declaration was made to year.' the Baptist convention at Denver. George and Tom Bosko, arrested In Utah last week, charged with the mur der of VV. T. Hunter and E. C. Parks, a few r miles west of Pueblo, April 11, have made a complete confession. Rev. J. Kronenberger, pastor of the First Christian church at Corvallis, Ore., was drowned while attempting to swim across the Willamette river in celebration of his forty-fifth birthday. A meeting of the Portland grade school teachers' association has been called to consider the organization of a teachers' union affiliated with the American Federation of Labor. An increase of 50 cents a day, from $4.25 to $4.75, became effective in mines of the Coeur d'Alene district, Idaho, on May 20, according to bul letins posted in the principal mines. DOMESTIC. Uninterrupted production of "war beer" in New York until the courts have passed upon the claim of the United States Brewers' association that the beverage, containing 2% per cent alcohol, is non-intoxicating, was assured when Federal Judge Mayer granted an injunction restraining gov ernment interference with Its manu facture. On July 4, Black Hills pioneers will honor the memory of the late Cononel Roosevelt by naming the highest peak of the hills Mount Theodore Roosevelt. Leslie Nunamaker, catcher with the Cleveland Americans, was awarded a verdict of $4500 In circuit court at St. Louis against a motor car company for personal injuries suffered in an auto mobile accident December 10, last. Nunamaker sued for $15,000. Elbert H. Gary of the United States Steel corporation, declared In a speech at New York that there was reason to assume that the peace terms will be igreed to and subscribed by .at least a majority of governments, nnd a league of nations for the continued preservation of peace will be estab lished. A score of persons were killed and a hundred Injured by an explosion at the Douglas Starch Works at Cedar Rapids, Iowa. Of the 150 men and boys who had just gone to work In the uight shift, few escaped Injury death. At the annual convention at Atlantic City, N. J., of the National Electric Light association, Charles B. Scott of Chicago, said that uniform rules had reduced accidents from 30 to 50 cent and had effected an even larger decrease in fatalities. German charts recently surrendered disclosed the existence In the China sea of a large mine field over which American steamships, ignorant of its existence, passed safely many times. Employment of an airplane means of transportation for a physi cian who is called upon to make long distance professional calls has been in augurated by Dr. F. A. Brewster, of Beaver City, Neb. or per as a The Pacific Coast Metal Trades a general agreement agreement council has decided to call strike unless a satisfactory to take place of the Macy between the shipbuilders of the Pacific and the council has been reached bv 10 a. m. July 21, it is announced Oakland. at I Inal tabulations showing San Fran cisco's subscriptions to the Victory Liberty loan had exceeded the city's quota of $79,318,150 gave the Twelfth federal reserve district a clean slate witli every major division of the dis trict "over the top." Messages written In Invisible ink on the blank back pages of a bible was one way in which the German spy sys tem in this country endeavored dur ing the war to l'ov .r 11 Three months u ,* lllm '»f. Norwegian tïk Cerlor* tSST 'mystery „f the sea" by "disapm-ar ing off the island of Ball in the Malay to New"?« T " VOyage froiu Manila v 1 the vessel arrived af New York on May 20. with her tain unaware that his given up ns lost. communicate with the German imperial a cap ship had been Unable to pay death claims of $580, 000 as a result of influenza epidemic, the Catholic Mutual Benefit associa tion will notify members that extra assessments must be levied until the deficit Is wiped out, It was announced at Buffalo, N. Y., last week. Notification was sent to all chiefs of police in California by placement representatives of the war department at San Francisco to stop soliciting and nudge and toy balloon selling by dis charged soldiers in uniform, and the alleged "commercializing" of the uni form by private concerns employing these men. President Wilson was criticized by commissioners to the one hundred and thirty-first general assembly of the Presbyterian church, U. S. A., at St. Louis, for requesting congress to re peal or amend the wartime prohibition act, and a resolution was adopted urg ing congress to sustain the law. Presi dent Wilson is an elder in the church. WASHINGTON. First debate In connection with the peace treaty at the extraordinary ses sion of congress began Friday in the senate with the calling up by Senator Johnson, Republican, of California, of his resolution asking the state depart ment to furnish the senate witli a copy of the text of the treaty. Withdrawal of the entire American army from Europe will be demanded by Representative Kahn of Colifornia, chairman of the house military com mittee, when he speaks before the house on his two months' investigation of conditions in the A. E. F. Sending bombs and other explosives througli the mails would be made a capital offense under a bill introduced by Senator King of Utah and referred to the judiciary committee. The Utah senator was one of those to whom in fernal machines were addressed in the May day bomb plot. A national eight-hour working day, be ginning January 1, 1921, was proposed in a bill introduced by Senator Moses of New Hampshire, Republican. It was explained that the regulations of the measure would be similar to the Adamson law to the railroads. Passage by the house, on May 21, of a deficiency bill providing urgent ap propriations of $45,044,500 for war risk allowances to soldiers and sailors' fam ilies and civil war pensioners made an other speed record for the new house. National suffrage for women was indorsed by the house of representa tives for the second time when the Susan B. Anthony amendment resolu tion was adopted on May 21 by a vote of 304 to 89. FOREIGN. When former Emperor William of Germany Is placed on trial before an international tribunal for having com mitted high crimes against universal morality he will furnish the incrimin ating evidence against himself; in fact the commission which, had his case in hand and reported to the pence con ference is held to have prepared enough evidence to convict the former kaiser by merely quoting the speeches he made before and during the war. The volcano Stromboli on the Island of that name off the north coast of Sicily was in violent eruption Friday. Numerous victims are reported. An attempt was made to demolish the American legation building at San Jose, Costa Rica, Mohday night by a bomb. German plotters and criminals who have been reached during the war by the strong arm of the law of any of the allied associated powers, and who are now in prisons or internment camps, cannot be released and repa triated, either now or when peace is signed, but must serve out then fences, regardless of their German cit izenship, is the substance of a note to ttie German peace delegation. Eduard Bernstein, the German social democrat leader, declared that the Ger man government had not taken the proper course to secure approval of its foreign policy by the socialists and that it could have obtained terms of peace if it had acted dif ferently. Tiie German reply to the allied peace terms will.be in five sections, dealing with political and territorial issues, the league of nations, and finan cial and economic questions. Hie notes which the German sen better pence delegation will submit to the peace conference before May 29 will ontly be so voluminous that the tente representatives will require a week for -4 appar eil consideration before they can make a rejoinder. It is expected that there will be a new time adjust ment for the Germans to sign the treaty. Admiral Kolchak, dictator of the Omsk government, has been notifie*! by tiie Paris peace conference that as soon as he lias established a stable government, with guarantees of free dom of speech and the press and a constituent assembly, his government will he accorded recognition as the government of all non-Bolshevist Rus A Mlt. "Tie Belgian government has award ed decorations to four officers of the American army. General strike of more than three score labor unions in Winnipeg, precip itated by the strike of building trades ami metal workers' union for reoogni tio " * ro,n tbe employers, has resulted n 30,000 men and women leaving their ^ a suspension of the pub llcatlon of newspapers, while the city is earless, plioneless and almost water less. ^ The total damage in the north of France, Including buildings, agricul ture, furniture and public works, is estimated at 04,500,000,000 francs, or about $13,000,000,000.