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The Nezperce herald. (Nezperce, Idaho) 1900-1957, May 22, 1919, Image 5

Image and text provided by Idaho State Historical Society

Persistent link: https://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn89055082/1919-05-22/ed-1/seq-5/

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Germany Must Make Repara
tion For Damage Done.
Required to Accept League of Nations
Without Membership, Restore Al
sace-Lorraine to France, Relinquish
Saar Basin and Cede Territory to
Belgium, Denmark and Poland.
Paris.—Following is a summary of the
treaty of peace between the twenty
seven allied and associated powers on the
hand and Germany on the other.
which was 'handed to the German pleni
potentiaries at Versailles:
Germany by the terms of the treaty
restores Alsace-Lorraine to France, ac
Saur basin temporarily and of Danzig
permanently, agrees to territorial changes
toward Belgium and Denmark and in
East Prussia, cedes most of upper Silesia
to Poland and renounces all territorial
and political rights outside Europe as to
her own or her allies' territories and es
pecially to Morocco, Egypt, Slam, Liberia
and Shantung. She also recognizes the
total independence of German-Austria,
Czecho-Slovakia and Poland.
the internationalization of the
Germany Army Reduced to 100,000 Men.
Her army is reduced to 100,000 men,
Including officers; conscription within her
territories is abolished; all forts 50 kilo
meters east of the Rhine razed and all
importation of war material stopped.
.Allied occupation of parts of Germany
will continue till reparation is made but
will be reduced at the end of each of three
five-year periods if Germany is fulfilling
her obligations. Any violation by Ger
many of the conditions as to the zone 60
kilometers east of the Rhine will be re
garded as an act of war.
The German navy is reduced to six
battleships, six light cruisers, and 12 tor
pedoboats, without submarines, and a per
sonnel of not over 16,000. All other ves
sels must be surrendered or destroyed.
Germany's forbidden to build forts con
trolling the Baltic, must demolish Helgo
land, open the Kiel canal to all nations,
and surrender her 14 submarine cables.
She may have no military or naval air
forces except 100 unarmed seaplanes until
October first nor manufacture aviation
material for six months.
Must Pay Losses of Allies.
Germany accepts full responsibility .for
all damage caused to allied and associated
governments and nations, agrees specifi
cally to reimburse all civilian damages
beginning with an initial payment of 20,
000,000,000 marks, subsequent payments
to be secured by bonds to be issued at
the discretion of the reparation commis
sion. Germany is to pay shipping damage
on a ton-for-ton basis by cession of a
large part of her merchant, coasting and
river fleets and by new construction; and
to devote her economic resources to the
rebuilding of the devastated region. She
agrees to return to the 1914 most-favored
natlon tariffs, without discrimination of
any sort; to allow allied and associated
nationals freedom of transit through her
territories, and to accept highly detailed
provisions as to pre-war debts, unfair
competition, internationalization of roads
and rivers, and other economic and finan
cial clauses. She also agrees to the trial
of the ex-kalser by an international high
court for a supreme offense against in
ternational morality, and of other nation
als for violation of the laws and customs
of war, Holland to be asked to extradite
the former and Germany being responsi
ble for delivering the latter.
Germany Not a Member of League,
The League of Nations is accepted by
the allied and associated powers as op
erative and by Germany in principle but
without membership. Similarly, an in
ternational labor body Is brought into
being with a permanent office and an
annual convention. A great number of
international bodies of'different kinds and
for different purposes are created, some
under the League of Nations, some to
execute the peace treaty.
Preamble of Treaty.
The preamble names as parties of the
one part the United States, the British
Empire, France, Italy and Japan, de
scribed as the five allied and associated
powers, and Belgium, Bolivia, Brazil,
China, Cuba, Ecuador, Greece, Guatemala,
Haiti, the Hedjaz, Honduras, Liberia, Nic
aragua, Panama, Peru, Poland, Portugal,
Roumania, Serbia, Slam, Czecho-Slovakia
and Uruguay, who with the five above
are described as the allied and associated
powers, and on the other part, Germany.
It states that, bearing in mind that on
the request of the then imperial German
government an armistice was granted on
November 11, 1918, by the five allied and
associated powers in order that a treaty
of peace might be. concluded with her,
and whereas, the allied and associated
powers being equally desirous that the
war In which they were successively in
volved directly or indirectly and which
originated in the declaration of war by
Austria-Hungary on July 28, 1914, against
Serbia, the declaration of war by Germany
against Russia on August 1, 1914, and
against France on August 3, 1914, and in
the Invasion of Belgium, should be re
placed by a firm, just and durable peace,
the plenipotentiaries (having communi
cated their full powers found in good and
due form have agreed as follows):
From the coming into force of the pres
ent treaty the state of war will terminate.
From the moment and subject to the pro
visions of this treaty, official relations
with Germany and with each of the Ger
man states will be resumed by the allied
and associated powers.
League of Nations Outlined.
The covenant of the league of nations
constitutes section one of the peace
treaty, which places upon the league
many specific duties in addition to its
general duties. It may question Germany
at any time for a violation of the neu
tralized zone east of the Rhine as a threat
against the world's peace. It will appoint
three of the five members of the Saar
commission, oversee its regime, and carry
out the plebiscite. It will appoint the
high commissioner of Danzig, guarantee
the independence of the free city and ar
range for trèatles between Danzig and
Germany and Poland.
the mandatory system to be applied to the
former German colonies, and act as a
final court in part of the plebiscites of
; h u"tefr a m G th7 a K.efcS ^«1
Sims 0 ' An* international cbnfereTce'lfn
labor is to be held in October under its
direction, and another on the international
control of ports waterways and rai.ways
Is foreshadowed. . M
Membership In League Defined.
The members of the league will be the
Signatories of the covenant and other
states Invited to accede, who must lodge
a declaration of accession without reser- ,
vatlon within two months. A new state,
dominion or colony may be admitted pro
Tided its admission is agreed to by two
X.W n% "wing bl rwo yea 8 iï te noiï£
It will work out
If It has fulfilled all Its International ob
Secretariat—A permanent secretariat
will be established at the seat of the
league, which will be at Geneva.
Asseinbly—The assembly will consist
representatives of the members of the
league, and will meet at stated intervals
Voting will be by states. Each member
will have one vote and not more than
I three representatives.
nell—The council will consist of rep
j resentatives of the five great allied pow
ers, together with representatives of four
members selected by the assembly from
tlme to time. It may co-operate with ad
dltlonal states and will meet at least once
a year. Members not represented will be
Invited to send a representative when
questions affecting their Interests are dis
cussed. Voting will be by states. Each
state will have one vote and not more
than one representative. Decision taken
by the assembly and council must be
unanimous except In regard to procedure,
and In certain cases specified In the
covenant and in the treaty, where decl
slons will be by a majority.
Armaments to Be Reduced.
Armaments_The cnnneii «mi
late plans for a reduction of „ ,..„ u *
ments for consideration and adoption
Once thev are adnr-fed no memUe
must exceed the armaments text without
be^wnr ex n change th fuU "mformat'l T's
nent commission will advise the council
on military and naval questions.
The council will formulate plans for
the establishment of a permanent court
of international Justice to determine in
ternational disputes or to give advisory
opinions. Members who do not submit
their case to arbitration must accept the
jurisdiction of the assembly. If the coun
cil, less the parties to the dispute, Is
unanimously agreed upon the rights of it,
the members agree that they will not
go to war with any party to the dispute
which complies with its recommendatioi
In thjs case, a recommendation by the
assembly adopted, no member must ex
ceed the armaments fixed without the
concurrence of the council. All members
will exchange full information as to arma
ments and programs, and a permanent
commission will advise the council
military and naval questions.
Members Pledged to Arbitration.
Upon any war, or threat of war, the
council will meet to consider what com
mon action shall be taken. Members are
pledged to submit matters of dispute to
arbitration or Inquiry and not to resort
to war until three months after the award.
Members agree to carry out an arbitral
award and not to go to war unless con
curred in by all its members represented
on the council, and a simple majority of
the rest, less the parties to the dispute,
will have the force of a unanimous recom
mendation by the council. In either case,
If the necessary agreement cannot be se
cured, the members reserve the right to
take such steps as may be necessary for
the maintenance of right and justice.
Members resorting to war In disregard of
the covenant will Immediately be debarred
from all intercourse with other members.
The council will In such cases consider
what military or naval action -can be
taken by the league collectively for the
protection of the covenants and will af
ford facilities to members co-operating
in this enterprise.
Validity of treaties—All treaties or in
ternational engagements concluded after
the institution of the league will be regis
tered with the secretaries and published.
The assembly may from time to time ad
vise members to reconsider treaties which
have become inapplicable or involve dan
ger of peace. The covenant abrogates all
obligations between members inconsistent
with Its terms, but nothing in It shall
affect the validity of International en
B •
gagements such as treàties of arbitration
or regional understandings like the Mon
roe doctrine for securing the maintenance
of peace.
The mandatory system—The tutelage
of nations not yet able to stand by them
selves will be entrusted to advanced na
lions who are best fitted to undertake it.
The covenant recognizes three different
stages of development requiring different
kinds of mandatories: Communities like
those belonging to the Turkish empire
which can be provisionally recognized as
independent, subject to advice and assist
ance from a mandatory in whose selection
they would be allowed a voice; communi
ties like those of Central Africa, to be
administered by the mandatory under con
ditions generally approved by the mem
bers of the league where equal opportu
nities for trade will be allowed to all
members. (Certain abuses, such as trade
in slaves, arms and liquor, will be pro
hibited, and the construction of military
and naval bases and the introduction of
compulsory military training will be dis
allowed); other communities, such as
Southwest Africa and the South Pacific
Islands, but administered under the laws
of the mandatory as integral portions of
its territory. In every case, the man
datory will render an annual report, and
the degree of Its authority will be defined.
General Provisions of Treaty.
Subject to and In accordance with the
provisions of International conventions
existing or hereafter to be agreed upon,
the members of the league will in general
endeavor through the International or
ganization established by the labor con
vention to secure and maintain fair con
ditions of labor for men, women and chil
dren in their own countries and other
j countries, and undertake to secure just
Î treatment of the native inhabitants of
territories under their control; they will
entrust the league with the general su
pervision over the execution of .traffic In
women and children, etc., and the con
trol of the trade in arms and ammunition
with countries in which control is neces
sary; they will make provision for free
dom of communications and transit and
equitable treatment for commerce of all
members of the league, with special ref
to the necessities of regions de
square .. ,
Danzig £*%£?%£ and the basin
t°L'wesfeZ'bolder T'the ' Rhenish* PaTa"
tlnate of Bavaria andthe soa ' haas t c °£
ner of between th^Nogat lnd Vis
^tsofthe ^between the N^andV^
a similar V on the west Including the city
Danzig. The southeastern third of
. p ruas j a and the area between East
£ a =' gla and the Vistula north of latitude
3 min. is to have its nation
"determined by popular vote, 5785
,, aa ig to be the case i n part !
u " re " ' 27g7 square m ii e s.
OI ° the Rhine.
As provided in the mi.itary ciauM. ^
vastated during the war, and they will
endeavor to take steps for international
prevention and control of disease. Inter
national bureaus and commissions already
established will be placed under
league, as well as those to be established
in the future.
Amendments to the Covenant.
Amendments to the covenant will take
effect when ratified by the council and
by a majority of the assembly.
Boundaries of Germany Defined.
Germany cedes to France Alsace-Lor
raine, 5600 square miles, and to Belgium
two small districts between Luxemburg
and Holland, totaling 382 square miles.
_ .. .
She also cedes to Poland the southeastern
tip of Silesia beyond and including Op
pelin, most of Posen and West Prussia,
27,686 square miles, East Prussia being
isolated from the main body by a part or
Poland. She loses sovereignty over the
northeasternmost tip of East Prussia, 40
miles north of the river Memel,
Germar >y will not maintain any fortlflc«
tlons or armed forces less than 60 kilo
I meters to the east of the Rhine, hold any
1 maneuv ® 1 'S. nor maintain any works to
I facilitate mobilization. In case of violft
i tion she ahall be regarded as committing
a hostile act against the powers who sign
the P resen * treaty and as Intending to
I dlsturb the peace of the world,"
i By vll 'tue of the present treaty Germany
shall be bound to respond to any request
I for an explanation which the council of
! the lea * ue of nations may think It neces
sary to add ress to her.
Afte r recognition of the moral obliga
tlon 10 re P alr the wrong done In 1871 by
Gern iany to France and the people of
A ^ sace ~f j orralne, the territories ceded to
Ge >many by the treaty of Frankfort
reato,ed t0 France with their frontiers
before 1871, to date from the signing of
* be a, mistice, and to be free of all public
debts. Citizenship Is regulated by de
talled Provisions distinguishing those who
aie 'mniedlately restored to full French
cltlzens hlp and those who have to make
formal application therefor and those for
whom naturalization Is open after three
German ïesldents in Alsace-Lorraine,
distinguished from those who acquire the
t ° f . AIsai r e ' L '?''J' alne rs aa defined
passes to France without payment or
1'?!' France is substituted for Ger
roadS a " d Ä ov°er cm'eB^lons ofVam
6 obll e dt i. on of their upkeep,
The Saar -
The last named class includes
In compensation for the destruction of
coal mines for Northern France and as
payment on account of reparation, Ger
many cedes to France full ownership of
the coal mines of the Saar basin with
their subsidiaries, accessories and facil
Their value will be estimated by
the reparation commission and credited
against that account. The French rights
will be governed by German law in force
at the armistice, excepting war legisla
tion, France replacing the present owners,
whom Germany undertakes to indemnify.
France will continue to furnish the pres
ent proportion of coal for local need and
contribute in just proportion to local
In order to secure the rights and wel
fare of the population and to guarantee
to France entire freedom in working the
mines, the territory will be governed by
a commission appointed by the league
of nations. After 15 years a plebiscite
will be held by communes to ascertain
the desires of the population as to con
tinuance of the existing regime under the
league of nations' regime under France
or union with Germany.
Germany recognizes the total independ
ence of German-Austria in the boundaries
Germany recognizes the entire inde
pendence of the Czecho-Slovak state,
Including the autonomous territory of
the Ruthenians south of the Carpathians,
and accepts the frontiers of this state as
to be determined, which in the case of
the German frontier shall follow the fron
tier of Bohemia in 1914.
Germany cedes to Poland the greater
part of Upper Silesia, Posen and the prov
ince of West Prussia, on the left bank of
the Vistula. A field boundary commis
sion of 75, representing the allied and as
sociated powers, and one each represent
ing Poland and Germany, shall be consti
tuted within 16 days of the peace to de
limit this boundary. Such special pro
visions as are necessary to protect racial,
linguistic or religious minorities and to
protect freedom of transit and equitable
treatment of commerce of other nations
shall be laid down in a subsequent treaty
between the five allied and associated
powers and Poland.
East Prussia.
The southern and the eastern frontier
of East Prussia as Sucing (word obscure)
Poland is to be fixed by plebiscite, the
first in the regency of Allenstein, between
the southern frontier of East Prussia and
the northern frontier of Regierrungsbe
sirk Allenstein from where It meets the
boundary between East and West Prussia
to its junction with the boundary between
the circles of Oletsko and Augersburg,
thence the northern boundary of Oletsko
to its junction with the present frontier
and the second in the area comprising
the circles of Stuhm and Kosenburg and
the parts of the circles of Marienburg
and Marienwerder, east of the Vistula.
In each case German troops and au
thorities will move out within 15 days of
the peace and the territories be placed
under the international commission of
five members appointed by the five allied'
and associated powers with the particular
duty of arranging for a free, fair and se
cret vote.
possessions with all rights and
therein. All movable and immovable
a "y German state shall pass to the
government exercising authority therein,
These governments may make whatever
.provisions seem suitable for the repatrla
Uo " *" d " '
The frontier between Germany and
Denmark will be fixed by the self-deter
mination of the population. Ten days
from the peace, German troops and au
thorities shall evacuate the region north
of the line running from the mouth of
the Schlei, south of Kappel, Schleswig and
Friedrichstadt along the Eider to the
North Sea
men's and soldiers' councils shall be dis
solved, and the territory administered by
an international conynission of five, of.
whom Norway and Sweden shall be In
vited to name two.
The commission shall insure a free and
secret vote in three zones. That between
the German Danish frontier and
running south of the island of Alsen,
•th of Flensburg and south of Tondern
to the North Sea north of the island of
Sylt will vote as a unit within three
weeks after the evacuation. Within five
weeks after this vote, the second zone
whose southern boundary runs from the
North Sea south of the island of Fehr to
the Baltic south of Sygum, will vote by
communes. Two weeks after that vote
the third zone running to the limit of
evacuation also will vote by communes.
The international commission wilj then
draw a new frontier on the basis of these
plebiscites and with due regard for geo
graphical and economic conditions. Ger
many will renounce all sovereignty over
territories north of this line in favor of
the associated governments, who will
hand them over to Denmark.
th of Tonning; the work
Germany agrees to respect as perma
nent and Inalienable the independency of
all territories which were part of the for
mer Russian empire, to accept abroga
tion of the Brest-Hltovsk and other treat
ies entered into with the Maximalist gov
ernment of Russia, to recognize the full
force of all treaties entered into by the
, allied and associated powers with states
| which were a part of the former Russian
em pj re and to recognize the frontiers as
determined thereon. The allied and asso
elated powers formally reserve the right
Russ j tt t Q obtain restitution and repa
raRon 0 f the principles of the present
German Rights Outside Europe.
Outside Europe, Germany renounces all
rights, titles and privileges as to her own
her allies' territories to all the allied
and associated powers and undertakes to
accept whatever measur
the five allied powers in relation thereto.
Colonies and Overseas Possessions.
Germany renounces In favor of the al
lied and associate^ powers her overseas
are taken by
erty belonging to the German empire or
(Concluded next week)
Chautauqua Meeting
will be held this
will furnish the entertainment
Large crowds are expected as many make Winchester
with its beautiful Lake Lapwai their
Summer Camping and
Outing Place
Good fishing and boating and fine camping grounds
Is the
All Purposes
Best for
Best for
Best for
Its High Quality Has Won Favor All Over the
Good Grocers Sell, Recommend and Guarantee It
Lewiston Milling Co

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