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TESTING FUEL SYSTEM AND ADJUSTING
CARBURETOR IN OPERATING AN ENGINE 'I i jv M .A m'' i ■> : : I I V K? ■ . - . ; ' ' - A Gasoline Engine Furnishing Power to Pump Water. ■ji - ■■ (Prepare,! by the United Slates Depart . ment of Agriculture.) When an examination bus shown that a good spark is being obtained at the right time, the next step is to see whether the engine is receiving the pro|ier mixture of fuel and ulr. Many carburetors are made so that it is easy to remove the cover und see whether there is gasoline in the bowl, and where this Is possible It is the easiest wuy to determine whether the fuel supply is ull right up to Unit point. Other types of carburetor have tight covers, but are equipped with small petcocks, by opening which one can de termine whether a supply of fuel is available. If there is no fuel in the carburetor, either the tank is empty or there is some obstruction In the pipe Hue be tween the lank and the carburetor. Water In Gasoline System. To see Unit the carburetor contains n liquid which looks like gasoline, however, Is not enough, us water and gasoline look very much alike, and it Is not at all uncommon for water to be present in the gasoline system. Neith er does this water always enter the system when it is being tilled, as is generally supposed. It is often the re sult of condensation of moisture on the sides of the gasoline tank, which runs down and settles at the lowest points in the system. Iiottom of the carburetor, in the supply pipe, or In the strainer, or settling chamber. Where strainers or settling chambers are provided, these should lie drained and cleaned frequently, es pecially in cold weal lier, when any wa ter present may cause considerable trouble by freezing. For Removing Water. A peteock on the carburetor Is a good means for removing any water which may have settUsi nt the bottom of the tiowl of the carburetor, and which, when present, will cause difficulty In starting. When making a test In tills way, it Is usually advisable to allow enough gasoline to run through to make sure that the carburetor has a full supply, as sometimes a partial stoppage of the pipe will allow a small amount of gasoline to get by Into the carburetor, but not enough to allow the engine to start easily. Allowing n half-cupful of fuel to run'through it eliminates this possibility. It Is easy to ascertain whether water Is present Tills may In- in the In the carburetor by catching in a glass bottle or tumbler the liquid which runs through wiien the peteock is open. Any water present will settle nt the bottom of the glass and a thin line will he visible between the water and tho gasoline. Air Is Important. It is not enough merely to have fuel In the carburetor; It must be mixed • with the proper amount of.nlr us it v Is drawn Into the combustion chamber, It sometimes happens that the needle valve is closed or stopped with din. mid Unit while there is fuel in the car buretor none cun get Into the conduis tlon chamber. If the engine hits u pet |~oek leading into the combustion chamber, by opening tills und crank ing the engine a few times °'F ran tell by smelling the escaping air whether gasoline is entering the chant ber. The same result can be obtained by smelling the exhaust when the en »Ino is turned over, or by removing « spnrk plug, closing the hole during Ihu miction stroke and opening It dar ing the compression stroke. Make Engine Start. By alternately opening and closing the needle valve, first being careful to note the original position so that it will he possible to readjust it if necessary. It Is easy to see whether a different mixture will make the engine start. Or. when there Is doubt whether enough fuel is entering the cylinder, a email quantity of gasoline (about a teaspoonfnl) may he poured into the epmliustlou chamber through the prim ing cork or spark-plug hole and allow ed to stand for n minute or two to vaporize ami mix with the air before cmnklng the engine. If then one or two explosions occur and no more, it Is »n Indication that only the priming has burned, and that fuel Is not being fur • alsbed lit sufficient quantity through the carburetor. Mlxturt Too Rich. It sometimes happens that too rich a ■tx lure of fuel and nlr enters the Combustion chamber, which Is practi cally ns had ns no fuel at all, us tho (Ich mixture cannot bo exploded by the spark. With a cold engine and with the grades Of fuel now tin the market, but it Is oot at all uncommon with a warm en gine. coming this difficulty. ■pecdle valve and cranking the engine ■ few times will remove the rich tnlx l»re quickly und repince it with praiy Scully pure air. This does not often happen There are several ways of over dosing the b Removing u spark plug or opening u peteock leading into the combustion chamber and then cranking the engine slowly u few times, may answer the purpose, al though us long ns the needle valve is open some fuel will continue to lie drawn into the cylinders. Testing the Compression. It seldom happens that the compres sion of an engine suddenly becomes so poor through ordinary wear us to make it Impossible to start with tho methods commonly used. An open valve, however, will bring about tills result. Anyone who lias ever started a gasoline engine when it was in good working order should be aide to tell at once whether the compression is en tirely gone as soon as ho undertakes to crank the engine. When compres sion suddenly falls It Is probable that • he trouble is due to leaky piston rings or valves and the remedy is usually oh vlous when onee the cause is located. Tlie loss made by tho escaping air dur ing the compression stroke is often enough to Indicate the plate where it is escaping. PROPER VARIETY OF COTTON Campaign Being Waged in Louisiana to Secure Planting of Only High Yielding Varieties. (Prepared by the United State« Depart ment of Agriculture.) Because the liest yielding varieties of cotton produce 20, 30, and even 40 per cent more than the poor varieties, as shown by experienced results, a campaign I« being waged in Louisiana by the State Agricultural college. In co-operation with the United States department of agriculture, to secure the planting of only high-yielding vari eties. It is empbusized that what ever variety is planted. It should be pure; that Is, every sluik should be similar In appearance and in produc tive capaelty to every other stalk. The mixed or hybrid variety will never do tills, for many of the stalks will he barren or will he "shy" pro ducers. It Is also emphasized that the cotton grower should not depend wholly upon improved seed us his means for Increasing yields, for a fer tile soil is the most important feature In successful cotton growing. "It is a very poor policy." say officials n charge of the campaign, "to plant very poor land In cotton at all." j WHITEWASH FOR HEN HOUSE Disinfectant Given to Put Coop and Fixtures in Sanitary Condition —Use Pump. 'wash may lie used to put the poultry ; house nml fixtures in a sanitary con i dilion: The following disinfectant white Five quarts civ am of llino. j )ino ,, uiirt kerosene, ono p i„t coal tar i disinfectant and equal parts of water, j This to applied with a force pomp it possible, as this method will drive the ] material Ini every part of the tide j rlor of the house. The doors and win j dows are left open for a couple of 1 hours In order that the house may he j coni) . thoroughly dry. | nests , ir ,. then rollttered and the birds I allowed to go back ini | __ The floor and the house. MAINTAIN A FARM VV00DL0T I 1 H H rHnl¥I »» UUL ' I - U I Proven by Experience That 10 Per Cent of Farm Area Should Be Devoted to Trees. No farm acre should lie idle. /II land may he made to respond with that product which it is most capable of sustaining. In the case of the wn agricultural and rough farm land, a portion of It may be maintained in a farm woodlot. Experience lias proved that 10 per cent of the farm area should be maintained in tree cover, used for woodlot purposes. Still oth er land thinly set with trees or without forest cover, but agriculturally un profitable, may well be devoted to' spe cial tree crops, and among these are the nut-hearjng trees. KAISER'' PEA CHANGES NAME .. Variety Known as "McAdoo«" and Are a* Widely Distributed as Liberty Bonds. (Prepared by the United Slates Depart ment of Agriculture.) Furniers who want to buy quantities of the variety of field pen introduced several years ngo by the United States department of agriculture from Ger many, and then known ns tho "Kaiser" pen, will save trouble by not using that name any more. These peas arc now known us "McAdooa," and they arc as widely distributed through the North west us Liberty bonds, which caueflJ the substitution In nomemInture. New Spring Suits . c. Q ! V ] : j , p "'A thoughts Easier now. which I» the All tiling as deeply Implanted in them as th? instinct for home or children. Tlie most important item of tie* spring wardrobe Is the tailored suit, ai ways the character of dress should lie worn on Easter day. •lot so easy to make a selection lids spring because of the diversity styles and materials that have been turned toward ri se me saying all thoughts are turned to as ward new milliner;- mid new suits f-> spring. invites us to pul honor of this Joyous festival. It is delightful custom that on new apparel in Cerluln ly nothing helps more to impress ils signitieauce on children and young pe l pie Ilian Hie pretty clothes that give them so much innocent pleasure. As for women, the instinct to dress is that It ).• o' of tnllore I presented by those who create suits. For once in the history stilts serge is chosen less often than other weaves in wool, such us tricot, duvetyn. Jersey und some cloths. And again wool by no means ludds Hie undivided attention of suit makers. New weaves in silk and liber novelty DISTINCTIVE STREET HATS m ! *4* fea' O' ■O» J • . » k 1-9? I \X3P 3 -• ... s * k fff ï -Î : ffetraVj Villi I? ï w •■S' 4 ; > SÄ3 ■■ . w. *, / V >* ... 4 Mats of such exquisite lines asthoa thirt are pictured here prove that in tailored hats, above all else, the line's the tiling with which to catch the fancy of the chic American and ail her admirers. Three graceful shapes, two of them having a bandeau, portrny three widely different styles, and each emphasizes that simplicity of trim ming is a virtue in street bats— some thing that they cannot afford to Ignore Ail of these hats are of black User", a soft but brilliant braid, and all ■ f them reveal the unevenness of sewing, which is a pretty characteristic of (be styles. Tills roughness, or "bumpi ness." as il lias been culled, is much admired. These bats are designs suited to younger matrons. The very, spirit 'd model at the rigid lias a narrow brim, guiltless of curves or rolls, and is faced with crepe georgette. Bands of fancy black braid wander around and nvi» But that which claims In tbis its crown. stunt admiring attention for model is the effectiveness of tin* fcath Two fans of imitation They cr trimming. goura are mounted at the back, remind one of a proud and graceful crest such as nature places on the heads of beautiful birds. The hat nt the left has a soft crown of satin and a sweeping lirlni of lisero. mounted on a deep bandeau, brim looks as if It were set on a snHp cup. A long, curved quill of glyeerined Tlie silk, materials that are mixtures of -ilk and wool, come In for a generous A scarcity of wool in wartimes in-ought these new fab ries for suits into the foreground. Hut the diversity in materials is as nothing to the diversity in styles, ex cept finit skirts are uniformly long and coats generally short, suit styles in common. They range perfectly straight-line models, through semi-fitted coats, to the Rus sian blouse. Some of the coats are belted and many of them are not. Hraids are used freely and buttons well represented, but there are brail less und buttonless models that are -ban of attention. lime little from quite as smart and correct. The waistcoat must be given special mention because it Is attracting as much attention ns suits themselves. and presents as wide a variety in ma terials and decoration. The two suits pictured, among many aspirants for favor, are correct as to length .if details in style skirt and coat, and each is provide 1 with a little waistcoat or vestee. in if furnishing they differ, and one is a blouse and the other senilfitted. ostrich makes a wonderful trimming, following tlie graceful curves of the brim and lengthening its lines. The hat below is one of the new bandeau hats with brim rolling up ward at the left and dropping sharply a.t the right. There Is something very roguish and decidedly chic in this dnmp over tlie rigid eye. Some wag lias affirmed that the ladies are wear ing only one eye this season, and sometimes both eyes are almost lost In the shadow of close-fitting, drooping brims. But in spite of this charming eccentricity, the hat pictured is a dig nified model with three glyeerined os trich plumes nt the hack. Ornaments of Ribbon. UUAhiii, from the widest to tho nur lowest, is used with charming effect in the simplest of hu. decorttion. There are till sorts of coquettish cock ades' and other ornaments made in narrow ribbon, while large, perfectly lint bows are applied in groups to tho crowns of both large and small hats. Many Apron Effects. Summer dresses show a number of apron effects, sometimes in tiers shaped like a Ma son's apron, are I rimmed with frills beads, plaiting, luct. etc. Those upruu-luhlos. Ammra'a .Dmmnrtals : : . Most striking instance« of gallantry for which the Distinguished Service Cross has been awarded : On the war department's records there is a roll of " America's Immor tals." It is the roll of officers and men to whom there has lecn award ed the Distinguished Service Cross in recognition of acts of unusual gallantry in action. Behind each of these awards is a story of surpass ing bravery that deserves the wid est publicity, but pages of newspa per space would be required to print them all. Officers attached to Gen eral Pershing's staff have selected from the hundreds of official reports a number that typify most strik \ngly the gallantry and spirit of self-sacrifice that mad" America's army invincible. Hen are a few of th em : THOMAS O. NE1BOUR, Private, Company M, 167th Infantry. Private Neibour, whose home Is at Sugar City, Idaho, was decorated for conspicuous gallantry in action near Landres-et-St. Georges, France, Octo ber 16, 1918. On the afternoon of Oc tober 16, when the Cote de Chatillen bad just been gained after bitter fight ing, and the summit of that strong bul wark in the krienhilde Stellung was be ing organized. Private Neibour was sent on patrol with his automatic rifle squad to enfilade enemy machine gun nests. As Private Neibour gained the ridge he set up his automatic rifle and was directly thereafter wounded in both legs by fire from a hostile machine gun on his flank. The advance wave of the enemy troops counter-attacking had about gained the ridge and-al though practically cut off and sur rounded, the remainder of his detach ment being killed or wounded, this gallant soldier kept his automatic rifle in operation to such effect that by his own efforts and by fire from the skir mish line of his company at least 100 yards in his checked. rear, the attack was The enemy wave being halt ed and lying prone, four of the enemy attacked Private Neibour at close quarters. These he killed. He then moved along among the enemy lying on the ground about him, in the midst of the fire from his own lines, and by his coolness and gallantry captured eleven prisoners at the point of his pis tol and, although painfully wounded, brought them back to our lines. The counter-attack in full force was ar rested. to a large extent, by the single efforts of this soldier, w hose heroic ex ploits took place against the skyline in full view of his entire battalion. EDWARD C. ALLWORTH, Captain, 60th Infantry. Capt. Allworth won the Distin guished Service Cross for bravery in action at Clery-le-Petit, France, No vember 5, 191S. While his company « us crossing the Meuse river and canal nt a bridgehead opposite Clery-le-Pe tit, the bridge-over the canal was de stroyed by shell tire and Capt. All worth's command became separated, part of it being on the east bank of the canul and the remainder on the west bank. Seeing his advance units mak ing slow headway up the steep slope ahead, this officer mounted the canal bank and called for his men to follow, Blunging in he swam across the canal under fire from the enemy, followed by his men. Inspiring his men by his ex ample of gallantry, he led them up the slope, joining the hard-pressed pla toons in front. By his personal leader ship he forced the enemy back for more than a kilometer, overcoming ma chine gun nests and capturing a hun dred prisoners, whose number exceed ed that of the men in Ids command. The exceptional courage and leader ship displayed by Capt. Allworth made possible the re-establishment of a bridgehead over the caual and the suc cessful advance of other troops. Capt. Allworth's home is at Crawford, Wash ington. LOUIS CUKELA, Lieutenant, 5th Regiment, U. S. M. C. Lieutenant Cukela was decorated for conspicuous gallantry near Villers Cottciets, France, July 18, 1918. When his company, advancing through a w'Xtd, met with strong resistance from au enemy strong point Lieutenant Cu kein, then a sergeant, crawled out from the flank and made his way toward the German line in the face of heavy fire, disregarding the warnings of his com rades. He succeeded in getting behind the enemy position. Rushing a machine gun emplacement, he killed the crew with his bayonet. With German band grenades he then bombed out the re maining portion of the strong point His home is in Minneapolis, Minn. Sergt. Gumpertz was decorated for gallantry beyond the call of duty in actiou In the Boise de Forges. France, September 20. 1918. When the ad-. SYDNEY G. GUMPERTZ, First Sergeant. Company E, 13?nd Infantry. vunclng Une was held up by machine B'Hi Ore, Sergt. Gumpertz left the pln- tiMJii of which he was In command anil started through a heavy barrage to- ward the machine cun nest. His two companions from bursting shells, but Sergt. Gnm- pertz continued on alone in the face of direct tire from the machine jrun. Jumped Into the nest and silenced the gun, capturing nine of the crew. Sergt. Gnrapertz' home is at 701 West 178th street, New York city. -Ö - CHARLES F. HOFFMAN, Gunnery Sergeant, 49th Company, 5th Regiment, U. S. M. C. Sergt. Hoffman received the Dis tinguished Service Cross for an act of conspicuous gallantry in action with the enemy near Ohateuu-Thierry, France, June 0, 1018. Immediately after the company in which Sergt. Hoffman belonged had reached Its ob jective on Hill 142, several counter-at tacks were launched against the line before the new position had been con solidated. Sergt. Hoffman was at tempting to organize a position on the north slope of the hill when he saw twelve.of the enemy, armed with five light machine guns, crawling toward his group. Giving the alarm, he rushed at the hostile detachment, bayonetted the two leaders,' and forced the others to flee, abandoning their guns. His quick initiative and courage routed the enemy from a position from which they could have swept the hill with machine gun fire and forced the withdrawal of our forces. His home is in Brooklyn, N. Ï. soon became casualties -h THEODORE PETERSEN, Sergeant, Med. Det. 151st Field Artil lery, • Sergeant Petersen (deceased) was decorated for conspicuous gallantry in action at Peronne, France, March 5, 1018. enemy bombardment. Sergeant Peter sen, though himself too weak to min ister to other wounded soldiers, direct ed his associates in treating tho wounded and refused to receive assis tance himself until all the others were eared lor ' Uhen cns shells bepaD t0 fal1 in ,he vlclnit r he directed the men in adjusting their masks and was the first to test for gas. He continued to supervise the treatment of* the wounded, despite the fact that he was suffering great pain, until the arrival of the surgeon, who sent him to the rear. He died on reaching the hos pital. His mother, Mrs. N. J. Peter sen. lives at 99 Central avenue, Osh kosh, Wis. Mortally wounded during an - *. JAMES D. HERIOT, Corporal, Company I, 118th Infantry. Corp. Herlot, who lived near Provl dence, S. C-. was decorated for con spicuous bravery, resulting in bis death, at Vaux-Andigny, France, Oe tober 12. 1918. Corp. Heriot, with four other sol diers, organized a combat group, and attacked an enemy machine gun nest which had been inflicting heavy cas ualties on his company. In the ad vance two of his men were killed, and because of heavy fire from all sides, the remaining two sought shelter. Un mindful of the hazard attached to his mission, Corp. Heriot. with fixed bayo net, alone charged the machine gun, -making his way through the fire for a distance of thirty yards, and forcing the enemy to surrender. Daring this exploit he received several wounds in the arm. and later in the same day, while charging another nest, be was killed. spicuous bravery In action near Vnren nes, France, September 26. 1918. Dur ing an operation against enemy ma — ta— DONALD M. CALL, Second Lieutenant, Company B, Tank Corps. Lieut. Cali was decorated for eon .bine gun nests west of Vnrenues, Lieut. Call, then corporal, was in a tank with an officer, when half of the turret was knocked off by a direct ar tillery hit. Choked by gas from the high explosive shell, he left the tank and took cover in a shell hole thirty yards away. Seeing that the officer did not follow, and thinking that he might he alive. Corp. Call returned to the tank under Intense machine gun ami shell fire and carried the officer over a mile under machine gun and sniper lire to safety. Lieut. Call's home is at Larch mom Manor, N. Y. — Its — CHARLES DISALVO, Private. Company B, 354th Infantry. Private Disalvo (deceased) was dec orated for conspicuous gallantry In action near Uemonvillo, France, No Wheu the combat veniber 1, 1918. group, of which he was a member, laid licon halted by enemy machine guns. Private Disalvo alone charged for ward. Attacking the nest, he killed one gunner and forced the rest to surrender. His net enabled the group During to continue their advance, the charge on the nest he was so sert ously wounded that he died on the field. His widow lives at 3305 Arling ton avenue, St. Louis. Mo. ' JOHN J. KELLY, Private 78th Company, 6th Regiment, U. S. M. C. Private Kelly was decorated for gal lantry in action at Blanc Mont Ridge, France. October 3,1018. Private Kelly ran through our own barrage 100 yards In advance of the front One and at tacked an enemy machine gun nest, killing tlie gunner with a grenade, shooting another member of the crew with his pistol and returned through the barrage with eight prisoners. Pri vate Kelly's home is at 6149 Kind ark avenue. Chicago, III.