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THE CHRONICLE, f
Fublhbrd Weekly at Camden, Tenn. imiiitciiiniiiiiiil,i,.CJ1lil,M Tl inb rlption j r. ,( Tut riiH'iM-t.i ! I pr year, 60 cent f rx limiitba, a 5 rni f.ir llr. e umi' (., is piMltivnlv mint be pi4 In a Irnw. All iil.c,ri.'.H1i:i b i r Jini.tlT Itoj at eiptra'i-.n of timo pij for. Obituary and ainnlar notion will be charped foratlhe rate of 3 n,u t pr line. We will furtutti rat. t for durylay and local adwtuiuir Oil application. Our J U priming laciHtirl ar flrtt-clait, and our K-onl!r It kh1 work. Enmatt (nd Mm) 1. 1 whure pot.blei) will ba furuUlwJ ou application. Nowt ooHimimiontioiit and artlolea on q'lM tlont of pubho lut.ret art solicited, but wt a-aurrm no rrijiotuiliility for lie exprmlont oou'aiued in all tucU ovmi&ualctuoui aad trtiolei rub.Ub!. IbraittauocaeanbtmadetnvartrmtwaTttlial i art psrreotly mfa, but til romlttatiyt suit art at the rlk of and- r. l'oatajje atampt of 1 and 8-ctnt ctPiiomiiHtiiiin will 1 received lniumi f 1 a than $1, provided they art tout in tucti alitpo at to prevent thnrn ttiokiiiff tofjelher. All rrmitutuYv and bumuen oouiuiuuioatloni huulj be tnl to TRAVIS BROS, Publishers, Campem, Iran. New York State can boat of a very original Men, remarks tie New York Advertiser. The University of th State of New York has instituted a ystem of traveling libraries by which any existing collodion of hooka or any community desiring it and willing to conform to certain specified and easy conditions may obtain a loan for six mouths of ono hundrod selected Volumes from tho duplicate collection of tin university, or from books .especially bought or given for the purpose. Up to January 1, 125 of theso libraries had been sent out from Albany, aggregating 11,000 volumes, of which 7500 had been re turned without loss or injury, 4400 were still out and only a single volumo was missing, for which, with exemplary probity, the sum of seventy cents had been recoverod into the uni versity treasury. The system is a usoful one, providing reading matter for many communities otherwise un able to obtain it, and it seems capable of wide extension. Suoh circulating collections inspire the foundation of permanent ones, and the traveling library becomes the parent, and re mains tho aid of tho local and abiding1 one. The Regents of the university have employed the power the law gives them in this direction wisely and to good purpose. Eastern capitalists are to build at Chicago the largest tow barge in the world, the measurement of whioh will be : Keel 332 feet and 365 feet over all, beam 44 feet, and depth of hold 26 feet. On the present draft of li feet of water in tho locks at Sault Ste. Mai ie the new boat will carry 4500 tons. On the eighteen feet of water, when the twenty-foot channel between the great lakes shall have been comple ted, it will carry easily 6000 tons. The vessel will have no spars at all for U3e of canvas, and will be towed exclusive ly. It will be of the best steel con Btruction throughout. Shipbuilding in all branches promises to have an unprecedented boom at Chicago this epring. Contracts for two steamers nearly 400 feet in length, and for two eteel schooners with keels of more than , 300 feet, have recently been made, and the capacity of boats under construction on the Calumet at the present time is about 21,000 tons. "The remarkable increase in the size of lake vessels this winter has been Viewed," says a local paper, "with undisguised alarm by tho owners of boats which have formerly done the bulk of lake carrying. They have viewed witn considerable misgivings the coming of steamers and schooners which could take on board 6000 tons in a singlo cargo with no correspond ing increase in cost of operation. On what the outcome of this struggle be tween the old and new will be no two marine men can agree. It is evident, however, from the contracts which one shipbuilding company has taken, and the work of the other ship-yard3 around the lakes, that tho coming lake carriers will be of the 6000-ton class, and tho owners of boats built beforo the twenty-foot channel be came a part of the polioy of the General Government must adjust their interests to meet the competition of the larger craft." Earthquake Shocks In Italy. Shocks of earthquake were again felt at Reggio di Calabra, Italy, Mon day evening, but no damage was done. TAX ACT IS ; Declared Unconstitutional fa Its Host Important Features. NO TAX CAN BE COLLECTED BONDS OR RENTS. THE ICNTIKK ACT ESCAPES ONLY II V A 11 K VOTE. Juttlcet White and Field Dissent In Regard to Essential Featurrt. Chief Justice Fuller announced the decision of the United States supreme court in tho inconio tux cases Monday. Ho began by stating the exceptions to the law as made by counsel for the ap pellant as follows: 1. That the act imposes a direct tax in respect of the real estate, rents, is sues and profits of personal property and not being apportioned is in viola tion of section two of nrticle one of the constitution. 2. That tho law, if not imposing a direct tax, is nevertheless unconstitu tional in that its provisions are not uniform throughout tho United States and do not operate with tho same force and effect upon tho subject of tho tax wherever found, and in that it provides in favor of individuals and co-partner ships, while denying all exemptions to corporations having similar incomes derived from like property and values and provides for other exemptions and inequalities in violation of section eight of article ono of the conatitu tion. 3. That tho act provides no exemp tion of the tax upon incomes derived from the stocks and bonds of states of tho United States and counties and municipalities therein, which stocks and bonds are not proper subjects for the taxing power of congress. Iho in come from these securities in tho United States amounts to over $65, 000,000 per annum, on which tho to tal annual income tax would be $1,- 300,000. CONSTITUTIONAL TOINT9 INVOLVED. He then took up the constitutional points involved, dwelling upon tho fact that the constitution required tho appointment of direct taxes and uni formity in excises and imposts. He also dwelt upon tho question of repre sentation and taxation, which was, he said, a foremost one when the consti tution was adopted. He then took np the question of tho tax on rents, and in so doing discussed at considerable length tho question of direct taxes as considered at the time of the framing of the constitution. Tho framers of the constitution were, he said, well versed in the gov ernment of the colonies and of Euro pean countries, and were well versed in the literature of the period, includ ing works on political economy and were well calculated to pass intelli gently on this kind. He quoted various supreme court decisions and sought to Bhow that while the income tax question had been before the court, tho question had only been considered as applying to the point at issue in the particular cases. TIIE TAX DURING THE WAR. Coming down to tho present tariff act, he said that tho law was passed in a time of profound peace and it was to be taken as evidence that congress had sought in this matter to form a prece dent and establish a departure from established lines, and it, therefore, became important to inquire into the circumstances with some attention to detail. For tho purpose of compari son, ho went back to the enactment an income tax during tho civil war. ilk. quoted from the decision in tho Springer case, giving a history'of tho case and devoting much attention to it, as he said that it was upon this case that the defense had appaiently relied more generally than any precedent It is,fhe said, conceded in all the cases from Hylton to Springer that taxes on land are direct taxes, while in some of them it is determined that taxes on rents, derived Irom land, are indirect taxes. Was there, he asked, any distinction between a tax on tho land or tho income derived from the land! What, in other words, was the land but profit on it? The name of the tax is unimportant, and the court had been unable to see any distinction. lie closed by saying that the court had reached the conclusion that the tax on rents was invalid. The chief justice then took up the question of the taxation of municipal and state bonds. The decision was also adverse to this part of tho law as repugnant to the constitution. On the other points, the court was divided and, therefore, no opinion could be given. Summing Up the Folnts. The conclusion!! of the court were stated as follows : 1. That by the constitution federal taxation t divided into two great (!u(n--diri't tales and duties, in- posf arid excise. 2. 1 hut th') imposition of direct inxi in gnvern ;-d by tho rult) i.f ap portionment unions the Several state, according to l.uiuiii r, him luti impost- tiou of JutieN, impost and excise by theruhtof uniformity throughi ut the Uiiite.l Stat. . 3. 'Hint thu priuriplo tl.st taxation and r jTehi ntittiott p together wan intended to b and prexcribed in th constitution by thu atiiUif-hlnetit ol lao ruin ol apportionment among thwievtral states, so that such appor tionment thonld be according to num bers in each state. 4. That tho states snrretidnred their power to levy impost aud to regultto commerce to to tho cencral covrrn- lacnt and gave it tho concurrent power to levy direct taxes in relianro on tho protection aflordod bv the rules prescribed, and that tho compromises of the constitution cannot bo d'oturh td by legittlativn action. o.rhat theso conclusions resplt from tho text of the constitution ttT"l are supported by tho historical evi- denco furnished bv the circumstances surrounding the framing and adoption of that instrument, and tho views of thoe who framed and adopted it. G. 1 hat tho understanding aud ex pectation at tho time of tho adoption of the constitution was that direct taxes would not be levied by tho gen eral government except under tho pressure of extraordinary exigencv, and such has been the practice down to August lo, 18JI. If tho power to do so is to be exercised as an ordinary and usual means of supply, that fact furnihhes an additional reason for cir cumspection in disposing of tho pres ent case. 7. That taxes on real estate belong to tho class of direct taies, and that the taxes on the rent or income of real estate, which is the incident of its ownership, belong to tho same class. 8. 1 hat by no previous decision of this court has this question been ad judicated to the contrary of tho con clusions now announced. That so much of the act of August 15, 1891, as attempts to impose a tax upon tho rent or income of real estate without apportionment is invalid. Tin: advaxci: ix huf.f lirlngs Out Some Explanations From the Lilg Puckers. Tho story telegraphed from New York to a Chicago morning paper that tho recent advance in beef was not justified, and that tho big Chicago packers were making an effort to con trol tho meat market of the country and advance prices to consumers, is emphatically de: ied by Nelson Mor ris, George F. Swift, Armour k Com pany aud other packers. "The advauco in tho prico of dressed beef," said Nelson Morris, "is the natural result of the scarcity of cattle. Already this year the receipts of cattle at the four principal points Chicago, St. Louis, Omaha and Kansas City are 300,000 head behind last year's record. Last week tho receipts were 29,000 head short, which is equal to 18,000,000 pounds of dressed beef. We are 16,000 head short already this week. The price of live stock is now $2 per huudred pounds higher than it was last year, and I expect to see prices go still higher." Mr. Swift uiso denied that there was a combine among the packers, and said the cattle market was 30 per cent higher now than it was last year.which fact is advancing the price of beef to consumers. Manager Favorite, of Thilip D. Ar mour & Co., said tho statement that a pool had been formed by the big western packers to advance the price of beef was absurd. "It is scarcely worth denying," said he. "Tho only causes for tho high prico of beef aro the scarcity of cattle and tho fail ure of the corn crop. Tho latter is, of course, tho cause of the former. We are not working for the interest of other packers that is certain. Be sides, it would be impossible to form a pool of the kind alleged, if desired, so great is the diversity of interests among the western packers. Last Saturday's receipts were the lowest I have ever known them only fivo huudred head. I do not know any thing about other markets, bnt ono has only to use his eyes to see how things are going here." STRENGTHENING THE UNION. Dibs Says He Has Added 2,200 Mem bers In a Week. President Debs, of the American Railway Union, reports that as a re sult of his thirty-six days of speech making on the acme coast the Amer ican Railway Union has been thor oughly reorganized along the liue of the Great Northern system to tho coast and in California. In seven days on the westward trip he took in 2,200 members. President Debs says the reduction in wages of the men on tho Southern Pacific, which recently went into effect, has resulted in gen eral dissatisfaction on the part of the men with the old brotherhoods, whioh were unable to prevent the reduction. We frequently only express com- meudation when we should Btrive to imitate good actions. WASHINGTON X0TKS IT i:miof Mvvs ri(Ki:i it at Till; NAIIONAI, CAPITAL. Hjlnt nnd Ii!ii;j of the Olllelal Ilfinlaof t bo (iuveriimrnt. An intimation of the agres.ive fight which the Lew silver party will mke for tho whito metul is found in the announcement niado Tuesday that the e x-Congrrssmau Joe Sibley, of Penn sylvania ; Senator Hcwart, of Nevada, and General Warner, president of the bimetallic league, will go to Colo rado next week to open the campaign in that ttate. To Prevent "Yellow Jack." Tho authorities charged with tho conduct of quarantine matters and tho general supervision of tho publio health, are keeping atharp lookout to prevent tho importation of yellow fever into tho United States. Tho euro that is being exercised by all the quarantine official is illustrated ly the action of tho New York officials in ordering tho Portugese Prince buck to quarantine for disinfection because a fireman had died under suspicious cir cumstances beforo tho vessel touched at Santos. This, too, in tho faeo of a clean bill of health by tho quarantine official of that port aud the United States cousul. The regular quarantine season begins tho firt of May. All quarantine stations aro being thor oughly equipped, and each of tho three ports of refuge for stricken ves sels aro under tho charge of n physi cian of experience, and an assisting forco that has dealt with fever in tho past. The insurrection in Culm causes a condition of affairs unpleasant for health officers to consider. Marine of fice officials declare that tho shipment of several thousand now Spanish troops into Cuba at this season of the year, non-acclimated, is' bound to precipi tate an epidemic of fever, the ill ef fects of which mutt, in a degree mora ! or less severe, do ieit in tuis country. They also fear that Cuban towns, espe cially Havana, will be overrun with country people seeking to escape the contending forces engaged in continu ing or suppressing the insurrection, and that as a consequence the snnitary precautions will bo even more neglect ed than before. Plans aro being per fected by Surgeon General Wyman to meet any contingency. The Tax Law Scuttled. Tho income tax law has been scut tled by tho supreme court of the United States, which handed down a decision Monday, declaring it uncon stitutional in two of its main features. The landlords of tho country are ex empted from an inconio tax and the owners of bonds of almost every kind, federal, state, county and municipal, are also let out. But tho manufacturer and the sala ried employe will, for the present at least, bo compelled to pay 2 per cent on all incomes in excess of $4,000 a year. The holes made in the income tax law are so fatal as to necessitate either its repeal or its material amendment, as tho people of 'the country will hardly care to see the large capitalists and trust companies absolutely protected, while the poor men, comparatively speaking, aro forced to contribute to run national government. The question whether tho ruling out of incomes derived from rents would make the whole law unconstitutional was decided in the negative by a di vided court, for the reason that when tho court is divided on a question it is neither aflirmed nor reversed, but stands as it is. This leaves the law to stand as enacted, except as to the two points mentioned. The decision will relieve from tax an enormous amount of current money. Every man who pays rent will pay an incomo tax on his gross revenue and can make no deduction for what he pays his land lord, and tho landlord will enjoy the money free from all responsibility of contributing to the federal revenues. Tho insurance companies and great combinations of capitalists which con trol thousands of business blocks and tho great sky scrapers, can receive their rents and disburse them free of taxation. Tho men who own farms or city property bringing in incomes which may bo many times the amount exempted, will,. under tho decision of the court, be entitled, .to deduct from their gross revenue every penny ie ceiyed from their tenants. Uio decision also rractical!v ex empts the bondholder class of the country from all income tax. United btats bonds are specially exempted by tbi provisions of tho law itself. Now,under tho decision of the su preme! conr every man receiving in comes 'from state or municipal bonds may diduct that the return made to the internal revenue officers, and it is Cifsy to see that in a great majority of cases capitalists who may bo worth millions of dollars, after deducting the revenue they derive from real estate arid federal, state, county and muni cipal bonds, will not pay the govern ment a dollar of tax. The total combined debt of the states and territories, less the sinking fund, is $1 135,210,412, and the interest oa thi rtioriiioiii sum, hieh h estimated at about $,",", OO'l.OOi), is all exi tnpted from taxation. The ineofui' tat, w ill, tlo tri !y in the working and r- for., fll producing cUsne. The busbies l II and thtf manufacturer and the halm ied niploje ill pay the tax on nil income over $ I, ()')(). Tho decision will entirely uj Tt tury Carlisle's estimate a funiculi situation In U, ell li 'l See to the w mid the dnv congress meet", but th'le is enough of tho law left in nil jn ity to leep the treasury runn::. I'ecember. hahil lifitil i unniF.it pKocKniM.Mis Will be Taken In the Attempt to Over, throw the Incoint Tat. Sinco the delivery of the intvtu'j tax decision, attorneys and ethers inter ested in overthrowing tb tsx have taken tteps to test various parts of tho law in further proceedings. Atta.-ks will bo made both on those portions that were sustained by a tie Vote, aud on somo fresh points not parsed upon upon in tho particular cases decided Monday, Attorney J. M. Wilson, who repre sented John G. Moore in tho court of appeals in tho recent cases, says that further proceedings will bo takeu im mediately. "Several parts of tho law will bo attacked," said he, "the principal ono being tho exemption from taxation of incomes under $ 1,000 auuuully. This will bo attacked as an unjust discrimi nation. I cannot say ju.-.t yel mho the compluinants or what the titlen of tho suits will be, but they will bo iusti tued very soon, probably within a few days, and bo pushed us rapidly as pos sible." What tho President Say. The president, ou being asked wheth er in view of tho decision of the supremo court on the income tax law, an extra session of congress would bo called, F,aid that neither ho nor the secretary of tho trenmiry saw any necessity for such action and that un less there was an unexpected change in conditions ho had no idea that con gress would meet again before the timo appointed for tho regular session. English Opinions ot the Decision. The London (Hole, referring to the supremo court of the United States as to tho constitutionality of the income tax, says: "Every man in this coun try will regret that there is no supremo court of tho American variety here. Never in all the long history of the English bench have they soared to tho heights of liberty reached by the American judges yesterday. It is quite impossible to establish such a tribunal here." The St. James Gazette comments on the supremo court decision in a simi lar strain, and adds: "No one has sug gested that this august tribunal can be bribed in tho manner familiar to liti gants in seme of the inferior courts of the union. Still, it is significant that tho politics of the various judges are carefully mentioned in the dis patches. " SOUTHERN MAY SLASn. Permission Granted the Company to Cut Uates on Their Lines. The inter-state commerce commis sion, in session at Washington, has granted the recent request of the Southern Railway company, that, in order to meet the cut in rates made by the Seaboard Air Line, it be author ized to charge less for a long than for a snort nam oi passengers, ine or der of the commission was as follows: "It is ordered that the prayer of the said petition bo, and the same is hereby granted, and said Southern Railway is hereby authorized to charge less for the transportation of passen gers for longer than for shorter dis tances over tho same line in the same direction, the shorter being included within the longer distance, but only to the extent and upon tho conditions following: "First. Such high rates for shorter distances shall not in any case exceed the lower rates for longer distances by more than 5.00. "Second. Such lower rates for long distances shall not in any case be less than thoeo previously published by the Seaboard Air Line or competing car riers between the same points. "Third. Such lower rates for longer distances shall not in any case be less than the cost of the service rendered. "This order is hereby declared to be temporary and provisional, pending further investigation by the commis sion, and tho same may be modified or revoked at any time, and with or with out notice, in the discretion of the commission." Struck Against Machines. One-hulidred expert glass, workers employed at Atterbury's factory at Pittsburg, Pa., struck Tuesday morn ing on account of the polishing ma chines used by the firm. , The men claim the work done by the machines is inferior, and that the ware damaged is charged up against their salaries. Machine Shop? Burned. The roundhouse and machine shops of the Atlantic and Pacific railroads at Winslow.Wis., have been complete ly destroyed by fire. Several locomo tives were burned. The loss is about $100,000.