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Till! TRANSVAAL j
Foiat3 cf Interest About tho South African Republic Tho Irrcprcsslblo Conflict Be tween Boer and Briton. Tho Transvaal, or Smth. African Republic, as it u oflleially designated, including the recently annexed terri ; torjr knowu an tho "New Republic," a fragment of tho old Kingdom of Zulu land, haI iu 1888 a tutnl surertieial of about 116,000 tquare niiles, with a population variously estimated at from 300,000 to 480,000. As regard tho number of unties no accurate returns La bueu niado eicept in tho southern diMricts, near tho capital. It pos missed uutil quito recently farsmaller number of white settlers. Tho dis parity is rapidly disappearing since immigrants havo begun to lluck in crowds to tho nowly diacovorod gold field. Tho white population, formerly al most lost amid tho surrouuding abo rigines.already constitute arespectab!e minority. Aloug moro than half of its periphery tho Transvaal enjoys the advantage of nntural geographical frontiers. Tho Transvaal is divided into threo niore or less distinct physi cal rogious. Then aro the lloogo Veld, tho Baukiu Veld, and the Bosch Veld. The foundations of thin Dutch State were laid uudcr grout difficulties. In 1837, when tho first trekkors crossed tho Vaal, nnd settled in tho part of tho territory where now stands the town of Fotchoftrooin, they came into collision with the terrible chief of tho Miitebelos, one of tho most formidable Zulu warriors, who were at that time "eating up" peoples of Austral Africa. Moat of tho Dutch pioneers wero ex terminated, but tho survivors suc ceeded in holdiug their ground, aud eventually driving the fierce Matubele warriors beyond tho Limpopo. In 1848, after the battle of Boomplnats, which for a timo extinguished tho politioal independence of tho Orange Free State, numerous fugitives from that region sought refuge with their kinsman beyond the VuaL Then in reply to tho English, who had set a price of $10,000 on tho leader, Preto ria, that sturdy Boer was elected president of the new republic. Four years later in 1852, the independence of tho Transvaal was recognized by the British Government. The everlasting wars between the Dutoh and the natives was accom panied by atrocious massacres and wholesale extermination. Every ad vance made by tho whito intruders was marked by a trail of blood. Thus the dominant British power never lacked pretexts, and occasionally ur gent reasons of state policy and hu manity, to intervene and arbitrate be tween the hostile parties. The dis covery of the gold fields, reverses in the field and bankruptcy and a heavy British emigration followed. Then in 1877, a British Commissioner, at tended by a handful of armed men, made his appearance at Pretoria, the capital, and issued a proclamation suppressing the republio and formally annexing Transvaal to the colonial possessions of Great Britain. No op position was offered by the Boers. There was discontent, which came to a head when the English took unjndi cious measures. War followed and tho British were driven out of the state. When the British wero ready to crush the Boers the Gladstone Ministry sent a dispatoh that the Boers had been wronged and that peace was to be concluded without further blood shed. Tho Transvaal Republic re sumed its political autonomy.although accepting tho nominal suzerainty of Great Britain. Tho Boers aro less polished in tho Transvaal than the Orange Free State. Their English visitors often describe them as, Barbarians. Of all South Africa lands tho Transvaal is most abundantly supplied with all kinds of natural wealth. The whola of the Transvaal is gold bearing. The whites alone aro privi leged to acquire possession of the mines. The natives can not ever ro ceive payment in gold under the pen alty of the lash and imprisonment. The white element iu the Transvaal hu reserved to itself all political rig! Tho whites, whether citizens by birth or naturalize 1 sft- r a five years residence nnd on payment of Jl-5 aro alone entitle! to tnkti part in tho lecti'd of the members tif tho! Volksrnal nnd of tho president Fur these oflhvH thorn) only aro tligihlo who aro natives of Trausvatl or resi dent of 15 year Mariding, profaning tho Protestant religion an 1 owners of a domain within the limits of the Mute. The legislative power is vented iu the Volksraud, which consists of 4 1 members elected for four years, one half retiring every two years. All signatories to a petition for annex ntion of Transvaal aro excluded from tho i ight of suffrage aud from all pub lic ollieo. Dutch is tho official lan guage, end tho president is elected fur five years, lie hue a cabinet of five members. Toe suzerainty of Great Britain, re stricted to tho control of tho foreign relations, is little more than nomiuul. B it it has been frequently stated the utcrual elements of disorder and dan ger aro too multifarious to allow the European inhabitants for many gene rations to dispense w ith tho protection of tho English scepter. The dream of the Boers has been for a united "African Holland," comprising all tho Afrikanders from the "Cape of Good Hope to Zambesi. British im migration and aggression prevent this. The Transvaal Republic has no standing army beyond a small force of horse artillery, but in caso of war, all able-bodied citizens aro obliged to serve. Tho revenuo is derived chiefly from tho sale of lauds, tho customs, tho hut tax payable by tho natives, und the dues levied on mines. The surplus has beeu'ehiefly applied to de veloping internal resources and pay ing off 200,000 national debt. The Transvaal Republio is twice as largo as Illinois, aud of immense valuo to tho power that controls it. Chicago Times. Why the Mirage Seeim Inverted. Lord Rayleigh says that tho delu sion of water appearing in mirages on hot, saudy plains, is due to the fact that the undisturbed strata of air near the earth is highly ratified. A ray of light falling very obliquely upon this strata, and being totally reflected, reaches the eye of the observer just as it would if reflected from water. The phenomenon is, strictly speak ing, one of refraction rather than re flection. Now just as the glass lens forms an image on tho screen, bo the crystaliue lens of the eye forms an image on the retina or sensitive back part of the eye. This retina image is inverted as all retina images are, and being projected to another strata of rarified air above, hus the effect of making the delusion perfect. Rayleigh further says that there has been much unnecessary speculation in connection with tho theory of inverted retina images, the mystory being that we do not see all things inverted. Tho truth of the matter is now look for something you never saw in a book we do not see the retina image at all, wo only feel it If we could see the image on the eye of somo one else we would certainly soe it inverted. -St. Louis Republic. Cruelty of the Seal-Hunters, The seals we killed either with guns or pikes. There is very little sport attached to Beal-hunting, especially in Antarctic waters, as the seals there are tame through ignorance of man's bloodthirstmess. Generally they wero asleep when we approached end many of them died without having seen their murderers. But, as a rule, the slaughter and skinning of the seal were most barbarous, bloody, aud hid eous unnecessarily so. Specially cruel is tho task when seal-pikes are usod. Only rarely does a seal die from one or two blows of the pike, and if it is not dead it is generally considered "all the better;" for it is easier to skin a seal while it is half alive. Iu the utmost agony, the wretched beast draws its muscles away from tho sharp steel which tears away its skin, and thus assists in parting with its own coat. Century. ' Bcrore the Flood, "Oh, that happened, before tho flood," said tho big mau contempt uously. "Which flood?" asked tho little man, who hud put in two days trying to get the water out of his cellar. Chicago Post. Llfi'-StiTlnif Station. The Malum itlf is a Utv-niorj boiiM) built securely and hoiidly upon some good situ aloug tho bench it is comfortable and roomy, furnished by the Government, and has tho bout room and kitchen on tho lower floor; a largo bedroom for the keeper, an other for tli ! tiurfiuen, and a More room occupy tho second story. The boat-room is largo and opens by greut double doors upon tho beach. It contains the lifu-saving apparatus always in perfect order aud readiness. Tho crow consists of a keeper and nix (turfmen, though some stations number seven surfmen; there men are graduates from no uaval college, but havo served their apprenticeship with Old Ocean as their master; they must bo ablo to handle a boat in the roughest weather, and to face all tho dangers of tho deep. Each man must undergo a strict medical examination, and must bring to the statiou his certificate of good health; and ho is also obliged to sign an agreement to faithfully perform all duties. The keeper receives a salary of 900 a year (up to 1802 it was but $700), ho must bo at the station all tho year round, but is allowed a mouth's leave of abseuco in the summer if ho gives up his pay. A surf man receives $G3 u month, is at tho station during eight months of tho year, and has tho priv ilege of leaving the station for tweuty four hours every two weeks, but in lonely stations they generally remain for the active season, which begins September 1, ending May 1 ; when a man leaves in May ho goes where ho pleases, and if ho does not return in September the keeper gets another man in his place for the next winter season. The keeper is held responsible for the condition of everything connected with tho station ; he must drill the men in their duties, divide the work evenly, and soo that tho men are orderly. No liquor is allowed on tho premises; drunkness or neglect of duty is punished by instant dismissal from the service; the man who is de tailed to cook must keep the kitchen iu perfect order; and each has his share of tho housework to perform, for no women live at tho stations. The crew are uumbored by the keeper from one to six, and at mid night preceding September 1 tho sta tiou goes iuto commission; at that hour tho keeper gives patrol equip ments to two of tho surfmen, and they start out on the first patrol, and the active season has fairly begun : every thing runs like clockwork after that, and as strict a discipline is maintained as on board a man-o'-war. St Nich olas. The Heart of Gothnm. The real heart of Gotham, the brains and genius of the metropolis, are to be found in a very small section of this big city, writes a New York cor respondent of the Pittsburg Dispatch. Between Fourteenth and Fortieth streets are found tho men who writo out dramas, who make our songs, who compose tho musio for our operas, whose pens are responsible for many of thoso bright little bits of humor that lighten our lives, whoso brains invent many of the ideas that other men utilize. It is no exaggeration to saythat this section is responsible for nearly every bit of tho now or original literary matter that is produced in this city. If it is not actually com posed in tho little world designated, it is there critically examined, revised, amended or put iuto the Bhapo in which it is finally given to the public On Broadway, between tho streets named oue is constantly bumping against men and women who are responsible for a good deal of the musio and laughter of this whole country. The Modern Novel. Twitterly (to Snittarly, reading novel) And what becomes of the hero ? I don't know his final fate, but on page 205 it looks as if the heroine had him treed. Twitterly Troed ? Snitterly .Yes. The author Btates that "at her glance he stood rooted to the spot." Harper's Bazar. George Stillman is suing to recover immense valuable property in Brook lyn under a deed given to an ancestor by three Indian chiefs. WAULS OF TIlOl'UIIT. Duty doesn't call ; Mio listens. Two lies aro weaker than one. All is not fun that raises a laugh. Bo as happy as you can, if yon can. Tomorrow is always tho best of the year. Somo women look too old and somo too young. A good habit is never good enough brag about Many a man thinks ha is in lovo and is only in trouble. Tho man with nothing to loso docs net necessarily win. When a man has only ono idea it is usually a wrong one. It is not polite to havo moro than oue kind of politeness. It is not more blessed to give a bribe than to receive one. All people havo something to regret if it is only that they were bom. Even an honest man often breaks tho promises he makes to himself. Somo benefactor should invont a system which will bo on aid to forget fulness. Tho right to ono's opinions doesn't always include tho right to obtrudo them upon others. Tho people who aro always waiting for their ships to como in aro fre quently thoso w ho havo never sent out any. Most women are convinced that all that is necessary to make a man happy is for him to get a wife. Tho men know better. New York Press. Victoria's Descendants. A laborious genealogist announces. as the result of years of minute labor, that the Queen children, of whom she has lost two; 41 grandchildren, of whom eight havo died ; and 23 great graudchildreniall of whom aro living. She has therefore C3 descendants liv ing, seven children, 33 grandchildren, and 23 of the next generation. Her eldest great-grandchild, tho Princess Feodore, of Saxo-Meiningen, is now nearly 17, bo that in all probability Her Majesty will live to soo her grand children's grandchildren. Few Eng lish sovereigns before Queen Victoria havo seen grandchildren grow out of infancy ; and none ever saw a great grandchild. Hence, 'Her Majesty .had to determine tho question of prece dency in tho caso of the Duchess of Fife's children, and she wisely de cided that they should rank only as daughters of a Duke. Tho decision was in accordance with a House-law decreed earlier in tho reiu, by which the title of Prince and Royal Highness is limited to the sovereign, and the children of the Bovereign's sons, the children of the sovereign's daughters taking prece dence only according to the rank of their fathers. Thus the Princess Helena's children rank as children of Priuco Christian only, whilo the Duke of Connaught's are Royal High nesses; and Prince Arthur of Con naught's son and successor, if be has one, will be the Duke of Connaught as an ordinary duke, taking prece dence merely by date of the creation of his dukedom. This is now the caso of tho Duke of Cumberland on the roll of the House of Lords, though he is styled Royal Highness as a son of a King of Hanover. The Gentle woman. Queer Stroke of Lightning:. While a company of soldiers were drilling at Rondsburg, Germany, lately, a bolt of lightning threw forty eight men to the ground. Tho light ning ran from bayonet point to bay onet point, shattering the guns com pletely. Only one man was killed one who carried no gun; through him the lighthing was cond'ictcc. to tho ground. His body was covered, with blue and groen spots and stripes. The eyeglasses of one man wore melted and burned into the flesh, and ho re ceived other painful injuries, but he will live. Another had both legs stif fened. The cries of the suffering men are said to have been heartrending. Heart Failure. "Isn't that Miss Stnodley? I thought ehe was sick. Somebody told me Dr. Paukey had given her up." "Well ho did sort o' give her up but not until ho had tried five or six years to get her." Chicago Tribune. A liirthday. I t 1 no ninr the mow of yr"i Hi tnrtiinlg. aud pulses bound) ly ) am fit I ml with happy tnMy My ea's with nappy sound. i Anew I liiten to thn low F' lid coning of thn dov, And minli! unto inyIf to know I Uil am htvod and love. My manhood k'ep tha lw of morn, And what I hava 1 give; llelng rtk'ht glad that I was born, Aud thankful that I livo. Alfred Austin. HUMOROUS. Why didn't the person who Buffered untold agony tell somebody? Miss Elderly Sho said she heard I was engagod. Lona How tice of her. He Do you think my picture lookl like me? Sho (sympathetically) Yes, I am sorry to say, it does. The good housewife will form no opinion of her new neighbor until after they have their washing out "Dignity, my Bon, is a very proper eort of thing; but don't put on too much of it or you may be taken for a footman." Mistress You have a soldier in the kitchen. What is bo doing there? Housemaid "Learning cooking, pleaso, mum." Interested Stranger What is the trouble with the baby sir? Papa Blest if I know, except that it doesn't Becm to bo his lungs. "Help I helpl" yelled tho man. "As thero is no doctor within hailing distance," said tho highwayman, "I think I can relieve you." Pater This is an awful big bill for Turkish baths. Why do you go there bo often? Daughter Where else can a girl go who has nothing to wear Equal to Emergencies Country Editor What's the matter now? Pressman We're out of ink. "Well, rub the rollers with tho office towel." Mrs. Crimsonbeak I hope I don't see you drunk again today? Mr.Crim Bonbtjak Hie I hopo you don't sus pect me of leading hie a double life. Cadzocks Diggles is one of the most thorough reformers I know. Zounds You're right; ho would cut off a man's head to euro the tooth ache Lawyer What occupation did your husband follow? Witness He was a skipper. Lawyer Of a Bchooner? Witness No ; of a bank ; he skipped to Canada. Alleviated Woe "Dreadful about that burglar taking your diamond scarf pin, wasn't it?" "Well it might have been worse, no took my neck tie too, the one my wife gave me." Biggs I seo Jiggs has been mar ried. Suppose congratulations are in order? Miggs Well, I don't know his bride, so I can't congratulate him; and I don't know him, bo I can't con gratulate her. Mrs. Henry Peck (whoso mother has been visiting them for over four mouths) I don't know what to buy mother for a birthday present Do you? Mr. Henry Peck Yes! Buy her a traveling bag. He I had a queer dream about you last uight, Miss Louisa. I was about to give you a kiss, when suddenly we wero separated by u river that gradu ally grew as big as tho Rhine. She Aud was there no bridge. or no boat? How to Walk Upstairs. "There aro but very few person how to walk upstairs properly," says a well known physician. "Usually a person will tread on tho ball of his foot in taking each step, springing himself up to the next step. This is very tiresome and wearing on tho muscles, as it throws the eutiro sus pended weight of tho body on the muscles of tho legs and feet You should, in wulkiug or climbing stairs, seek for tho most equal distribution of the body's weight us possible. In walking upstairs your feet should be placed 6quarely down on tho step, heel and all, and then tho work should be performed slowly and deliberately. In this way there is no strain ou any par ticular muscle, but each oue ia doing its duty in a natural manner. The man who goes upstairs with a springing step is no philosopher, or at least his reasouiug has not been directed to that subject Scientific American.