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THE USPS EVOLUTION.
EXCAVATIONS OF ANCIENT CIT IES SHOW IT OVER SIX THOUSAND TEARS OLD. uriginauy was a toncn Meli and a Twist of Cotton Western Ingen uity Devised the Brass Burner and Regulator. liy EDGAR JAMES BANKS, i'h. I The Oriental lamp Ik the same now n tt always has ben a simple dish of clay, stono, ironz or class, fillwl with oil; its wick in a rnsr or a twist of 'otton, one end of which Ik lrnnnTswl In oil and th other rents over the ed;re of the dish to be lighted. This was the lamp not only of aucient by Ionia and Egypt, but also of the Hebrew, Greeks, Homaiis, and all otht-r early Ieoples. Even to thfts day it is the com mon lamp of Mesopotamia, hi Saint f Sophia, the great mosque of Constanti nople, there Is no other method of il lumination. The first artificial light with which primitive man brightened the dark ness of night was the camp fire, the name fire with which he slightly roasted his meat and wanned his naked lody. At Just what age the idea of lighting by other means first occurred to him is uo longer known, bnt the excavations at the 15a by Ionian mound, Bismya, the ruin of the oldest known city In the world, have shown that It was In the very long ago, per haps thousands of years before ir-00 B. C. . During the escalations far beneath a temple which was constructed at that remote date, among the ruins of earlier ages, there was found a large conch shell about H Inches iu length. Its exterior had been worn smooth In constant handling, and a section at Its opening and half o. Its elongated valve had been cut away so that it formed a deep dish terminating lu a long snout In its Interior were slight traces of a thin, lack deposit. At first the use for which this dish was Intended was puzzling; it was weeks later when It suddenly occurred to me that this sea-shell was the primitive lamp, the ancestor of tiie great family of lamps. Some time later, while excavating at n higher level in the temple refuse heap, where the prle-'s of 4."iio H. C threw the broken'' and discarded utensils of the temp' service, there appeared among 1 hi; dozens of baskets full of iiolished and cut stone several triangular objects which resembled the conch shell lu shape, one of ala baster was entire; otiiers were frag mentary, yet their original forms could 1m restored. They were the lamps which came Into vogue after the conch had passed away, or when it became so scarce that it was no longer em ployed, find stone was wibstituted in Its place. Although the conch was dis carded, Its triangular form remained, even to the natural snout for the sup port of the wick, which was repro duced in tlie stone. To the early ISabylouian, the pure, almost transparent alabaster lamp was perfect In shape; the next step in the evolution was In its decoration. In stead of the plain exterior, it was engraved with reticulated or curved Hues; but a more important step lu Its decoration was when the lamp-maker conceived the idea of supporting the wick in a hole at the sharp comer. One such example from the Uismyu temple refuse heap terminated in aj the civilized 'West, who would no longer rest the wick upon the edge of the receptacle for the oil, to pass it through the bras arrangement which he called the burner, and to provide it wita a screw in order that it might be raised or lowered, and the esM.-o.miJs of the modern oil lamp were as sembled. While we have the sea -shell, the lamp of primitive man of over 0,000 years ago, IL. would be interesting to know what kind of oil was burned. The olive tree produces the Illuminat ing oil of the model Orient, and al though in other parts of the world the fat of animals was used, the unchanging customs of the East lead us to Infer that olive oil was also then employed. The wick was doubtless a twist of the cotton which grows wild along the thores of 1 e Tigris and the Euphrates. Engineering News. Old Methods Succeed, It has been claimed that old methods of doing business cannot succeed In this twentieth century of ours, but a striking example of where old manners have been and are yet successful may he lound In the busiest city of the world New York. Right in the heart of the wholesale district may be found a restaurant that is feeding more people every day of the year than any other house in New York City, and doing It along the line of "old mcihods." It la claimed for this famous eating house that every pound of food used is paid for In cash upon the day It is purchased and that the proprietors have never yet given a check in pay ment for supplies nor owed one dollar at the close of the day, and they keep no books. Each morning the dealers supplying thla remarkable establishment deliver the necessary goods at the receiving department and then form In a line leading to the cashier's desk where each one in turn receives his money in good hard coin. When evening comes whatever is left in the cash drawer is profit, less charges such as taxes, light, fuel &e. A further boast of the owner of this restaurant is that its doors have never been locked since first opened, way back in "wartime," and that no one knows where the key now. is. An Idea of th number of people fed may be gained from the fact that table salt, used exclusively by the patrons at the tables and not including any used for cooking, is purchased every four months in ten barrel lots, each barrel containing three hundred pounds. ' FAHOUS YffiGJIIA HOME. After threatening to call members j vomif:0 stamps, and cash, Instead of by name if they did not otey, the baud ,ne 8wd?t h(, j,fl!, lHvn se(iing out WOODLAWN MANSION, PART Of WASHINGTON'S ESTATE, NOW CHANGES HANDS. A Gift from the first President to tlis Adopted Daughter Play wright Paul Kester Disposes of Manor to Princeton Woman. Another change of owners ha3 come to Woodlawn Mansion, that historic property having been bought by Miss Elizabeth M. Sharp, of Princeton. V. J., from Paul Kester, who dramatized "When Knighthood Was in Flower." and other plays. Woodlawn Mansion was the home of Lawrence Lewis, son of Betty Wash- penditure oa battle ship's of agriculturists, snouting and yelling for the free-seeds "loot" quieted down, and, Mr. Cooks was enabled to proceed, SEEDS VERSUS ISATTLESIIIl'S. Free seeds found another doughty champion in South Trimble, of Ken tucky. Mr. Trimble asserted that the seed dealers of tl country were instigating the newspapers to fight free seeds. Ileal farmers wanted uiese seeds, but kid-glove farmers who run the granges did not need them and did not want them. If this was graft, he said, it was the ouly kind of which every one of the 7o,u00,0oo leople of the country got a piece. Advocating economy In other direc tions, Mr. Trimble suggested less ex- "If we stay r2T i AjO "WOODLAWN MANSION. Wanted All the Goodies. Teddy waa about to be ten years old. In view of this interesting event Ted dy's mother had ordered some ice cream and " cakes ond other dainties, and Teddy waa told to invit his little friends to a birthday paty. The even ing of the cele'iration came around, and all the goodies were waiting to be enjoyed. Teddy and his mother were also waiting. Suddenly the youngster said: "Mother, don't you ihink it's time to eat the ice-cream and cake now?" "No, indeed, my son," she replied, we must wait until your friends are here." "Well, to tell you the truth, mother," began Teddy, "I just thought that for once in my life I'd like to have enough goodies, so 1 guesd we better begin now, 'cause I didn't invite anyone." ington and Fielding Lewis, of Fred ericksburg, and nephew of the great George Washington. The wife of Law rence Lewis was Nellie Custis, grand daughter of Mrs. Martha Washington and the adopted daughter of George Washington, The marriage of Nellie Custis and young Lewis was the social event of the year 1799. The marriage took place in the mansion house at Mount Vernon on the birthday of Washington, and iu the year of his death. Washington gave to the couple a tract of forest land covering a range of hills on the Mount Vernon property two miles southwest of the mansion house. Lewis personal ly saw that a part of the woods were cleared away, and in the clearing he had erected tie great house which he called Woodlawn. The place passed to Lorenzo Lewis at the death of his mother, Nellie Custis Lewis, and' by him was eold in 1848 to two Quakers from New Jersey, Chalkley Gillingham and Jacob M. Troth. The sons of these men live near the estate to-day, Jacob M. 'irotn, the younger, living on an adjoining farm and on land that was a part of the original Woodlawn. The house passed through many hands and in 1900 was bought by Paul Kester who now sells it to Miss Sharp. at home, mind our own business, let other people alone, we shan't need a battle ship any more than a burglar needs a Jimmy and a dark lantern," shouted Mr. Trimble. This sentiment, notwithtandiug the speaker was a trifle mixed Jn his metaphor, met with prolonged -applause from the gallant band of free-seeders. Mr. Lilley, of Connecticut, read let ters from his cousituents; some asking since he came to Congress. The read ing of these letters again plunged the House iu disorder and confusion. lTTY THE POOH TAKMEU. Mr. Haines, of Tcunessee, endeav ored 'to be heard above the noise and confusion. As he sat down, by com mand of the Chair, he managed to say that the bill was loaded with all kinds of appropriations to take care of ami suppress the "mouth and foot disease, hollow horn, and hollow tail," but took away from the farmer the few seeds that he every year looked forward to receiving. This new outburst of eloquence on the part of Mr. (Jaines threw the House Into convulsive laughter. When the members bad partially re covered their composure Mr. Galnns rt'shed down the nlsle, carrying a mass ot unnuscript in both hands, holding it aloft, shouting that he had hundre V ot leaers from farmers favoring free seeds. , As chairman Wadsworth reached out bis hand for them, Mr. Oaines laid them on a desk and legan pull'-g from the bunch various documents. It developed that among these "hun dreds" of letters there were an unusu ally large portion of bills of various sorts and other "pu!. docs." that had uo relevancy to the seed question. Again the memliers shrieked and gathered in the fi!sle, forcing the chairman to resort t" every parlia mentary expedient to secure order. When the bill came up for a rote the free seeds were continued by a vote of 1K5 to 82. A fight for the abol ishment of the free need practice will continue, for It !s believed that the sending out of the packages are of no practical benefit to the farming classes of the country, and It is safe to say that next year's bu will find the ap propriation for these seeds omitted when it comes from the committee and the probabilities are that by that time a majority of the members of the House will support the committee. Since 1890' t hp world's annua! pro duction of gold lias doubled. There are now one million pension ers on the peusion rolls of the United States. for Shropshire sheep, Durham bulls, ' olJft. The nmu1er of cameras nino In the United States last year was 300.000, worth about $20,000,000. A gener ation ago a camera' was an unusual FARMER IMMIGRANTS, Some of Our Citizens Make Good rarmers-liut Poor City Dwellers. Many of our Italian immigrants are good farmers, after their fashion of laborious intensive cultivation. Thoy are wretchedly poor, but they are chil uren of the soil and where they occa sionally do get into the same con genial occupation in this country they make good farmers and eventually good citizens. The greater part of the immigrants, in fact, now pouring into the country are better qualified for agricultural and horticultural pursuits than for any others. These pursuits were theirs in their European homes, and but for certain difficulties they would natural ly resort to them here. The trouble Is, there is nobody ready, as a general thing, to offer them employment, In groups, on the land; and transporta tion to the land is mora or less expen sive. On the other hand, there are al ways contractors ready to engage them for railroad, mining and similar em ployments In the seaboard States, and sometimes in other States; more often they simply settle down in the big and already congested cities. They take what they can get; and, more espe cially, what will be most likely to en able them to enjoy the continued com panionship of their fellow immigrants. The newcomer dreads the Isolation which will usually be his lot if he ac cepta employment on a farm. Under the far-sighted plan of the men who are colonizing some Western areas, particularly in California and Npw Mexico, all these difficulties ire avoided. Groups of agriculturists cf the same nationality are brought to gether, and invited to become owners of small tracts, sold to them on easy terms. Ten acres of good land, SO ob tainable and the price of which ho can usually pay In labor for others is a very attractive proposition to the average Immigrant, especially when, in his new home, he may be sur rounded by others of his own race. The plan has been already demon strated to bo very profitable to the promoters ulso. The highest mountain in Colorado Is Massive, 14,421, and the next Is Elbert, 14,421. Ilke's Peak is 14,103 feet high and there are twenty moun tains In Colorado higher than this. The most expensive fish in the flsti markets of the t'uited States Is th English sole which retails for about sixty cents per pound. ir 8 - 'TVk&ik&iW&&''"" mum ' 'iipwi ...,(S.jjr:u. -I-, LAMPS OK LATE BABYLONIAN AND PERSIAN PERIODS. rani's head, the lighted end of the wick projecting from its mouth. -. : After the discovery of the hole for the wick, It was an easy step to cover the enlire lamp, with the exception of an opening In the center to receive the oil. Thns IhP lamp of classical times originated. Another Interesting example from Bis mya is an extremely large marble lamp, oval in shape and with' vertical walls. The snout fur its wick Is a deep groove extending , out about 2 inches, and with its support from be neath It resembles the handle of a mod ern dish. This lamp held about two quarts of oil, aud, as it was found in the ruins of the temple, its unusual size suggests that in the Babylonian temple, as In the synagogues of a later era, and in some churches, even to the present day, a light was kept erp"l ually burning. Previous to 4000 B. C the lamps, as well as most dishes ami household ef fects, were of stone; after that time objects of burned clay began to ap pear. Before that date lamps were found only lu the ruins of the temple; later clay lamps were round in the dwelling houses of the people. Of the latter a variety of shapes hav an NOW TUB WATCU TRUST. Representative Vreeland the Victim of a Joke During Watch Monopoly Controversy When Uepresentativ Kainey of Illi nois, a few days ago, made a speech in Congress on the alleged watch trust, he opened up a subject that has been of decided interest in Congressional circles ever since. He had a collection of watches on his desk which he showed .as exhibits. Representative Vreeland of New York found another phase of the watch question which he wanted to talk about, and proceeded to stock up with sample watches and watch cases. He had the assortment nicely displayed on his desk, when, by a prearrangement, he waf called out into the corridor. As soon as be was gone a joker in a neighboring seat produced three mem orandum spindles, two short and one tall. He set them in a row on.Vree- land's desk. Then he produced three oranges and carefully stuck one on the point of each spindle,-producing the perfect effect of the three golden bails cf the pawn shop sign. "Well, by gosh!" exclaimed Vree HOUSE FOR FREE SEEDS. (Continued from preceding pago.) Currier, of New Hampshire, where It Is commonly understood one of the chief industries is that of raising rocks, granite, and marble, protested against his assertion that the farmers were not In sympathy with the free-seed busi ness. They declared the farmer of their State demanded them anyhow. Mr. Cocks read letters from the edi tors of practically every agricultural paper in the country, denouncing free seeds, and when ho frankly admitted he had written these editors asking their opinion of the proposed action of the committees he wai attacked by the advocates of free seeds as If he had committed some crime. ALL ABOUT SEED "ADS..' Mr. Bartlett wanted to know if these papers carried advertisements of the seed dealers, to which Mr. Cocks af firmed that he had no doubt of it, as the business of selling seeds was a legitimate one. Mr. Fordney did not believe the answer represented an honest opluion, as the replies had been sought. Mr. Cocks endeavored to proceed with his argument, re-enforcing it with citations from a stack of letters, but be spoke amid a confusion that marked the day as the most unruly of the en tire session. Mr. Gains shouted him self hoarse and that is a difficult thing, even for Mr. Gaines to do; Mr. Mann scolded, as he often does when he fails to approve; Mr. Fordney, Mr. French, Mr. Sims, . Chandler, and others asked questions simultaneously, and the chairman of the committee ail but broke his gavel in a vain endeavor to maintain order. At one time it looked as if the mace, that symbol of the dignity ana power of the liouse, would have to be taken from its perch and waved over the heads of refrac tory and angry free-seed mutineers who refused to take their seats when so ordered. peared. Some are triangular, the shape J land, when he came back. The laugh suggested by the conch; one is a min iature boat: others of a later period are identical in shape and size with those of Koine and Greece. The lamp of these nations was undoubtedly bor rowed from the older civilization of Babylonia. The common clay lamp of Persia and of the time of ilaroun er Raschid assumed a round form with a dent in its rim for the wick, resembling In every respect a minia ture frying pan, from which the handle Is missing. The lamp of modern Bag dad differs from it only in being set upon a pedestal and provided with a liandle. , It remain for the lamp-maker of scared his intended speech out of him. Mr. Ferguson.'-Coorge, dear, how do you like my new hat? Mr. Ferguson. Do you want my real opinion of it, Laura? Mrs. Ferguson. No, I don't, you mean thing! , "Do you think a man's Importance is measured by his pocketbook?" "Certainly not," answered Senator Sorghum. "A pocketbook couldn't hold entmph to amount to anything. 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