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The commercial. (Union City, Tenn.) 190?-193?, July 13, 1906, MAGAZINE SECTION, Image 10

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A Department Devoted to Village
- My Ideal of civilization ia a very high ooei but the approach to it la
a New Kuicluail towa of lone two thousand Inhabitants, with no rich
man and nn poor man in it, all ming linit i u the sam society, every child
at th aaiT school, no poorhoaac, no hrxKsr, opportunities equal, nobody
too proud to ataod aloof, nobodx too humble t i b ahut oat. That's New
KaKland aa it waa fifty yea ra asT( . . The civilization that lingers
beautifully on the hillsides of New EnKland, and nestles sweetly in the
valleys of Vermont, tha moment it approaches a crowd like llokton, or a
million men gathered ia one place like New York, rot. It can not atand
the greater centers of modern civilization. " Weadell I'blllipa.
It la a well-known fact that the cities are rapidly sapping the strength
of the village commnnitlea and the country towna by destroying local
trade and undermining the local apirit. The very life tf the country
town depends upon the checking of thia paralyzing force and the protec
tion of local interests.
The ouly way thla can be accomplished la by arousing local sentiment
In favor of the improvement of local environment, the beautifying of home
surroundings and the maintenance of tOCAh BUSlNKaS by LOCAL,
To that end the editor of thia departnent desire to keep ia touch
with tha active members of l-'ivic and Local Improvement Associations,
and every one interested in the improvement and the protection of rural
village life.
What ia being done In your town to encourage amall industries and
for home employment ? What ia doing along the line of street improve
gnent and tha beautifying of private l.wiu unj public parks r
Are your local merchants receiving the support of the local trade f
Experience, plane and anggeatlona will be welcomed by the editor of
thia department and no ar as possible given place in these columns.
Suggests Question Whether Giant
Catalogue Houses are Benefit or
Detriment to the Farmer and the
Country Generally.
Chicago Is to have the greatest build
ing the world ever constructed for com'
merclal purposes. It will have a floor
space of 50 acres a good sized farm.
It Is to be 10 stories high, including the
basement, and were It to be all
stretched out on one floor it would
cover 13 of the big city blocks in the
windy city. It will be 900 feet In length
and 270 feet wide and will be built of
steel and concrete. The cost will be
12,500,000. The present building oc
cupled by Mongomery Ward and Com
pany is a huge affair, but Is stated to
be entirely Inadequate to the needs of
this enormous mail order house, and
so this new pile is to be constructed.
It seems to be the time of big com
merical houses In the great centers of
the country. Another big firm is to
erect a building on Chicago avenue,
which will contain a million square
feet 200 feet by 800 feet: Sears, Roe
buck and Company is a big Chicago
business rival of the Montgomery ward
firm, and has Just also been incorpor
ated to do business in New York, with
a capitalization of $40,000,000, paying
the State incorporation tax of f 20,000.
These are fine projects, and at first
thought may make one proud of Amer
lean business institutions, but what Is
the real effect of the success of tnese
gigantic commerical houses upon the
country's prosperity? How does their
business affect the country merchant.
the country banker, the country town
Itself and in fact the country people
who are the patrons of the great mail
order houses. What creates the village,
the town, the thriving city? What
keeps It a live and bustling center ra
ther than a dead congregation of a few
houses with one or two miserable
stores? It is the patronage and sup
port, is It not, of the surrounding coun
try homes. Towns are buht up only
when they have support from an agri
cultural territory, if agriculture is the
surrounding Industry, which is the
case in nine out of ten Instances. But
conversely, the richness of the soil
alone does not make the most valuable
There must be a good market for the
farm product; If the farm Is adjacent
to a live growing town supporting ac
tive and well-to-do-people, the market
for the farmer's products will be ac
tive and the prices good. If the town
be a dead one, he will have to turn
elsewhere to dispose of his products,
and perhaps incur heavy transporta
tion charges In their shipment. This
fact Is set forth unmistakably in the
last census figures which show that in
a small area or te unuea ssiaies, uie
reeions where factories abound. a dls-
trict comprising but little over 10 per
cent, of the United States the value
of the farm lands is over half that of
nil of the arable land in the entire
country. The farms In these regions
are located close to the factories,
ahlch afford a profitable home market
greatest good for the greatest number,
the farms of each agricultural area
surrounding a town should support
that town to their uttermost.
Every dollar that the farmer spends
In the town Indirectly comes back to
him in the way of benefits. The town
grows, it supports better stores, more
churches, better schools to which he
can send his children, furnishes bet
ter near-at-hand markets for his prod
ucis, anq nnany increases the very
value of his farm land. As a good Il
lustration, the Dry Goods Reporter as
sumes that such an agricultural town
has a population of 1000, its support
coming from the country tributary to
it. me life of the town ia its retail
trade. If it secures the entire purchas
ing business of the farmers, it must of
necessity grow rapidly. But Mont
gomery Ward and Co., Sears, Roebuck
and Co., and others of the enormous
mall order houses Bend out their great
four or five pound catalogues describ
ing everything under the sun. Suppose
that instead of spending his JC00 a
year in his home town, each farmer in
the community diverts 50 per cent of
his trade from his town and sends $300
a year to the catalogue houses; it
means that half of the business of the
town is gone. On the basis of one hun
dred or one hundred and fifty square
miles of territory to support the town,
it can be estimated that there are five
hundred farmers In the district. Three
hundred dollars a year in trade from
each of the farmers means that one
hundred and fifty thousand dollars
annually is taken from the home town.
ests of the town will pay the burden
of taxation, and the amount of each
tax-payer will be less ia proportion to
carry on government
While the country household. In
looking over one of the big catalogues
and sending an order for $50 worth of
gooas, may De aoie to figure out an
Immediate saving of five or six dollars,
even after they have paid the freight,
there is no question as to the final out
come, if the practice Is persisted In by
all the people of any particular local
ity. The home town will suffer, the
home market will fail to increase, if
it does not decrease, as will also the
value of the farm lands. Undoubtedly
the catalogue houses can sell goods
cheaper than the average country
store, for they do a cash business,
you send on your cash with yovr
order. There is no risk In the cata
logue or mail order house business.
Possibly if you arranged to do business
on the same basis with your country
merchant cash down with your pur
chase you could get almost as favor
able prices. But the country merchant
Is supposed to extend credit to every
one: he has had bills which Le never
collects and consequently must make
a greater percentage of profit on the
things he sells.
Every community which is imbued
with the spirit of building up its own
Industries and of supporting Its home
town with local pride, is sure to be the
most prosperous ; there can be no gain
saying this fact.
.Learn by Doing. Work Together.
Give every Man a Chance.
The S'..y of the Boy and His Little
Plot of Ground
At the age of five every boy Is by
Instinct a gardener. If guided by op
portunity, example and intelligent di
rection he will dig. plant and develop
an Interest in growing things; lacking
these the call of mother nature leads
to mud pies. Given a square yard of
mellow ground, a tiny hoe and a hand
ful of beans, a healthy five year-old
boy will have a combination that ex
cels anything yet designed in "nature
From five to ten the world begins to
dawn. He looks up and out; he sees
and imitates, but does not reason. He
should play without hindrance. If the
square yard of ground be enlarged to I
a rod, the handful of beans to a collec
tion of seeds (the kinds for sale in the
grocery stores are best as these have
brilliantly colored pictures on the pack
ages and the boy learns thereby what
manner of a thing he is to expect), this
square rod will be the play ground to
a surprising extent.
He may not plant the kinds you ex
pect or want him to plant, as his view
point is different from yours. It is un
wise to insist on any given plan. Let
this garden be his own. If it has been
entirely to carrots or cabbage let it re
main carrots and cabbage, for they are
more to him than your choice variety
It is unwise to expect careful pains-
"Every Child ia a (.ardea-Every Mother ia a Homecraft, aad Indi
vidual, lodu&lrial Iadepeadeuee for Every Worker ia u
Home of bis Owa oa the land."
"A little croft ws owned -s plot of corn.
A eardsn stored with peas and mint nd thvms.
And flowers for posies, oft on Sunday morn.
Plucked while the church bells rang ill. Ir earliest chimes."
(( fidsnvrA.
"The Citizen standing In the doorway of his home contented cn Ms threshold, his familr
gathered about h hearthstone while the evenn of a well spent day ckx-es in :cenestnd
saunas that are dearest- he shall save the Republic when the crum-up u futile and the
barracsi are exhausted. "Htnry t, . OiuJy.
"The slums and tenements of the
great cities are social dynamite, cer
tain to explode sooner or later. The
only safeguard against such dangers
fs to pluut the multiplying millions of
our fast Increasing population in In
dividual homes on the land home
crafts, however small, owned by the
occupant, where every worker tuid his
family can enjoy individual industrial
Independence." George H. Maxwell
m miii i ppwiiMtmii
The Brotherhood of Man
Charity that is Everlasting
The Secret of Nippon's Power
Lesson of a Great Calamity
The Sign of a Thought
This book Is the first of a Series
that will Chronicle the Progress of the
aud inform all who wish to co-operate
with it how they may do so through
the formation of local Homecrof tors'
Circles, Clubs or Gilds to promote
Town mid Village Betterment, Htlmu-
Money, nnd should pay more heed to
raising up and training Men who will
be Law-Ablding Citizens; that the wel
fare of our Workers, Is of more con-
sequence than the mere accumulation
of Wealth; and that Stability of Na
tional Character and of Social aud
Business Conditions Is of greater lin-
lute, home civic pride and loyalty to porta nee to the people of this country
home institutions, industries and trade,
Improve methods nnd facilities of edu
cation iu the local public schools, nnd
create new opportunities "At Home"
that will go far to check the drift of
trade and population to the cities.
In the course of ten years, this means
one and one-half million dollars. Aver
aging the profit on this amount at
twenty per cent, It means -uat in ten
years' time three hundred thousand
dollars profits are taken from the town.
Now, on the other hand, should the
farmer, instead of sending away his
money to the foreign place for goods
he requires, give all his trade to the
home town. Its business would be im
mediately doubled, and with twice the
employment for the peopia. Year af
ter year, the profits made by the mer
chants would be retained In the town,
would seek investment in starting new
Industries, and at the end of the ten
year period, instead of a town of one
thousand, there would be a lively city
of from two to three thousand, and
every acre of farm land within the
trade radius of the town would be en
hanced In value from ten to twenty
It can be plainly figured out that the
individual farmer who would divert
half his trade to Chicago, New York or
some other foreign city, in the course
of ten years would send away three
thousand dollars. 'If it were possible
that he could save ten per cent on this
amount, in ten years' time he would
save three hundred dollars. Ills nly
compensation would be a dead home
town, poor schools, a poor home mar
ket, and no increase in the value of his
real-estate holdings.
On the other hand, by giving his
patronage to the home town, even
though he must pay the merchant, ten
for all the agricultural products, so per cent more than the foreign house,
J- --- Tf -
t ft ;LJ
that tho greatest factor in land value
Is the nearness to good markets. It
becomes plain, therefore, that the bet
ter the home town can be mado. the
more valuable is the farm land tribu
tary to it. In the purely agricultural
sections, the average country town is
located in the center of from 75 to 150
square miles of territory; that is the
town is supported by the trade result
ing from that area of farms. Accord
ing to federal statistics the average
farmer spends JG27 a year for supplies
clothing for his family, household
utensils, food that he does not grow
himself, farm implements, etc.
Now it must be evident that if a plan
jrera to be followed looking to the
the result would be like this: On ac
count of increase In farm values, one
hundred and Bixty acres of land worth
ten dollars more per acre, sixteen hun
dred dollar; or, thirteen hundred dol
lars better off In ten years than If he
gave half his patronage to the foreign
concern. His home town Is a lively
one, all public Improvements, all mod
ern conveniences, high schools, to
which he could send .his children
cheaply, good churches, good roads,
and everything that can add to theon
fort and happiness of its residents,
and those who reside near It Jot
wlthstanding. that the farmers' laa 1 Is
enhanced in value, his taxation wfj be
but little greater, as the business nter-
taking effort and constant care f:om
a boy of this age; encourage it but do
not compel it.
He can be taught by example all of
the needs of plant growth but his hoe
ing and weeding may be superficial.
If you ask him he will allow you to dig
in his garden to loosen the soil deeper
than his strength permits. It Is wise
to do this for tnere must be carrots
and cabbage to harvest or there will
be no play ground here next year.
If the boy of five has been allowed
the run of a garden, if at eight he has
a garden of his own, at ten he will love
gardening and will have absorbed an
amazing store of knowledge, and to
him may be imparted at this age in a
way and manner that will awaken the
the purest and best that Is in him, the
mystery of life.
A pumpkin plant on a compost heap,
sending its vigorous shoots over the
weeds, climbing where it cannot creep,
firustlng Its snake like head through
the garden fence, is a thing of wonder
to a boy if he is but taught to see it,
and when Its great golden blossoms
appear there Is a still greater wonder
Boys of twelve and fourteen may de
sert tne garden for the ball field or the
fishing rod, and it is well they should,
for the serious time of life is coming
soon and play days should be as many
and long as school and home duties
will permit But a garden for a boy at
this age may be a greater factor in his
training for life than at any other, for
by this time the "root of all evil" has
entered his soul; he has learned that
money is essential In order to procure
the many things a boy must have, and
the garden, which to this time has
been a recreation field, a place of won
derful possibilities In the way of good
things to eat and pumpkins for jack-o'-lanterns,
may be a most fertile field
of revenue.
Whatever the crop the proceeds
should be wholly his own. If he has
produced the crop wholly by his own
efforts. There Is but one we that he
can learn the value of money and that
is by earning It The wise use of
money must also be learned but that
Is outside the sphere of gardening.
From address of Prof. CranefieJd,
Wise. Agr. College.
The first Gild of the Ilomecroftera
w been established nt Watertown,
Massachusetts. The GUdhall, Shops
nnd Gardens are located nt 143 Main
Street, where the Garden School la
now fully organized and over one
hundred children are at work In the
Gardens. The departments for train
ing In Ilomecraft and Village Indus
tries are being Installed. The Weavers
are already nt work at the looms.
It Is not designed to llulld here an
Isolated Institution, but to make a
model which can be duplicated In any
town or village in the country.
Copies of ''TH FIRST DOCK OF
obtained by sending twelve two
cent stamps with your name and
address (carefully and plainly
written) to ' he Homecrofters" Clld
of the Talisman 143. Main St.,
Watertown, Massachusetts.
There is New Hope and Inspiration
for every Worker who wants a Home
of his own on the Land In the
HOMECROFTERS' which Is as fol
"Peace has her victories no leas re
nowned than war."
We believe that the Patriotic fW.m
of the Whole People of this Nation
should be "Every Child In a Garden
Every Mother In a Homecraft and In
dividual Industrial Independence for
Every Worker In a Home of his Own
on the Land," and that until he own
such a Home, the concentrated purpose
and chief inspiration to labor In the lif i
of every wage worker should be bis
determination to "Get an Acre ani
Live on It."
We believe that the Slums and
Tenements nnd Congested Centers of
population In the Cities are a savagely
deteriorating social, moral and polit
ical Influence, and that a great public
movement should be organized, and
the whole power of the nation and
the states exerted for the betterment
of all the conditions of Rural Life, and
to create and upbuild Centers of So
cial and Civic Life In Country and
Suburban Towns and Villages, where
Trade nnd Industry can be so firmly
anchored that they cannot be drawn
Into the Commercial Maelstrom that
Is now steadily sucking Industry and
Humanity into the Vertex of the
Great Cities.
We believe that every Citizen In
this Country has an inherent an4
Fundamental Right to an Education
which will train him to Earn a Liv
ing, nnd. If need be, to get his living
straight from Mother Earth; and that
he has the same right to the Opportun
ity to have the Work to Do which will
afford him that living, and to earn not
only c cor'ortable livelihood, but
enomrh more to enable him to be a -
Homecrofter and to have a Home of
his Own, with ground around It
sufficient to yield him and his family
a Living from the Land as the reward
for his own lnbpr.
We believe that the Public Domain
Is the most preclons heritage of the
people, and the surest safeguard the
nation has against Social Unrest. Dis
turbance or Upheaval, and that the
Cause of nnmanlty and the Preserva
tion of Social Stability and of our Free
Institutions demand that the absorp
tion of the public lands Into specula
tive private ownership, without settle
ment be forthwith stopped: and that
the nation should create opportnnltles
for Homecrofter by building Irriga
tion and drainage works to reclaim
land! as fast as It Is needed to give
every man who wants a Home on the
Land a chanca to get ft.
We believe thati as a Nation, we
should be less absorbed with Making
as a wnoie man any otuer one ques
tion that Is now before them; and we
believe that the only way to Preserve
such Stability, and to Permanently
Maintain our National Prosperity, Is
to carry into Immediate effect and
operation the Platform of the Talis.
mnn, which Is us follows:
1. That children shall be taught
gardening and homecraft In the public
schools, nnd that Ilomecraft and
Garden Training Schools shall be
established by county, municipal,
state, and national governments,
where every boy nnd every man out
of work who wants employment where
he can gain that knowledge, can learn
how to make a home nnd till the soil
and get his living straight from tlio
ground, and where every boy would
be taught that his lirrt aim In life
should be to get a home of his own
on the land,
2. That the New Zealanu svstem of
Land Taxation and Land Purchase
and Subdivision, and Advances to Set
tiers Act, shall be adopted In this
country, to the end that land shall be
subdivided into small holdings In the
hands of those who will till It for a
livelihood, and labor find occupation
In the creation of homecrafts, which
will be perpetual safeguards against
the political evils and social discontent
resulting from the overgrowth of
cities and the sufferings of unem
ployed wage-earners.
3. That Rural Settlement shnll be
encouraged nnd the principle of Pro
tection for the American Wngeworker
and his Home applied directly to the
Home by the Exemption from Taxa
tion of all Improvements upon, and
also of all personal property, not ex
ceeding f2,!WO in value, used on and
In connection with, every Homecraft
or Rural Homestead of not more than
ten acres In extent, which the owner
occupies as a permanent home and
cultivates with his own labor and so
provides therefrom all or part of the
support for a family.
4. That the National Government,
an part of a comprehensive nation
al policy of Internal Improvements
for river control and regulation,
and for the enlargement to the
utmost -possible extent of the
area of the country available for agri
culture and Homes on the Land, and
for the protection of those Homes from
either flood or drouth, shall build not
only levees and revetments where
needed, and drainage works for the
reclamation of swamp and overflowed
lands, but shall also preserve existing
forests, reforest denuded areas, plant
new forests, and build the great reser
volrs and other engineering works
necessary to safeguard against over
flow and save for beneficial use use
flood waters that now run to waste.
B. That the National Government
shall build the Irrigation works neces
sary to bring water within reach of
settlers on the arid lands, the cost of
puch works to be repaid to the govern
ment by such settlers In annual In
stallments without Interest, and that
the construction of the great Irrigation
works necessary for the utilization of
the waters of such large rivers as the
Columbia, the Sacramento, the Colo
rado, the Rio Grande, and the Missouri,
and their tributaries, shall proceed as
rapidly as the lands reclaimed will be
utilized In small farms by actual
settlers and homemakers, who will re
pay the government the cost of con
struction of the Irrigation works, and
that the amount needed each year for
construction, as recommended by the
Secretary of the Interior, shall be
made available by Congress as a loan
from the general treasury to the Re
clamation Fond, and repaid from
lands rlalm3. as required by tlis
National Irrigation Act.
6. That not another acre of the pvT
lie lands shall ever hereafter b
granted to any state or territory for
any purpose whatsoever, or to any one
other than an actual settler who has
built his home on the land and lived
on It for five years, and that no more
land scrip of any kind shall ever be
Issued, and that the IVsert Ijind Law
and the Commutation clause of the
Homestead Law shall lie made to eon
form to the recommendations of the
Public Lands Commission apitoiuted
by President Roosevelt and of the
Message of the President to Congress.
7. That the Timber and Ston T.w
shall be repealed, and that all pub
lic timber lands shall lw Included In
permanent Forest Reserves, the title
to the land to be forever retained bv
the National Government. stumDatre
only of matured timber to be sold,
and young timlier to be preserved for
rnnire cutting, so that the forests will
lie perpetuated bv rleht use: and
that the National Government shall,
by the reservation or purchase of ex
isting forest lands, and the planting
of new forests, create In every state
National Forest Plantations from
which, through all the years to come,
a sufficient supply of wood and timber
can be annually harvested to supply
the needs of the people of each state
from .he Forest Plantations In that
a That all unlocated public lands
not otherwise reserved shall be re
served from location or entrv under
any law except the Homestead Law,
and shall be embraced In Grazing Re
serves lnder the control of the Secre
tary of Agriculture, who shall be em
powered to Issue annual Licenses to
graze stock In said Grazing Reserves,
but such licenses shall never be Issued
for a longer period than one year on
agricultural lands or five years on
grazing lands, and all lands classified
as grazing lands shall be subject to
reclassification at the end of every five
years; that no leases of the public
grazing lands shall ever be made by
the National Government, and that
the area of the homestead entry shall
never under any circumstances be en
larged to exceed 1!0 acres.
9. That the public land states shall
administer the state lands under a
system similar to and In harmony
with the national public land system ,
above outlined, and that each state
shall enact a State Homestead Law
for the settlement of lands owned by
the state, and that state lands shnll
be disposed of only to actual settlers
under such Inw, and that all state
lands shall at all times remain open
to Homestead Entry.
10. That It shall bo the law of every
state nnd of the United States, that
beneficial use Is the basis, the meas
ure, nnd the limit of all rights to
water. Including riparian rightr, and
that the right to the use of water for
Irrigation shall Inhere In and be ap
purtenant to the land Irrigated, so that
the ownership of the land and the
water shall be united, and no right to
water as a speculative commodity
ever be acquired, held or owned.
"Outward changes, economlca
political, more or less marked,
always going on In the forms and or
ganizations of society. But to-day one
can make a specially strong nrgument
that great and radical changes are Ira-
pending. No one can Indieve that
existing conditions will continue In a
world where all things move ami
change. Waste, extravagance, ftolltlcal
corruption, fierce mercantile rivalries,
colossal monopolization of wealth and
of the Industrial plants of the world,
masses of dreary poverty, these are
natural subjects for profound, patri
otic and humane concern. Is not tint
old social and Industrial macalnery,
the competitive or wage system, show
ing signs of breaking down beneath
IU load?
"The question Is quite fair whether
any system Is just that permits Indi
viduals to roll up Immense fortunes as
the result of lucky speculations, or of
the rise of land values about a great
city, that permits other Individuals to
Inherit almost unlimited money power,
as men once Inherited duchies and
kingdoms, while millions of working
men, with small wages, live close to
the danger line of debt, or even of cold
nnd starvation, and are liable to lx
thrown out of employment for monthK
at a time.
'When In the face of natural wealth.
never so abundant, and fces of pro
duction augmented Indefinitely bv
science and Invention, so many almost
fail to reap any benefit from the re
sources which surely belong to the
race, It must at least be confessed that
our present system, both of production
and of distribution, is not Intelligently
or humanely managed. Its results do
not represent an Ideal democracy, a
brotherhood of man." From "Tho
Coming People", by Chas. F. Dole.
Tt behooves everyone who has eyes
to see and ears to hear and a brain
with which to think to study the tre
mendous social problems with which
we are face to face to day.
Whether they are s'Uled right or
wrong will affect every member of the
community. No one can escape the
evils that will result from a wrong
settlement and everyone will be bene
fitted by a right settlement.
Nothlne Is more Imnortant than that
we should get started right. There is
gnldoncA and Insnirntlon In everv line
Chas. F. Dole.
In order to firing this book wlthlo
the reich of nil. n pnmilnr edition has
Inst been lsned by th ITom-vroffer
Gild of the Talisman which enn be had
for 2.1 cents, postage Included. Remit
bv postal money order, express money
order or poatnae stamps to "THE
TTOMKCnoFTERS, 111 Main St-
Watertiwn. Mass."

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