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OUR HOME TOWN.
A Department Devoted to Village Betterment RSCHABD HAMILTON BYKD. The desires to keep in touch with editm n f thla rfnartnnt vili Ovcf0ne interested In the improvement arid the protection of rural What la beinff done In yonr town to enconrofre small Industrie and for home employment t What ia doing along the line of street improve ment and the beautifying of private iawna and public narks ? Are yonr local merchants receiving the anpport of the local trade 1 Experience, plan and snra;etlona will be welcomed by the editor of this department and ao far as possible given place in these columns. WE INDEPENDENT TOWN. Make Each Rural Center Dependent Upon Itself and Its Own Resources. There has lately developed a strong Bent ment looking to the Improvement of the home town making each community, as much us possible, dependent upon Itself and Its own resources and those of its sur rounding country, and independ ent of the great centres which are constantly striving to secure a portion of the local 'wealth. This local self sufficiency may be fostered by an In dividual and co-operative determi nation to bring the town up to Its highest possible plane of comfort, gen eral usefulness and beauty to its resi dents. This may be described as a movement for civic improvement. The accumulation of considerable wealth In many American villages and towns, during the last ten or twenty years, the development of popular education and the Increase of leisure, has given an opportunity for the per formance of public duties, such as had not seemed to exist to the young man or woman of the former gener ation, who, in the effort to secure a livelihood and establish a home had given little thought to the duties of citizenship and social responsibilities. It Is4 only within u comparatively few years that, "nature study" has entered Into any of the public-school work, or even manual training, while there are many who yet think that such Institutions as gymnasiums, baths, playgrounds, and even vacation schools and free lectures are unneces sary time-consumers for the young. Nevertheless the general movement for a better education along rural lines and for backyard and street Improve ment, and the general betterment of the village and town Is rapidly in . creasing. As an Instance of this, even In tmch a large city as St. Louis, girls and boys are given practical Instruction In gardening, through the Junior School of Horticulture of t'.ie Ml.wo"ri Botanical Gardens. The children are permitted to sell their own products u dcchled stimulus to their e-trt-t and In this way many of then or i rrrlderable pocket money for vacation time, tms scnooi nas nen in oper ation for a number of years and Is of great value to the citizens as well as to the children of the city, the latter of whom would otherwise know practi cally nothing of nature as country children know It Even In Texas the school garden and town Improvement idea has made headway, although there has b en greater difficulty in obtaining popular approval and support, possibly, than in any other section of the country, owlm; to the fact, perhaps, that the Lone Star State has vast areas of unoc cupied land, and to the fact that the Influential majority has been but a TnK AGRICULTURAL UIGUSCUOOL Successful Examples Described by Crosby of Department of Agricul ture of Local improvement Through Rural Education In the new Year Book of the De partment of Agriculture, Just Issued, is a description by D. J. Crosby, of the office of Experiment Stations, which shows, in a number of instances, what splendid results are being attained through the introduction of common sense agricultural studies in some of the country village schools, and how they directly affect and benefit their home towns. There is what appears to be, an almost ideal Pennsylvania village high school, which the writer visited. He describes what he saw: in irle County, Pa,, surrounded by a good general farming and dalrv country, is the village of Waterford, on the outskirts ef which la the Bite of I ort le lioeuf, of Trench and India war fame. At Waterford the llrst school In Erie County was establish. 1 in 1800, and here as far back as 1822 was erected a stone academy build ing, which Is used to-day as the main part of the high-school building. The township of Waterford has a popula tion of l,-K;o and about one bai re side In the borough of Waterf d. Tr borough has its own elementary school, but the high school is support ed and controlled jointly by the bor- ougn ana township. 1 his high school, with its three teachers and three courses of study (language, scientific, and agricultural), has an enrollment of 80 pupils, and 35 of these are in the agricultural course. This course Includes agriculture, five hours a week for four years. The work of the lirst year Is devoted to a study of plant life- germination, plant growth, plant food, reproduction, prop agation, transplanting, pruning, and use of plants; the second year to a study of Held, orchard, and garden crops; the third year to domestic ani mals, dairying, and soil physics, a 1 the fourth year to the chemistry of rolls and of plant and animal life. Text books are used In the class rooms; a small library of agricultural reference books, reports and bulletins of this Department and experiment citations, and agricultural papers con tributed by the publishers is in almost constant use, and lectures on agricul tural subjects are given before the class and before the whole school by the instructor In agriculture, who Is an agricultural college graduate. But the feature of Instruction which chiefly distinguishes this agricultural course from the ordinary high school course Is the prominence given to the laboratory work and the outdoor prac ticum. For the laboratory work there is no elaborate' apparatus. The pupils make much of their own apparatus, furnish their own reagent bottles, and, moreover use them. In the plant-life course the pupils study not elaborate It had been organized only three or four weeks, and yet the interest man ifested and the readiness with which the boys and girls described the beef type, the dairy type, and various breeds of cattle, the niut on and wool tyi' of sheep, the principal breeds of draft borses, and some of the stand ard-bred roadsters and trotters, were indeed surprising. At the close of the recitation the class wa3 taken to a barn in the village w" ere i veru- fine roadsters were owned. The owner was not at home, but the teacher had standing permission to take tl horses from the barn In order that the class might examine them. A fine Ilamble tonlan mare was led Into the yard and examined critically by the pupils and criticised by them, the different points being brought out by skilltul question ing on the part of the teac--.'. Fom this place the class went to a livery barn where a splc idid black Fereheron stallion was stabled for the day. A member of the Class had dis covered the horse as he was eing driven in from another town II miles away, and following the driver to the barn had got permission for the class to examine him. When the livery barn was reached the driver brought his stallion out Into the street, put him through his paces, and helped the teacher in calling attention to his good points and the contrasts between t e draft type and the roadster type of horses, and allowed us to take several photographs. It was an instructive lesson not only for the members of the agricultural class, but for the score or more of farmers and townsmen who collected around the livery stable. In much the same way the local butcher is the in structor in the high school. The class studying the beef type of cattle, or the mutton sheep, or the different classes of swine is taken to the butch er shop and given a drionstration lesson on cuts and their relative val ues, which of the breeds are apt to produce the better cuts, which the better quality, ant so on. Thus tills little village high school, though it pays only $2,230 a year In OPPORTUNITIES AT HOME. PERNICIOUSPHILOSOPIirOrJonN J. INGALLS FAMOUS POEM. UOW HOME OPPORTUNI TIES HAVE BEEN OVERLOOKED, Solution of the Labor Question to be Found in the Development of Home Industries. Many a beautiful thing is pernicious in its effect. There is no telling how many men have given up a good light ing chance and bav literally laid down in harness because they had ab sorbed from John J. Ingalls' poem OrrORTUNITY the Idea that they had had their chance, and that for them at least opportunity would not return. Here is the poem: "Master of human destinies am I. Fame, love and fortune on my foot steps wait Cities and fields I walk. I penetrate Deserts and seas remote. And pass ing by Ilovel and mart and palace, soon or late I knock unbidden once at every gate. If sleeping wake; if feasting rise before I turn avmy; It Is the hour of fate. And those who follow me reach every state Mortals desire and conquer every every foe Save death; but those who doubt or hesitate. Condemned to failure, penury and woe, Seek me In vain, and uselessly Im plore; I answer not; and I return no more." A beautiful poem yes, but pernic ious as Is the theory of fate or the twin tenet of predestination. If oppor tunity comes bu' once, where Is the use of striving id President James of the University of Illinois during the recent commence- BE A HOMECROFTER Learn by Doing. Work Together. Give every Man a Chance. THB SLOGAN OF TUB HOMECROFTERS IS "Learn by Doio-Work Toselher-Give Every Maa tLCbaaee. 'Every Child ia a Garden Every Mother ia a Uoweeruil. and IadL. . vida&l, ladaslriul Independence for Every Worker ia a liome of bis Owa oa the Land." "A little croft v owned -s plot of corn, A garden tared witn peu and mint and thym. And flowers for posies, oft on Sunday mom, IPiucicod whllo tha church bells rang their earliest chlms. ti rdswori't. "The Clttren tandlnf In the doorway of his home contented on his threshold hla fsmi gathered about his hearthstone, while the evening of a well spent day closes In' scensa aiiS sounds that are dearest-he shall save the Republic when the drum-tap is futile? ik barracks are exhausted."-. ry h . braJy. v a lt ehort time removed from the cattle and carefully prepared drawings, but il l -1 R .M 0 O . " I m II III 1 1 2l " JLm"' ' II WATERFORD HIGH SCHOOL CLASS JUDGING A HAM BLETONIAN MARE salaries and only $370 for other ex-f ment exercises took occasion to refer penses, nas a faculty made up or nu-l to tne philosophy or Ingalls famous merous, specialists and an equipment! poem. "It is false and misleading," J EDUCATION OPP0RTUNITT H0MECRDFTS COOPERATION THE FIRST BOOK TrE KOfilECROFTERS HAS JUST BEEN PUBLISHED AND AMONG ITS CONTENTS ARE THE FOLLOWING ARTICLES OF ABSORBING INTEREST The Brotherhood of Man Charity that is Everlasting The Secret cf Nippon's Power Lesson of a Great Calamity The Sign of a Thought Copies of "THE FIRST BOOK OF THE HOMECROFTERS" con be obtained by sendlnC twelve two-cent stamps with your name and address (carefully and plainly written) to to Tha Ham, crofter' Clld of the Talisman, 143 Main Su Watertown. Mass This book is the first of a Series operation the Platform of the Tails that will Chronicle the Progress of the man. The following Is tak.ni h..., " IIOMECKOFT MOVEMENT from: rt and inform all who wish to co-operate FniT tTrnv pMnTA,.r,. with It how they may do so through LDL S1 AND the formation of local Hornet-rotters' , T,,; , , , , Circles, Clubs or Gilds to promote mnl " ,ilron 8hi'11, ,,e tan Town and Village Betterment, stimu- S S" ,d bCtW?rn ,n thpub late home civic pride and loyalty to S'n Train. S?' tZil ill "fi home Institutions, industries and trade, established bv M " ,, , ImnmvH method m1 f.-irllii ics nf edn- F COUllt, municipal. "v ::.T .r .rrT..:,.r uu national Lit UUU "tl Wto S2S the d" Tof tJt trade and population to the cities. ho male a Imme a, f?m M The first Gild of the Homecrofters nnd g hi 1,vm straight from the in illustrative material such as few technical high schools could afford. And the pupils are being trained in the "elements of failure and success," not only on "all the farms of the neighborhood,' but in the village -hops and markets. This Is training or efficiency. It Is training for cul ture, for breadth of view, and for sympathy with all that goes to make up the life of the community. LTomeerofl and Craft. The "homecroft" idea, referred to by ueorge II. Maxwell In his address be- fore the Biennial Convention of the General Federation of Women's Clubs, is closely allied to the "home arts and crafts" propaganda. In which so many, In and out of the federation, are inter ested. The hotnecrofter, owning his home and a little patch of ground an acre or two, more or loss Is of all persons the one most likely to be inter ested In home crafts little lines of manufacture, which, added to the pro duce of his ground, may afford a sun port to his family, either constantly or as a substitute for wage-earning em ployment when some great shop or factory may be suspended. Aided, perhaps, by a little gas engine or elec tric motor, he may have a choice of an Infinite variety of crafts, in which he nnd his family may profitably engage. Here Is a combination which seems to offer relief from the demoralizing and devitalizing conditions of our present factory system; also a mode of multi plying the number of those citizens. Independent of both landlord and em ployer, who are the backbone of American democracy. Give us the homecrofter and the craftsman in one! CLASS IN LIVE STOCK JUDGING CATTLE at Wnterfortl, Ta.. High School, AND PLANT LIFE) range business. However, the more centralized portion of society has taken the matter up. and It is stated that the most public-spirited citizens of the towns and cities, together with the progressive teachers have made school gardens and rural education a success during the past two seasons and have aroused such enthusiasm among the pupils, that wherever It has been tried, the school garden has become a fixture. "Let your child plant his own gar den, gather his own harvest of fruit and flowers, learn through his own small experience something of the influence of the sun, dew and rain, end gain thereby a remote presenti ment of the reciprocal energies of nature and a reverent feeling for the divine life and law expressed In nature. The child is a plant, a vege table, and must live out of doors, or nearly so, as conditions will permit" I'roebel realized that health was the basis and test of all our energies, and that this was one of the morning stars of the oevr. hygiene. the plants themselves with reference to their life history and economic uss, For the outdoor practlcum the school Is unfortunate in having neither land nor domestic animals nor fowls, and yet it has a wealth of Illus trative material all around it Every good farm within a radius of 3 or 4 miles, nearly every barn and poultry yard In the village, tha butcher shops, and the farm Implement stores furnish costly illustrative material and extend vastly the teaching force of the high school. The farmers and owners of good live stock either bring thel ani mals to the door of the school house to be studied by the class In agricul ture or allow the class to go to their barns and fields for this purpose. It is said to le a rare thing for a good horse to come to the village and get away without being examined by the high school class In animal husbandry. The writer was fortunate In being the guest of the school one day lat October and In having an opportunity to listen to some of the recitations in agriculture. A class of 24 boys and 6 girls .were studying animal ladustry. Keep Poliliea Out. Every public-minded citizen should make it known that be is absolutely opposed to partisan, political control in the management of public parks, roadside improvement, playgrounds and like town betterments. Isothing can be more detrimental to such de velopment than the interference of politics. Party responsibility, as a remedy for municipal mismanagement has been prove-l a "delusion and a snare." Such methods have raised to important places bigoted, incompetent and sometimes dishonest men, who, by reason of their weaknesses or mis management have disgraced what should be honorable and respected positions. Our citizens should Insist absolutely that no political consider ations be allowed to lnterfer with park affairs, and should visit with marked censure and disapproval all city officials who prostitute their trusts for mere political gain. said Mr. James. "It Is not a single on portunity which comes to a man; It Is a train. It Is a never-ending proces slon, some small, some large, growing perhaps more small and more insignia cant as the years flow on, 'but ever and always opportunities -too numer ous, too great; and too large for us to utilize fully: This is good, healthful optimism. There never was a tune when opportu nities of all shapes, sizes and colors bobbed up on every corner as they do to-day And they are not confined to any particular country or locality They are waiting everywhere. Under the rapidly changing industrial and economical conditions they are spring ing up In odd and out-of-the-way-places. Old settlements old villages, moss-grown and for years silent as the cemetery that clings to their skirts, are finding new youth in t!i revival of occupations and simple In dustries which twenty years ago were deemed impossible. The abandoned farms of New England The farms that were left tenantlesa because It was thought that the only opportun ities for success were to be found In the West are receiving new leases of life. Fresh Air Playgrounds. American cities are far behind European cities In making provision for public parks, especially In pro viding for the Instruction and amuse ment of children In them. In modern municipal equipment In Europe, much provision is made for the instruction and amusement of children, and In most modernized European cities laiyo rEXDULUM IS SWIXGIXO BACK. For a full half century the American people have been money-mad. Everv- thing has been sacrificed to the one idea of accumulation. The dollar sign became the sole badge of honor, and a man s success was measured not bv what he made of himself, not br what ne accomplished for his fellows or the world at large, but by the size of his pile. This standard of success has warn- ed the Imagination of the whole peo ple. Tne merchant and professional man oena every energy to the nil mg up or gold nrtcKs. Ana the farmer, not to be ontdone, lies awake nights thinking how he may get more land. ne nas now more than he can till but the land lust has seized him and home comforts and a quiet life are sold in the market In order that the line- fence may be removed - This has been the condition for many years, and it requires careful observation to detect any change. But a reaction has set in. The pendulum Is swinging back. A growing sentiment m favor of a moderate success, a quiet lire ana home snrroundlna-s is nppar ent With this comes a desire to get back to original principles; to abandon the cities and seek the healthful life of the farm and the village. The growth of our cities has been abnormal the direct result of ab normal transportation conditions. "To him that hath shall be given, and to him that hath not even that which he hath shall be taken away," has been the working policy of modern com mercial transportation companies. The small town has been ncr)ficed to the city. This was the natural result of competition. In centers where numerous railroads meet low rates are given to both the ln-going and out going freltrht. but where there is but un rad. the traffic Is taxed all that It has been established at Watertown, Massachusetts. The GildhalL Shops and Gardens are located at 113 Main Street, where the Garden School ia now fully organized and over one hundred children are at work In the Gardens. The departments for train ing In Homecraft and Village Indus tries are being Installed. .The Weavers are already at work at the looms. It Is not designed to build here an Isolated institution, but to make a model which can be duplicated In any town or village in the country. There is New Hope and Inspiration for every V orker of his own on CREED AND TLATFOnM OF TUB HOMECROFTERS' which is as follows: "Peace has her victories no less re nowned than war." EDUCATION CO-OPERATION OPPORTUNITY H0MECR0FT6 We believe that the Patriotic Slogan ground, and where every boy would uo uiugui xujit ins nrst aim in life should be to get a home of his own on the land BUILD HOMECROFTS AS NATION AL SAFEGUARDS. That the New Zealand svstem of Land Taxation and Land Purchase and Subdivision, and Advances to Set tlers Act, shall be adopted in this country, to the end that hind shall be subdivided into small holdings in the hands of those who will till it for a livelihood, and labor find occupation in the creation of homecrofts, which Inst i.f cities and the suffering of ployed wage-earners. PROTECTION FOR TnE AMER ICAN HOMECROFT. That Rural Settlement shall be encouraged and the principle of Pro tection for the American Wngeworker and his Home applied directly to the Home by the Exemption from Taxa tion of all Improvements upon, and . T . , 111 lue creation or homecrofts. which whow?n s T IloZ T,U be Pt,rpetual "Quarts ajnlns tl e Tnnd In th P"Iltk'al evUs flnd B0Clnl content TPnnA? nw TTTB wsnlUng from the overgrowth of of the Whole People of this Nation also of all personal property, not ex should be "Every Child In a Garden ceedlng $2,5uU in value, used on and Every Mother In a Homecroft and In- in connection with. verr nm,w,m-f dividual Industrial Independence for or Rural Homestead of not more than Every Worker in a Home of his Own ten acres In extent, which the owner on the Land," and that until he owns occupies as a permanent home and such a Home, the concentrated purpose cultivates with his own labor and so and chief Inspiration to labor in the life provides therefrom all or part of the "i cvi-ijr nwwi Buuuiu uo ma support ior a lamiiv. ENLARGEMENT OF AREA AVAIL ABLE FOR HOMEMAKINU. . That the National Government, as part of a comprehensive nation al policy of Internal Improvements for river control and regulation, and for the enlargement to the utmost possible extent of the .i ), area of the country available for agrl- of all the conditions of Rural Life, and ,ir" f" ,.? " Z Ji,TTJ'andV,l,,d to create and upbuild Centers of So- "S i 0t f ". "Pm ,fro'? rwi rivi i ico in rnnntrv nnd, either flood or drouth, shall build not Suburb 'ro!vnsL a nd'vinagT where ?S"3 ?JS , 7 Tr-nle and Industry can be so firmly needea an(1 drainage works for the forests, reforest denuded areas, plant new forests, and build the great reser- determination to "Get an Acre ani Live on it." We believe that the Slums and Tenements and Congested Centers of population In the Cities are a savagely deteriorating social, moral and polit ical Influence, and that a great public movement should be organized, and the whole power of the nation and into the Commercial Maelstrom that Is now steadily sucking Industry and Humanity Into the Vertex of the Great Cities. We believe that every Citizen In this Country has an inherent and Fundamental Right to an Education which will train him to Earn a Liv ing, and. If need be, to get his living straight from Mother Earth; and that tendency to draw the manufacturing voirs and other engineering works necessary to safeguard against over flow and save for beneficial use the flood waters that now run to waste. OPPORTUNITIES AT HOME. he has the same right to the Opportun ity to have the Work to Do which will afford him that living, and to earn not only a cor'ortable livelihood, but enough more to enable him to be a Homecrofter and to have a Home of his Own. with ground around It sufficient to yield him and his family interests Into the great transportation centers, the tide has flowed strongly toward the city and the small town has bad a hard struggle to retain its own. In this respect however, the pendu lum is swinging back also. The con ditions surrounding the workmen in a Living from the Land as the reward the cities, the lack of home life and for his own labor. l,)e presence or accumulated vice, have We believe that the Tubllc Domain demonstrated to the satisfaction of Is the most precious heritage of the every one that we will never reach our people, and the surest safeguard the highest Industrial success until the nation has against Social Unrest Dls- average workman is placed where bo turbance or Upheaval, and that the rnn have fresh air, a family, and a Canse of Humanity and the Preserva- home for that family. The small town, tlon of Social Stability and of our Free everything else being equal, is the Institutions demand that the absorp- Place for industries. A man with a tlon of the public lands Into specula- home, and who spends bis evenings tlve private ownership, Without settle- witn his family beautifying that ment be forthwith Btonned: and that home, is not only a better citizen, but the nation should create opportunities he is worth infinitely more to his em for TTomecrrvfrers hv hnildinir irrlirn. ployer than his brother laborer who tlon and drainage works to reclaim has no Interest other than that he land as fast as it Is newlwd to trive Aud. with Lis saloon companions and every man who wants a Home on the ward politics. Land a chance to get it. ' uen lue rwormrn uav ucuifii ina We believe that as a Nation, we industrial woor questions iney win not should be less absorbed with Making be calling for ies nours or worn, dui Money, and should pay more heed to a umnuuuuu ui iue raising up and training Men who will Boors m we lactory or ie mine be Law-Abldlng Citizens; that the wel- and the balance at home working on fare of our Workers Is of more con- an acre of ground may be made a sequence than the mere accumulation jo intion or me ui o id uou of Wealth: and that Stability of Na- lahor and capital Any inan with a tlonal Character and of Social and home and g""' ti0inMa rwmin ia of greater im- tare that he can call his own, and to ft people of this country JgJSX7li as a whole than any ether one ques- 'j tea tufn thorn nnd we ffar want for lllinscir or nis i.iroiiy. tVt th7onlv way to Preserve Under such conditions his family can ST StSit?6 .ST rPntly geared .and ee, and le under stuns of money have been emended In! 1": ,1, . t ' WaVlonal Prosperity, Is the - ntages of a Woesome Kl procuring open spaces for them in dls- , '(Continued musks ci to carry into immediate effect and atiay CIC, 1 tricts of congested population. 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