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GROWTH OF 5TR A WBERRY INDUSTRY
DUE TO INTELLIGENT MARKETING &-s;:w:vS''v;3 - ' BBS Li wciwer3 . J , TEjL Lj Paper ii-abels for Special Shipments. - In the district utilize overripe and soft stock In the preparation fruit for the Ice cream and soda fountain trade in northern cities. . : Perhaps the principal reason for the prosperity enjoyed by" Louisiana's berry growers Is that they keep them selves closely Informed upon day-today market conditions. The producers appreciate that "knowing the markets" enables them to meet the consumers' desires as regards quality and quan tity, and that to overstock one mar ket when another market Is undersup plied is unsound 'from both an econom ic and financial viewpoint. Every da"y during the marketing season a dally report of conditions and prices at tile principal marketing centers through out the country is issued by the local representative of the United States Department of Agriculture. This in formation is obtained by trained mar ket reporters at consuming points. The growers are also informed as to daily cariot shipments everywhere in United States. Thus the pro . ujcers not only know the prices be ing paid for berries at the various con suming markets, but exactly what competition may be expected from other sections shipping strawberries , at about the same time. The depart ment also furnishes daily information regarding temperature and weather conditions, so that the Necessary icing and refrigeration can be provided for the shipments. 1 y Information for Growers. The department's station at Ham mond was opened in 1915, and was the first field station established anywhere by the United States Department of Agriculture for the Issuance of mar-' ket news reports. Here, in the heart of Louisiana's strawberry producing district, arrangements were.first made to study methods of packing, ship ping, and distributing strawberries in' the United States ; to keep growers In formed of strawberry movements from other regions, and to Inform them dally of prices and conditions in the lead ing consuming markets. Hammond was selected as the location for the department's first field station because -' of tlfe large proportions that the Louis iana strawberry industry had attained. Louisiana then ranked fourth In com mercial strawberry importance. To day the state ranks second in cariot shipments. ' (Praparad by ih United State Department i of Agriculture.) Within, six years Louisiana has taken first place among the states as regards value of strawberry produc tion. The 1921 season was the best ever known In the industry, 1,400 car loads of Louisiana berries being mar keted in 74 cities In the United States and Canada. In Chicago the 24-pin t crates brought as much as $6.50 each, and during practically the entire mar keting season . Louisiana strawberries sold at a higher price than any other benies on the niarkef, due to the high quality of the product. With such a record of achievement, much Interest centers in the opening of the 1922 marketing season. As heretofore a field station of the United States Department of Agriculture will be maintained in the Hammond dis trict during the season to keep pro- ducers and shippers informed dally of strawberry marketing conditions in the principal consuming markets, prevail ing prices, cariot shipments from com peting areas, and other marketing data essential in the scientific marketing of agricultural products, and granted favorable conditions the 1922 season should surpass even the 1921 record. Nation-Wide Distribution. The Louisiana strawberry industry is of national importance. The crop has nation-wide distribution, the car lot shipments spreading out like a fan from the Atlantic coast to the Hooky mountains. Last year 29 cur- ROUND POSTS MOST DURABLE One Kind of Timber Will Last as Long as Others if Amount of Heart wood Is the Same. Is a spilt fence post as durable as a round fence post? This is a question frequently asked of the United States Department of Agriculture. The fact Is, says the forest products laboratory, one kind of post will last about as long as the other If the amount of heartwood is the same in both. But if the Dercentasre of sapwood is In creased by splitting, the split post will be less durable and if the percentage of heartwood is Increased, it will be more durable than a round one. Posts of spruce, hemlock, or any of the true firs are exceptions to this rule, be cause their heartwood and sapwood are about equally durabltr. When posts are to be treated with creosote or other preservative, a round post is preferable to a split post, be cause of the comparative ease with which the sapwood can be treated. The heart faces on split posts do not, as a rule, absorb preservative well. Split red-oak posts will take treat ment, because the wood Is very porous, but the heart faces of split posts of many other species, notably' white oak, red gum, and Douglas fir, resist the penetration of preservative, even un der heavy pressures. i weeds and ooos DESTROY CROPS Best Time to Kill Garden Enemies Is Before They Appear in. the Spring. " CULTIVATION IS G3EAT AID Cutworms,' Potato Bugs, Flea Beetles and Plant Lice Are Most Trouble some Insects -Some Excellent . Control Measures. (Prepared by the United State Department of Agriculture.) .. , Weeds and insects are garden ene mies, and the time to kill both Is be fore they appearl. Careful stirring of the soil destroys the little weed seedings just after the seeds have sprouted. Likewise, culti vation keeps the garden in such shape that insects do not find a hiding place, and are not so liable to injure the gar den crops. However, Insects are al most sure to attack certain of the gar) den crops and it will be necessary to take precautions against them. Cut worms, potato bugs, flea beetles, and plant lice 'are the most troublesome garden insects. Do not give , them a chance to get started. The common cutworm does its work during the night, cutting off the plants just below the surface of the soli within a day or two after they are set In the garden. One of the best ways to prevent this Injury is to surround the stem plant with a tube made of stiff paper or light cardboard, extending an inch or so beloav the ground and two or three Inches above. These col lars, or cutworm protectors, can be re moved after the danger of Injury Is past generally not until about 30 days after the plants are set in the ground. When Potato Bugs Appear. The old-fashioned Colorado potato beetles, or "hard shells," come out of the ground usually when the potatoes are about four or five Inches high. These beetles themselves do not do a great amount of harm except that they lay clusters of yellow eggs on the un SUCCESSFUL TOMATO V 'GROWING. DESCRIBED Bulletin Gives Different Methods Used in Industry. Much Depends on Good Farm Prac tices. Seeds, Plants, Fertilizer, Plant- ing, Cultivation and Thorough Spraying. (Prepared by te United States Department of Agriculture.) About 2 quarts of canned to matoes is the yearly, per capita con sumption in the United States, accord Ing to figures of the-United States Department of Agriculture. How the tomato is grown, put up, and shipped, together with practices followed In communities where its cultivation is highly specialized, are given in Farm ers' Bulletin No. 1233, recently issued, copies of which may be obtained free of charge upon application to the De partment of Agriculture at Washing' Tray Used'for Shipping Berries. TOO MUCH MANURE INJURIOUS Fertiliser May Burn Crop if Season Is ' Very Dry No Fear of Harm . If Worked In. The claim that too much manure will burn up the crop is only partly true. It may if It is a very dry sea son and the manure is not worked well into the soil. But there Is little like lihood of injury from a heavy applica tion. If worked in right. Far more corn has been lost through too little than through too much manure. PLANT ENGLSH PEAS EARLY Seed Should Be - Put Into Ground as Soon as Soil Will Permit Some Good Varieties. nvicrlich nana should he nlnnfed Inst as soon as the soil will permit Thom as Laxton, Alaska, Horsford's Market !:mlen, and Telephone are excellent i-.r e;ie., iuk". the Telephone late. The ifl should be sown thickly In the f1!-! ! in rows J! feet wide and covered ri G Inches deep.' loads also went to four cities in Can ada. Chicago is the principal market f6r the fruit, Detroit, Boston; Pitts burgh and New York ranking next In the order . given. Heat, cold and distance marketing obstacles that seemed insurmountable a few years ago have, been overcome by the grow ers and shippers, and with continued careful selection, grading, packing and shipping, marketing experts say that the Industry will enjoy increasing prosperity. During the early years of the straw berry industry In Louisiana several va rieties of berries were grown, and Chi cago was the main market outlet. To day the Klondike variety is grown ex clusively, and Louisiana strawberries have a wider distribution than the strawberries from any other section of the country. The quality of the fruit is dependable, and there is every where a demand for the berries. When picked the berries vare carried to pack ing sheds, where practically each one is handled separately. Both the 24 pint Hallock crate and the 24-pint ventilated crate have been used In packing the fruit, although during the past few seasons there has been a con siderable decrease in the use of Hal- lock's crates, which are known locally as "coffin" crates. Practically all grow- ers are now using ventilated crates, as berries shipped in such containers ar rive at market in sound condition and usually command a premium over the price paid for berries in non-ventilated crates. Trains of Strawberries. Fully 90 per cent of the marketed crop is shipped by express, the rail road company providing two or three express fruit trains daily. These trains run on a schedule of 40 miles an hour, "which puts the fruit on the Chicago market before daylight the second morning. Less '-than carload ship ments are cared for by the express company, which operates local Iced cars to pick up small shipments. The growers have good transportation fa cilities, deliveries are prompt, and few Instances are known where cars have not arrived at destination on time. Strawberry buyers from the large consuming markets establish head quarters at Hammond during the mar keting season, sales being made on a cash f. o. b. shipping point basis. The fruit is Inspected at shipping vo'nt and acceptance taken br-f'ire t;u car-i move. At Ponchato'iln nil c:irs arc sold at public aucticr.. Several strawberry preserving plants 0 Ww Hardy Tomato Plant Started in Pot. One of the Best Known, But Not Al together Reliable Ways of Bugging - Potatoes. der side of ttie potato leaves, in a few days these eggs hatch into soft- shell beetles or slugs as they are some times called. In the soft shell, or slug form the potato beetle has an enor mous appetite and a colony of them will soon strip the foliage from a hill of potatoes. Hand picking is perhaps the best method of getting rid of the hard shell beetles. They may be killed by either crushing them or dropping them Into boiling water. The slugs or soft shell beetles cannot be gathered to so good advantage, but they may be pois oned by sprinkling the plants, while the dew is upon them, with a -mixture consisting of a heaping teaspoonful of paris green to a pint of air-slaked lime or land plaster. The easiest method of applying the mixture Is to place It in a cheese cloth or thin burlap bag and dust the plants by shaking the bag directly over them. It is not necessary to apply the poison to all the plants, but only where the bugs have made their appearance. The plants should be Inspected every day or two to see that the bugs are not getting a start. Flea Beetles Eat Holes. Flea beetles are small insects that eat round holes similar to shot holes in the leaves of beans,- tomatoes, and a number of other garden crops. They can be poisoned with the mixture of parls green and lime referred to for potato beetles, or they can driven away by dusting the plants with fine road dust, air-slacked lime, or with very dry, powdery, sifted coal ashes. Plant lice are more difficult to con trol, as they do not eat the leaves, but stick their beaks into the leaves and suck the juices. They are rather difficult to control, as they are found mainly on the under side of the leaves. One remedy Is to spray with some form of tobacco extract or nicotine sulphate, using about one teaspoonful In o gallon of water In which there has previously been dissolved a one lncli cube of laundry soap. The mix ture should be thoroughly stirred and applied underneath the leaves espe cially, using some .form of sprayer or atomizer that will create a fine mist. If the gardener finds some insect v-tMi which he Is not acquainted he - !: write to the extension division of his. state college of agriculture. ton, D. C. The bulletin also coiitiiins valuable suggestions to growers as to methods which are profitably followed where the crop is most successful. The story of the tomato is that of a delicacy which has lived down a had name a fid come into its own after years of effort. Of American origin, it attracted unfavorable attention first about 1800, and for a long time was branded as poisonous ami consequent ly avoided. Later, designated as the love apple, it found favot witll a few lovers of delicacies and with growers. By 1887 the total pack of canned to matoes in the United States was about 3,000,000 cases of 24 one-quart cans each. Now the commercial pack, ex clusive of soups, purees, ketchup, and pulp exceeds 10,000,000 cases of 24 No. 3 cans. Those figures do not in clude the millions of cans put up by housewives for home consumption or the fresh tomatoes which grace Amer ican tables during the growing season. Chief among the states where to matoes are raised for canning are, in order named : Maryland, Indiana, Mis souri, Delaware, New Jersey, New- York, Utah, Illinois, Kentucky, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Tennessee, Virginia, and West Virginia. The acreage planted In tomatoes for canning purposes only in 1920 was 244,715. The yield from that acreage was 1,003,358 tons. The bulletin follows the methods used from the seed to the can, describes methods of planting, soils best adapted for the vegetable's groyth, tells how the crop may best be harvested, and sums up the chief requirements for good results as fol lows : "Successful tomato growing depends on- good farm .practices, good seed, good plants, proper fertilizer, careful planting, clean cultivation, and dis ease control through -spraying and through the use of disease-resistant varieties. Growers who pay attention to these factors produce crops which give them satisfactory returns." EPilBING too: PORK E OR SELL Selling Hogs and Buying Pork Is - Not a Profitable Practice for Farmers. DIFFERENT WAYS OF CURING Young Animals From 8 to 12 Months Old Are Best for Furnishing Home Meat Supply Avoid Danger of Disease. (Prearad by the United States Department oi Agriculture. Every' farmer can well produce the pork and pork products which are con sumed on his farm, for selling hogs and buying pork Involves profits, but not to the farmer engaged in the prac tice. This point Is brought out In Farmers' Bulletin 1186, published by the United States Department of Ag riculture, which tells how hogs should be killed and describes different meth ods of curing and canning pork on the farm. Highly nutritious and palatable pork products for home use are easily made, says the bulletin. Pork can be cured and canned in a number of ways and the variety of products af fords a supplement to the daily meals. Young Hogi Yield Best Meat A hog of medium condition, gain ing rapidly in weight, yields the best quality of meat. A reasonable amount of fat gives juiciness and flavor to the moat, but largo amounts of fat are objectionable. Smooth, even, and deeply-fleshed hogs yield nicely-mar bled meats. The meat of old hogs will bo Improved if they are properly fattened before slaughter, but young hog.-; from eight to twelve months old are best for furnishing the home meat supply. The bulletin emphasizes especially the importance of selecting only lpalthy hogs for slaughter and of thoroughly cooking all pork products usiiti for food. E.en if the hog has been properly fed and carries a prime finish, the I TpperaiT' Pastes Thsaght Specialists Give Valuable Pointers ; On Care Of Flock For health and for economical use of the pasturage it is undesirable to keep sheep on the same ground more than from 10 to 14 days, say special ists of animal husbandry, Division of Extension, in discussing the question Of raising sheep on temporary past ures. The most generally useful size lot Is 1 acre to 25 sheep. This area, on the average, furnished In experi ments 14 days' feed. Arranging the size of lots on tho basis of 1 acre to 25 sheep is more sat. lsfactory than seeding larger areas and using hurdles to permit advance fresh. feed each day. Less labor Is neces sary, and by going to entirely new ground after 10 or 12 days the danger of picking up parasite larvae on ground grazed over earlier Is prevent- ed. With a 1 acre lot for 25 ewes, or correspondingly larger Ones for larger flocks, it is an added advantage if their length is two or three times the breadth. V3th a heavy crop of forage that would last longer than was considered safe to hold the flock on the same ground, a short piece of cross fence can readily be put down to divide the pasture into two parts. The smaller lots are also convenient with purebred flocks to provide for the separate pasturing of smaller lots of ram and ewe lambs. Movable fencing is not likely to be satisfactory for the outside-lot fences unless the whole area to he used lies n a long strip with side fences, when only two end pieces need to be In place at one time for the ground being graz. ed. Preventive measures are best against insect enemies. Ilotate rhu crops, avoid introducing insects uu 1 diseases, practice frequent cultivation, and employ fertilizers to stimulate plant growth. A vigorously growing garden jnay produce a crop in spite of injurious insects, but in fighting in sects be thorougn. tJt" b ' A jK AJ t & . ,-fft:v-w'-...... . .- w.Wi'X- . -'y.K 4 ft K- . P It, n r4 k rrt : v .' . IU ft! 1 '9 W 'ft1' GOOD EMERGENCY FEED CROP Sudan Grass Is Rapidly Replacing Mil let in Many States Useful Sum mer Pasture. Sudan grass is admirably adapted for use as an emergency hay crop, and Is rapidly supplanting millet in many states. It is being used success fully by thousands of farmers as a summer pasture. For this purposa there are few crops that give better re turns and serve so well to supple ment the permanent pastures and the feed lot. FEED CROPS ARE CONVENIENT May Not Bring In Much Money, But They. Take Care of Animals Which Can Be Sold. Feed crops may not bring much cash but they are very convenient to take care of the animals. The animals may be converted Into cash or the prod ucts from animals such as milk, cream, etc. It Is not an easy matter to pro duce too much feed. It Is hoped that the money generally paid out for feed will be kept at home this year. GIVE SOY BEANS ATTENTION Crop Should Not Be Overlooked by Progressive Farmer in Adjust- . ing Corn Acreage. Soy beans should not be overlooked by the progressive farmer in the re adjustment of his-orn acreage. They require careful attention like corn, but they will make his c.ecreased acreage of Cera worth more money. It Is a high protein, high oil crop in ono. Proper Equipment for Rapid end Skill ful Work at Killing Time Is Impor tant. best quulity of meat cannot be .ob tained if the animal is not healthy. There is always some danger that diseases may be transmitted to the person who eats the meat, particu larly if it Is not thoroughly cooked. Hogs Before Killing. Hogs intended for slaughter should not be kept on full feed up to tho time of killing. It Is better to hold them entirely without feed for IS to 24 hours prior to that time, but they should have all the fresh drinking wa ter they want. It is essential to have the proper equipment for rapid and skillful work at killing time. Such equipment includes a straight stickin knife, a cutting knife, a 14-inch stee to keep the knives sharp, a hog hool for holding the animals, a bell-shaper stick scraper, a gamhrel for holding the hog to facilitate cleaning and cut ting the meat, and a meat saw. If the hog is not too large, a barrel -is a convenient receptacle for scalding. Complete directions for killing and cleaning a hog, properly cutting the portions of meat, rendering lard, mak ing sausage, smoking cured meat, and home canning of pork and pork prod ucts are described In the bulletin. copies of which can be obtained free on application to the Department of Agriculture. RIGHT TIME TO PLANT CORN In Central Com Belt Seed Planted in April Is Slow in Coming Up and Is Not Hardy. There Is a right time to plant corn, and usually the better farmers wheth er they figure by the calendar, by the size of oak leaves, or by the phases of the moon. In every neighborhood "know when that right time comes. It . is suggested, however, that more corn is planted too early than too iate. Co-n is a hot weather plant. In the central corn belt the seed that Is planted in April Is usually slow in coming up and less hardy than the seed planted about the middle of May. The distribution of rainfall affects the yield, and this varies from season to season, but the corn experts say, a no tills theory I-' ei :f!ri by common ex perience, i.- ; '.! : s; yields and most rapid grovti may FORMULA FOR MAKING CCVERNMENT WHITEWASH Whitewash properly made is almost as serviceable as paint, for rough wood, brick or stone and much cheap er than the cheapost paint, according to the rural engineering specialist, Di. vision of Extension. Directions for making the Govern ment whirsvvasli are as follows: Take one-half bushel of unslucked lime, slack it with boiling water, cov er d'.::'- V e proccsi-, to heo.. i;i th steam, y, .: In through a fine sieve 0? strainer and add to it a peel; of suit, previously dissolved in wnnii waiei. three :;nds of ground rice boiled t a tli : n ; .Tile and strain while hct, half a pound of Spanish whiting and one pound of glue, previously dissolved by soaking in clean water and then hang ing over a slow pot hung in a larger one filled with water. Add five gallons of water to the mixture, stir well and let stand for a few days, covered to protect it from dirt. The wash should be applied hot for which purpose it can be kept in a kettle or portable furnace. A pint of this mixture If properly applied, will cover one square yard. Show Aero Development. A remarkable collection of pictures, which will be more highly prized as years go by, Is the series of American aeronautical photographs which ex Major Ernest Jones, army air service, has gathered during his fifteen years in this work. They cover the develop ment of aeronautics, particularly avia tion, from 1803 to 1917. The 1,800 photographs visualize the successive steps made by the Wright brothers, Curtiss, Thomas, Wittemann and other pioneers in this country. Some of these are the only pictures in existence of certain machines and events. "It Is probable," says United States Air Ser vice, "that this Is the most complete collection of air photographs in America." Deserved That Deer. Frank Pettingill of Sanborntou, N. H., while hunting alone wounded a big buck deer. The buck turned and ran ; Pettingill was out of ammunition so he dropped his gun and gave chase, as he saw that the deer was badly wounded. He overtook the animal in a mountain brook, got a strangle hold on its neck and the pair went to the mat. The buck managed with its feet to tear Pettingill's trousers complete ly off, put finally succumbed to Pet tingill's blows. Then, trouserless, In the 15 above zero air, Pettingill ran two miles to his home, donned dry clothes and returned for his prize. Boston Globe. Bird Strictly in Fashion. Thelma's folks had been taking her to vaudeville quite a bit and the youngster enjoyed the dancing acts especially. One day she was out in the back yard pUylng with her dolls when she suddenly noticed a sparrow taking its daily dust bath ruffling out Its feath ers and shaking out the dust. Thelma came running in. her eyes sparkling with fun. saying, "Oh, mam ma, look at that little bird out there la the y.'jrd, shimmying In the dust." the medium planting dates. One Theory. 'Why do you have a Btool at the piano instead of a chair?" "So thatHhe performer can swing plause,"