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Events the World Over Budget Director Douglas Passing oh Public Works Proj ects; Industrial Codes, More Jobs and Higher Wages; Prohibition Repeal Wins Again. By EDWARD W. PICKARD SECRETARY OP THE INTERIOR ICKES, In his capacity as public works administrator, has been so be sot by the demands of bureaus and —politicians for big : Hffi slices of the $3,300,- | 000,000 at his dis |j constrained to issue * a warning that the program with its huge BlliiiliilHi fund was not a grab I bag. Then, after con sultation with his ad vlsory board, he de- RyW M cided that all projects , V* must be sent to the Lewis w. budget bureau for Douglas radical paring down. Thus Lewis W. Douglas, director of the budget, emerged as the man re lied on to cut out the unwise, unes sential and graft-tainted schemes and to submit for board action only the worthy projects. Politicians had been slipping into the lists proposals for construction of post offices, but Sec retary Ickes had forbidden their in clusion and in this was supported by President Roosevelt. Ickes insists that each project provide a maximum of work, that It perform a necessary social service, and that it not be a recurring item belonging properly in an annual appropriation bill. FIVE MILLION business men of the United States are asked by Presi dent Roosevelt to accept voluntarily what is called the “President’s Re employment Agreement’’ which is de signed to restore employment and raise purchasing power through In creased wages. Every business and trade and every conceivable type of worker are Included In this pact, which Is the master code that Gen. Hugh S. Johnson, national recovery adminis trator, and his aids worked out The employers are asked to adopt for five months, beginning August 1, minimum wage and maximum hour scales for their workers, to agree not toi levy “profiteering prices.” to abol ish child labor, and to obey various other regulations. The hours of work fixed are 40 per week for the so-called white collar employees and 35 hours for industrial workers. The wages proposed are 40 cents an hour for industrial workers, or sl4 per week, except in cases where employees in the same class of work were paid less than that rate on July 15, 1929, and then the 1929 rate is to be applied, but in no case shall It be less than 30 cents an hour. For the white collar workers, the wage scales are fixed according to populations of the cities in which they work. In cities of more than 500,000 population, the minimum rate is set at sls per week; In cities between 250,000 and 500,000, the rate is $14.50; between 2,500 and 250,000 at sl4. In towns of less than 2,500 population, all wages shall be Increased by 20 per cent, except that the maximum re quired shall not be more than sl2 per week. If regular industry codes are signed before or during the five month pe riod, they will supersede the emerg ency ones. Employers are given until September 1 to come under the plan, and If they have not signed at that date, the President made known that he will exert the powers he possesses under the national Industrial recov ery act and compel industries to ac cept codes which he will lay down arbitrarily. Administrator johnson, ac cording to Washington correspond ents, is constructing a big propaganda agency on behalf of the Industrial con trol administration. He has called on such veterans in the game as Charles Michelson, publicity man for the Dem ocratic national committee; Frank R. Wilson, Charles F. Horner and others who were leaders in the. Liberty loan drives; Bruce McNamee, William V. Lawson, Heber Blankenhorn, and vari ous other skilled publicity men. Pri marily, It was indicated, the new or ganization is intended to win favor for the proposed “master" code men tioned above. DEPARTMENT of Labor surveys, reported by Secretary Frances Perkins, show that during June 400,- 000 workers returned to jobs In fac tories of the United States, and 100,- 000 others found work' in nonmanu facturing Industries and in agricul ture. Railroads and other industries not Included In the surveys, said Sec retary Perkins, showed a “significant Increase" in employment. Gains of 7 per cent in factory em ployment and 10.8 per cent in factory pay rolls made June the third con secutive month in which both employ ment and earnings have increased. Secretary Perkins accompanied the report, however, wij.li a warning ngalnst overoptimism and specula tive production. A gain in a month normally marked by a seasonal de cline was “heartening,” she declared, hut she pointed to the long climb still ahead before the country can regain (he 1926 level taken ns the base by the bureau in figuring its employment and pay roll indices. SENSATIONAL breaks in the prices of all grains, accompanied by sim ilar swift declines in the prices of stocks, led to action by the big grain exchanges. The Chicago Board of Trade stopped future trading for at least a day and Issued this rule: “Effective until further notice, there shall be no trading during any day at prices more than 8 cents above or below the average closing price of the preceding business day in wheat or rye, or 6 cents in corn, or 4 cents in oats.” Like action was taken by other boards of trade, all of them curbing trading in privileges. TWO states, in the past regarded as being dry as the proverbial bone, and the first in the “solid south” to vote on the question of ratifying the prohibi tion repeal amendment, were won quite easily by the wets. Alabama went on record as favoring repeal by a vote of nearly two to one, and Arkansas voted about three to one for repeal. Then came Tennessee, and though returns from the mountain regions were slow, the repeallsts were assured of another victory. Oregon followed, and her vote, In support of repeal, meant that twenty states were In that column, with none yet opposing. Postmaster General Farley, who was Interesting himself especially In the votes In southern states, said he was convinced that the Eighteenth amend ment would be out of the Constitution before Christmas, and from the way things are going he may well be right. Although only thirty-five states have either voted or arranged to vote on repeal by November 7, action is pend ing in several others which may bring the total number voting to more than the required thirty-six. GREAT interest was shown through out the country in the marital af fairs of Elliott Roosevelt, second son of the President. The young man’s a wife, Mrs. Elizabeth Donner Roosevelt, ob tained a divorce from him at Minden, Nev., on a cross bill charg ing mental cruelty which was uncon tested, and he imme diately took an air plane to Chicago where he met Miss Ruth Googlns of Fort piii ♦♦ Worth, Texas, and her Elliott mother. Rumors that Roosevelt E i Uot t and Ruth were soon to be married were only half heartedly denied. To the Chicago re porters Mr. Roosevelt said he was there to meet his sister, Mrs. Curtis Dali, and to visit the Century of Prog ress exposition. “I’m not going to spend any time answering anything personal,” he warned. “If I’m asked, ‘ls it so?’ I’ll say nothing until I get ready to an nounce it I’ll certainly let all of you know if I ever decide to marry again.” Miss Googins first met the Presi dent’s son at Fort Worth in March while he was a guest of the South western exposition. GEN. ITALO BALBO and his 95 companions on the mass flight from Italy to Chicago left the World’s fair city after several days of contin uous entertainment that was limited only by the endurance of the aviators. They flew directly to New York and after a rest were conveyed in army planes to Washington to pay their re spects to President Roosevelt. Balbo’s plans called for return to Italy byway of Newfoundland, going to either Ireland or the Azores, depending on the weather. Italy and Premier Mussolini may well be proud of this exploit of their flyers, and all must be highly gratified by the honors heaped on Balbo. THERE was mourning in America and Lithuania when it was learned that Capt Stephen Darius and Stan ley Girenas of Chicago had crashed and perished in eastern Germany on their flight to Kaunas, the Lithuanian capital. The bodies were found in a forest and were taken to Kaunas, where the government gave them a state burial. AS THE rather futile world eco nomic conference in London drew toward its close it was announced that a subcommittee had adopted part of Senator Key Pittman’s resolution for the rehabilitation of silver, agreeing upon Increased use of the metal in subsidiary coinage. The questions of regulating the world output of silver and of Its use as a part of the Cen tral bank’s metal coverage were post poned. Senator Pittman said he was quite satisfied. “What it means,” he said, “is this: All governments agree to cease de basement or melting of silver coins, except India and Spain, and they agree to limit the amount they will sell. We shall get back to where sil ver was before the World war." MIDLAND JOURNAL, RISING SUN, MD. Representatives of about thir ty of the principal countries met in Amsterdam, Holland, at the call of Samuel Untermyer, New ■ York attorney, for the purpose of extending the boycott against German goods and of appealing to the League of Nations against the alleged anti-Jewish atrocities perpetrated by the Nazis in Germany. Explaining the con ference and its pur poses, Mr. Untermyer Unt.Tmv. r said that a boyCOtt y already was started In many countries but that its effects had been cushioned by a decision to use up German stocks already on hand. With exhaustion of these stocks, he said, German manufactur ers will begin to feel the full force of worldwide sentiment against repres sion of the Jews. The appeal to the League of Na tions probably will be based on two counts—violation of the labor clauses of the treaty of Versailles in exclud ing Jews from German labor unions and persecution of the Jews as a mi nority people. Untermyer said he was working In close collaboration with the British Jewish committee headed by Lord Melchett Chancellor hitler in his ef forts to speed up industrial recov ery In Germany has created an organi zation known as the general council for industry, which is to assist the government with Its advice and prac tical experience in solving the unem ployment problem. Among the indus trial leaders who consented to serve on this council are: Dr. Otto Fischer, president of the Central Association of German Bankers; Dr. Albert Voegler, director general of the United Steel Trust; Dr. Fritz Thyssen, Rhineland coal and iron producer; Karl Fried rich von Siemens, head of the electri cal company which bears his name; Baron Kurt von Schroeder, president of the German Chamber of Commerce and a noted banker of Cologne; Vin cent Krogmann, mayor of Hamburg and one of the German delegates to the economic conference at London; Dr. Krupp von Bohlen und Hialbach, head of the Krupp firm, and Dr. Robert Ley. The problem for the Germans is acute, for the unemployed there num ber about five million men, and Ger man exports for the first six months of the year showed an alarming de crease. The government is promul gating new laws designed to help busi ness men who give increased employ ment. Citizens who give contracts for repairs and improvements to their buildings will be entitled to a 10 per cent reduction in their income and cor poration taxes if the increased bill for wages equals the cost of the materials. Newly-formed business undertakings will go tax-free if they deal in new manufacturing processes or bring to the market original products, provided that no competition is given to exist ing firms. MEMBERS of the Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks, meet ing in convention in Milwaukee, re ceived a message of good will from President Roosevelt, and elected Walter , Mp' 11 F. Meier of Seattle |B| their grand exalted ill. jm.-W ruler. Mr. Meier is a B graduate of the Uni- M /yJ versity of Nebraska, a ' p former corporation Hk. - . ’JB counsel of Seattle, and is the author of a book called “The Heart of Elkdom.” Gov. David Scholtz of Florida put w _ him in nomination, w “ , and was himself elect- e er ed grand esteemed leading knight. Judge James Fitzgerald of Omaha was chosen grand esteemed loyal knight; Leland O’Gallaghan of Louisville, grand tiler, and E. L. SafTord of Santa Fe, grand inner guard. As the last act of his regime, be fore yielding place to the new grand exalted ruler, Floyd E. Thompson of Moline, 111., named Circuit Judge Clay , ton F. Van Pelt of Fond du Lac, Wls., to a five year term in the grand forum of the national lodge, the supreme court of the order. GILBERT N. HAUGEN, who repre sented lowa in congress continu ously for 34 years and was retired by the Democratic landslide last fall, died at his home in Northwood after an illness of several months. He was bom of Norwegian parentage in Wis consin 74 years ago. Always prom inent as an advocate of the farmer, Mr. Haugen in late years was chair man of the house committee on agri culture and had much to do with formulating all farm legislation up to the advent of the Roosevelt admin istration. IF THE orders of the Third Inter nationale are obeyed there will be’ a lot of “red” disturbance on August 1, which Moscow will celebrate as anti-war day. Communist agitators re cently arrested in Riga,. Tallin and Helsingfors possessed copies of a gen eral letter of instructions addressed to Communist parties abroad from the executive committee of the Comintern. The letter ordered a one day strike, street demonstrations and general dis orders on the day named. Large num bers of Reds serving time in Baltic prisons have been ordered to go on a hunger strike on August 1 and to pre sent demands for prison reforms, one of which is for permission to have radios enabling them to listen to Mos cow programs. ©. 1933. Western Newspaper Union. National Topics Interpreted by William Bruckart ! Washington.—Reminiscent of the Stirring days of 1917, leaders in the nation are calling for Rallying patriotic support, ■ for New War si,eakers are abroa<J / rr ur ln the , and with a call for united effort, posters flap from 1 the walls of public places, all ln a 1 new war. But this war being conduct ed by our government and its people is 1 a war to release the country from the \ bondage of an economic enemy, a final gigantic drive to restore a people to the plane where happiness can re place destitution, where steady em ployment can replace idle time and 1 where profits will appear Instead of 1 bankruptcy. The government, through President 1 Roosevelt, is calling upon all and sundry to stand together again just as firmly as they did just about this time of the summer of 1917. Instead of the draft of men, however, the gov ernment is asking only that employers of labor, those who manufacture things to sell, those who engage in business of any kind, conform to cer tain rules. Those who buy the things that are produced by labor are asked to help in the cause by refusing to deal with the individuals who do not co-operate and agree to the rules from which the President expects so much good to come. And so we have a national code, a national agreement, a set of rules of conduct. While the farm relief legis lation Is getting under way, and it is well under way, that-farm prices may be increased, the government has at tacked the other phase of the prob lem, namely, relief for the millions whose lot it Is to live and work ln the cities. For them he is promising shorter hours of work, a retention, if not an actual Increase, in pay. Of the manufacturers and the wholesalers and the retailers, the government is asking that prices be not raised be yond the necessities resulting from Increased cost of raw materials and wages. In other words, the govern ment has asked that there be no profiteering, just as It demanded dur ing the World war that some consid eration be given the consumer. No one can predict with what suc cess this new drive will be attended. It is new in character. It is described by Gen. Hugh S. Johnson, the na tional recovery administrator, as an ! appeal to the conscience and opinion of the people and to their good in j stincts. I quote the general further: i “After four years of hopeless and seemingly helpless suffering and inac tion it would be unforgiveable not to open to the country the chance It now has under this law to unite once more and overcome and maybe to defeat the depression. This is a test of pa triotism. It Is the time to demonstrate j the faith of our fathers and our be- I lief in ourselves. j “We are a people disciplined by democracy to a self-control —sufficient to unite our purchasing power—our labor power—our management power to carry out this great national cov enant with vigor, with determination, but with the calm composure and fair play which always mark the American way.” And true to the thought, the philos ophy, of that last sentence, the govern ■ ment Is seeking to obtain the co-opera tion of all of the people who must make concessions by having them make agreements with the President voluntarily. The President said when he signed the historical document that there would be no coercion. It is the American way. • • • In brief, the government is propos ing that actual agreements will be signed by the thou- The sands who are being National Code asked make con cessions. The mail carriers have delivered blanks to all of them. Each blank carries a state ment of fourteen points to wllich the employer of labor, the manufacturer of commodities for trade, the retailer or other dealer, is being asked to sub scribe. They constitute the national code. It is to be effective from August 1 to December 31. By that time, it Is hoped that Individual industries of all kinds will have had an opportunity to work out codes, acceptable to General Johnson, that will serve as rules of principles and practice for that par ticular industry, whether it be for the makers of glue, molders of pottery or the manufacturer in the heavy in dustry such as steel. The national code Is a stop-gap, a bridge for the recovery machinery to use while a permanent passage way to prosperity is being erected on a firm foundation. Industry must pledge itself not to circumvent the agreement in any way. Labor must pledge itself to avoid dis turbances resulting from its use of the strike as a weapon. State boards are being set up—they have named In most states —to help out the national administration. Child labor is barred. A week of thirty-five hours of work is prescribed and if the estab lishment must stay open longer, more people can have jobs, all at the old rate of pay. While the recovery administrator's explanation of the code said there would be no coercion, it does seem pressure will be used if the basic agreements do not come in. signed, at a rapid rate. It may not be coercion, ! but certainly there is a tremendous ( economic force to be used, for the con • Burners are asked to deal only with those who have signed agreements to I conform. I During all of this drive to get things i going again—the code calls it the i “President’s drive for re-employment” ■ —there are apt to be many unfair and i unjust acts by the overzealous. There > are certain to be recalcitrants who are i unwilling to make concessions for the > common good. But the most im ■ pottant class of all of those who may ■ not comply will be those who are un- I able to comply because, to do so, they would be bankrupt • * • I have heard it suggested in conver -1 sations here that the sudden move to blanket the nation Answering with a voluntary ! the Skeptics a * ree ®ent on busl ness conduct might : cause many persons in the country to 1 become skeptical that things were not 1 going so well. It was feared that those without complete Information as 1 to the plans and purposes of the gov ernment might look upon the far ' reaching action as meaning that a new crisis was impending. The suggestions were not altogether without support ing reason. In the deluge of visitors who have come here to draft new ■ codes in conference with General Johnson, many have come with doubt in their mind as to the value or the 1 justice of the whole scheme. They were honest In their judgment and simply viewed the program as unwork able and as forcing them into unnec essary hardships. It seems, therefore that an analysis of some of the rea sons for the national code should be made after it has been stated with some emphasis that there is no new crisis, nothing more serious than be fore, to be seen on the horizon of the immediate future. It will be remembered that the an nounced program of the President when he started the recovery plan was to boost commodity prices. He wanted to see the farmers get more for their products as a means of saving agri culture from the inevitable bow-wows and he wanted the other sources of In dustrial life to profit As long as prices were so low, there could be no restoration of normal business activity, in the President’s view. Carrying out this line of reasoning, there came the farm aid laws, the in flation authority, the farm and city home refinancing bills and other pow ers. The President withdrew govern ment support of the dollar in foreign exchange by saying there could be no gold exported. Obviously, prices went up. They moved in a hurry. Specu lation crept into the picture in a big way. The net result of this was that the cost of living moved rapidly high er but wages and salaries lagged be hind. The recovery administration thought the problem could be met by the indus trial codes, but the codes were slow in getting started and numerous con troversies have arisen between units of particular Industries and between whole Industries and the recovery ad ministration. Delays were serving only to widen the margin between the two basic factors of wages and prices, and so General Johnson and the Presi dent put their heads together on the code which we have been discussing. • * * The recent nose dive in grain prices occasioned quite a bit of talk in Wash ington officialdom, Break in especially around the Grain Prices Department of Agri culture. Secretary Wallace, however, was the calmest man of the lot He did not let the fact disturb him that wheat dropped off 25 cents a bushel in one day for the rea son, he said, that Mr. John Q. Public was gambling ln the market Sooner or later, the secretary said, John Q. had to take a licking. Mr. Wallace said, however, that pub lic participation in the grain market was not the sole reason for the sudden decline. He thought the rise in price had been too rapid and that a reac tion had set in. Another man in the Department of Agriculture likened the price rise to the growth of bean stalks in over-rich soil. It went all to top. But the secretary said the members of the Board of Trade in Chicago saw the break coming and they sought to protect themselves by calling for more collateral or cash from those who were trading on margins. That nat urally had the effect of frightening many speculators, according to Mr. Wallace, but he did not blame the Board of Trade members. It was something of a combination of circum stances. then, that broke the grain markets. Nevertheless, the Department of Ag riculture is watching the grain trading through numerous pairs of eyes. One of the things it already has done Is to Invoke the provisions of the grain fu tures law which requires ttie Board of Trade at Chicago to make daily re ports of individual trading where the amounts are 500,000 bushels or more. The purpose of that is to keep the de partment informed as to who the big speculators are. since ft is conceived that a speculator can influence the market seriously with lots of about 500,000 bushels. Q. 1933. Western Newspaper Union. Howe About: The Well-to-Do Emerson j Sir Basil Zaharoff By ED HOWE TT IS commonly said wo are all hypo crites. In no way do we deserve the reputation more than In our con stant abuse of the rich, since every mother’s son of us is struggling to became rich. If a rich man is a scoundrel, then the first ambition of every man on the face of the earth is to become one. The money power which every man hates, and misrepresents In his radi cal moments, is largely an agreement among men that when one of them borrows money from a neighbor, he should pay it back. The money power has never been as disreputable as the political power; the “union labor” pow er bombs more houses, and shoots more men, than does the money power. When we use the word “rich," as ap plying to men and money, we actually mean the well-to-do. In my town of 12,000 I do not know one rich man, but know a great many who are well to do. In the country at large the ac tually rich are scarce, whereas more than half the men are well-to-do. More than half the farms of the United States are not mortgaged, so that more than half the farmers, (even the farm ers!) are well-to-do. It Is further worthy of note (In case the reader of this has reasonable intelligence and disposition toward fairness) that those in the well-to-do (or middle) class are the best specimens of men we have, and that those who have failed to reach the middle class have failed to display the average energy and Intel ligence. • • • Ralph Waldo Emerson spoke fre quently of “His Island” (meaning the secluded retreat where he had a right to privacy). The curious and impudent overran his island constantly, as they do every man’s. And when he had pri vacy, Emerson didn’t like it very well. Once his wife and little son left him | for a few days, and he was wretched i because of loneliness. I want the | company of polite and sensible pea- ' pie on my island, but in finding them must run the risk of being bumped into by the bores. • • • The average reader of newspapers and books will finally encounter the story of Sir Basil ZaliarofF. It Is said of him that although originally only a humble salesman of war muni tions, he now controls the business In ternationally. He Is further credited with bringing on the late World war, and with arranging to bring on an other (now believed so imminent that Lloyd George has appealed to the churches to pray for peace). It is not known where Zaharoff was born. Two birthplaces are given for him in Turkey, but his name is Rus sian, and there is much reason to be lieve he is a Greek. At one time he had an interest in Russian, French, Turkish, English and German arma ment concerns; It is charged, also, that his power extended to the United States. France has awarded him a Grand Gross of the Legion of Honor; he Is a Knight of the Grand Cross of the British Empire. The Germans be lieve he double-crossed them during the war. and put a price on his head. Lord Beaverbrook, British newspaper owner, has not balked at saying: “The destinies of nations are his sport; the movements of armies his special delight;” but a New York newspaper says his chief pleasure Is cookery in the gorgeous kitchen of his palace, and dining off solid gold plate. Is there a man who has cornered the sale of war munitions Internation ally, and able to declare war at any time for his personal profit and pleas ure? Or Is the story of Zaharoff an In vention of newspapers Intended to rival In Interest the radio and moving picture plays, now seriously reducing’ newspaper circulation? * • *\ My admiration for Bernard Shaw is only occasional; he is frequently a fool, of course, as we all are, but his average In Intelligence, wit and fair ness is a little higher than the average. I claim no more for him. He said in his New York speech that In the United States the people believe morality is entirely concerned with women’s legs. This seems to me both witty and wise since everyone should know morality means reason ably good behavior In everything. • • • I’m a new man, in that I know mod ernism. Still, I’m abominably handi capped by the old human nature. • • • In everything the first question to consider is; “What is the common sense of It?” And this everyone may know, since Nature has been teaching the common sense about everything thousands of years. One man is a fool about this, another about that, yet neither of them can afford to be a fool about anything and be safe. • • • I am eighty years old, yet a commit tee of Boy Scouts lately rang my bell, and I went laboriously downstairs to be lectured by impudent children on my duty as a citizen. . . . My nat ural burdens are heavy, and I try to meet them gracefully, but sometimes believe I am often annoyed unneces sarily and foolishly. • • * When a man is great usually his widow may write an acceptable book telling of his eccentricities and weak nesses. 1933, Bell Syndicate.—WXU Service.