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Events the World Over (Controversy With Secretary Wallace Forces Peek Into a New Job —Education Begun In CCC Camps— Sumner Welles Comes Home From Cuba. By EDWARD W. PICKARD GEORGE PEEK’S controversy with Secretary of Agriculture Wallace and bis assistant, Professor Tugwell, was put up to President Roosevelt and he speedily found |H the way to settle It Bgj Mr. Peek was persuad ||| ed to resign as agri ill cultural adjustment I! administrator and a ffi new position much |S more to his liking was devised for him. He I was called a special I assistant to the Presl- I dent and named to ™ head a temporary com- George Peek mlttee that w m rec ommend permanent machinery for co ordination of government efforts to expand foreign trade. The committee also will Include the members of the two departmental committees, the inter-departmental ad visory board on reciprocal treaties, In ter-departmental trade policy commit tees, and such other Individuals as Peek may select In a formal statement the White House said: "The report of the com mittee and final action is expected within two weeks.” It continued: “George Peek, agri cultural adjustment administrator, having completed the organization period of the AAA, Is designated to head this committee as a special as sistant to the President on American trade policy.” The new organization “to correlate the Internal adjustment of production With such effective foreign purchas ing power as may be developed by reciprocal tariffs, barter, and other In ternational arrangements,” Will be headed by Mr. Peek when It is com pleted. The administration expects to bring about modification of some most-fa vored nation treaties so as to make possible special treatment of liquor im ports from countries agreeing to take _more of this country’s sbrplus farm products. This is not regarded as a great difficulty to Mr. Peek, as it Is a favorite theme with him that trade • amounts to “swapping my jack-knife for your marbles.” Trade, to him, whether on a do mestic or international basis, is just what the word signifies, and he says that In its transaction “we sometimes have to sleep with people we don’t like and sometimes with those we like.” He is quoted as remarking to an aide of the prospective liquor deals: “Sure, we’ll take their liquor if we can pay them with butter and pork and other stuff.” Mr. Peek has long felt that agri culture has been neglected in its pos sibilities for export, contending that too much emphasis has been placed during the last IS years on the ex portation of industrial products. /’"'HESTER DAVIS, who was slated to succeed Mr. Peek as administra tor of the AAA, has been In charge of the crop control section. Though long a close friend of Mr. KjGMKSI Peek, he sided wltb Secretary Wallace ilp and Assistant Secre- ip; '• ] tary Tugwell In the 11 dispute. However, he defended Mr. Peek & § against assertions . $ that the latter’s pres- K; - ence in the adminis- /’’RL/ tratlon had delayed prosecution of the ifc, - ,yL crop control program. _ _ , He pointed to the Che#t,r DavU control plans for wheat, cotton, hogs, tobacco and other commodities placed In operation, and said: “The record of the past six months would have been Impossible without the continued co-operation of Mr. Peek. It is absolutely untrue that he obstructed progress.” With Mr. Peek moved to a new post, officials associated with him were considering plans for extensive revision of the methods of handling marketing agreements in the AAA. It has been virtually decided to scrap the two main divisions, crop control and processing and marketing. Agricultural leaders from ail over the land gathered In Chicago for the annual convention of the Amer ican Farm Bureau federation, and gave their full support and approval to the farm relief policies of the President. Edward A. O’Neal, president of the federation, called the federal farm ad justment act the “Magna Charts of agriculture,” saying that “at last farm ers have the machinery and the power to obtain a fair share of the consum er’s dollar." For forty years, he said, the farmer has been getting less and less of this dollar, but by use of the full powers of the agricultural ad justment administration, he declared, this trend can be turned the other way. From Mr. Roosevelt came a letter full of optimism which was read to the delegates. The President, who Is a member of the New York state farm bureau, expressed appreciation for the federation's support and outlined the first effects of federal money “getting Into the hands of people who need it,” yet he cautioned farmers and others to “guard against letting a rise In farm Income tempt us to forget the realities of supply and demand.” MOST of his duties having been transferred to Acting Secretary of State Morgenthau, Thomas Hewes resigned his position as assistant sec retary and followed Dean Acheson and Professor Sprague out of the adminis tration. All three of those men had been selected by Secretary Woodln, who is never expected to resume his duties, and Mr. Hewes is a close ally of Attorney General Cummings. It was understood in Washington that Walter J. Cummings, executive treasury assistant, would retire very soon to become head of the Continen tal Illinois Bank and Trust company of Chicago. CHEERED and honored by hundreds of Americans and Cubans, but snubbed by the Grau government, Sumner Welles departed from Havana by plane to Miami on his way to Washing ton, where he re sumes his former post as head of the Latin E B American affairs bu- V reau in the Depart ment of State. Jeffer- Vr - j son Caffery, who sue- |aßßgßir 4/ ceeds him in Havana, pSir" 1 will be, for the pres- j ent, the personal rep- §B' : resentatlve of Presl dent Roosevelt rather Jefferson than ambassador. Caffery Whether he will be able to do more than Mr. Welles in the way of restor ing peace and prosperity in Cuba is a question. CoL Carlos Mendieta, leading oppo sitionist, said that the strife, with no end in sight, is keeping the Island sunk In economic bankruptcy and threat ened by strikes. He said the nation resents control by a government backed by army dictatorship and the student directorate, composed of 11 youths with decidedly Communistic leanings. Augusto Saladrigas, a director of the ABC opposition, declared that 95 per cent of the natives are opposed to President Grau’s revolutionary soci alistic regime. Saladrigas expressed the opinion that the only solution is either a native revolution or United States intervention. A revolution seems Impossible as long as the army remains loyal to Grau, but failure to meet a pay day might prove the start of a revolt. At the Pan-American conference in Montevideo Angel Giraudy, Cuban min ister of labor, attacked the Cuban pol icy of the United States. Failure to recognize the Grau regime, he assert ed, was actually Intervention, since It was upholding a minority group against the wishes of the people and propagating revolution. Robert fechner, director of emergency conservation work, an nounced that a great program for edu cation of the 300,000 men In the civil ian conservation corps bad been ap proved by the President and was be ing put Into effect immediately. Edu cational advisers to the number of 1,465 are being placed in the forest work camps and an individual pro gram of instruction for each camp is being developed. To a considerable extent the advisers are drawn from lists of unemployed teachers that have been submitted to Dr. George F. Zook, federal commissioner of education, by state directors of education. “It Is the hope of the President,” Mr. Fechner said, “.that the education al program, by emphasizing forestry, agriculture and like subjects, will as sist the men In readjusting themselves to a new mode of living—to country life instead of city life—and to assist them in improving themselves educa tionally and vocationally. “A great number of the young men in these camps arrived at working age at a time when there were no Jobs. Many of them had meager educational advantages. We propose to give these men a chance at an education and to furnish them vocational guidance which will aid them to earn a living.” The opportunity for education will be offered to all members of the corps, but participation in the courses of in struction will not be mandatory. The available working hours on for estry projects—4o hours per week— will not be disturbed., The plan Is to utilize hours other than normal work ing periods and periods of Inclement weather for purposes of instruction. A GE cannot wither James A. Reed. ** who for so many years enlivened the sessions of the senate with his dynamic personality. The Missouri statesman, who is seventy-two years old, assembled 20 guests for a game dinner in Kansas City and surprised them by marrying, there and then, Mrs. Nell Q. Donnelly, wealthy garment manufacturer who has long been his political supporter and friend. Two years ago Mrs. Donnelly was kidnaped and held for ransom, and Mr. Reed helped to run down the kidnapers and prosecute them. Later Mrs. Donnelly divorced her husband. Mr. Reeds first wife died in* October, 1932. MIDLAND JOURNAL. RISING SUN, MD. EARNEST T. WEIR' of Pittsburgh, chairman of the Weirton Steel company, has defied the federal labor board and flatly refused to übide by the rules it announced to guide an election of employees’ representatives for collective bargaining. In a letter to Senator R. D. Wagner, chairman of the board, Mr. Weir said: “We must consider any arrange ments with you terminated and the election will proceed in accordance with the rules adopted by the em ployees’ organization." Informed later that Chairman Wag ner had announced the board would enforce Its agreement to supervise the election at the Weirton and Clarks burg, W. Va., and Steubenville, Ohio, plants, Weir reiterated "my letter stands." WILLIAM G BULLITT, ambassa dor to Russia, was received In Moscow In a manner entirely unpre cedented since the establishment of the Soviet regime. ... ■ Other envoys on ar- \ rival at the capital '-fir* have been accorded K, little or no attention Ing until they have pre sented their creden- [ tlals; but Mr. Bullitt was greeted with ex traordinary enthusl asm by officials and populace alike. When A he crossed the Rus- - - Sian frontier at Ne- Alexander A. goreloge he was in- Troyanovsky stalled in a sumptuous private car provided by the government and in this he traveled to Moscow. On his arrival at Alexandrovsky station he was met by cheering crowds and was formally presented to Alexander A. Troyanovsky. who is coming to Wash ington as Russian ambassador, and to Alexis Neuman, vice director of the Soviet press department. He was installed In the National hotel, which thus became a temporary American embassy, and atop the build ing the Star-Spangled Banner was raised, flying thus for the first time in Soviet Russia. Mr. Bullitt himself and his nine year-old daughter occupy an elaborate three-room apartment which last sum mer was tenanted by Col. nnO Mrs. Charles A. Lindbergh. The suite re cently was refurnished with valuable antique furniture and priceless ob jects of art MOW a wife may testify In a fed ' eral court In behalf of her hus band In criminal cases, for the old legal rule forbidding this has been re versed by the Supreme Court of the United States. The case, which came on appeal from the United States Cir cuit Court of Appeals, was that of the United States versus John S. Funk of Rockingham, N. C. noWN In Mpntevideo the Pan- American conference was talking about ways of ending the Chaco war between Bolivia and Paraguay, with out getting anywhere. Meanwhile the forces of those countries were ex ceedingly busy in the jungle, with the result that the Paraguayans captured more than 13,000 Bolivian troops, with most of their officers. In one engage ment more than 600 Bolivians were killed, according to the official an nouncement There was great rejoic ing In Asuncion, where the Paraguay • ans marched through decorated streets; and corresponding despair In La Paz, the Bolivian capital. A few days later the Paraguayans captured Fort Saavedra, the most Im portant Bolivian stronghold In the Cha co, and It was generally believed that these victories meant the final defeat of Bolivia in the war. PRESIDENT ROOSEVELT let it be known that the interdepartmental committee on communications headed by Secretary of Commerce Roper had ' completed its study of the matter and laid / I its report before him. i This report will be submitted to congress, ani j ma y result In leg m ■ ik** I islation for rigid gov ? ' ernment regulation of j telegraph, telephone and radio companies, the reorganization of ■ fl the whole communica _ '' _ tio n s Industry and Sec y Roper gome huge mergers. The committee favors a trend toward monopoly subjected to strict federal supervision. Outright government ownership is an alternative. The consensus of studies within and without the government has been that present conditions are unsatisfactory both from the standpoint of national defense and regulation of such mat ters as rates, and that present restric tions give foreign governments an un due advantage over the American com munication agencies. SPANISH anarchists started a bloody revolt against the republic in the northeastern part of the country and it soon spread to Madrid and further south. There were sanguinary con flicts between the rebels and the troops and police and bombings in the capital and elsewhere were frequent Scores were killed in street fighting, and hundreds of agitators were placed under arrest. After several days of Ineffectual efforts to overcome the civil guards the anarchists resorted to their strongest weapon and pro claimed a nation-wide revolutionary strike. The order was issued through the National Confederation of Labor, which Is controlled by the syndicalists. For four days the fighting contin ued. and then the government an /unced that both the revolt and the neral strike had failed. O. 191*. WNtrn Nwapapr Unloa. National Topics Interpreted by William Bruckart Washington.—The Roosevelt admin istration suddenly has taken on re newed interest in de- Seek Trade velopment of bases Outlet* for trade between the United States and other nations and thus, for the first time, it seems to appear that a very definite trend has been set up to take care of our surplus farm crops and our surplus manufactured products. How far it will extend is a question that none can answer at this time, but the situation and the circumstance certainly constitute a factor that should be examined in a larger sense than piece-meal discus sion because of the far-reaching effect that conceivably will flow from the course upon which the government seems to be traveling. International trade has been a sub ject about which too many high-sound ing phrases have been grouped. Indi viduals In the Interior, for example, were too prone to pass it by as having no effect on them, whatever their call ing in life may have been. Such is distinctly not the case. It has a di rect bearing on the success of a farm er as it has a direct effect on the suc cess of a manufacturer. In each in stance, the benefits or the damages flow on through the various lines of commerce and industry and into the lives of all. That is why, in my opin ion, the trend that now appears to be developing is a matter of concern to the humblest laborer and of great con sequence to the agricultural areas of our country. In a speech at the recent Pan-Ameri can conference at Montevideo, Cordell Hull, secretary of state, observed that “International trade is hopelessly clogged with prohibitions, embargoes, quotas and other arbitrary restric tions.” Thereupon, he proposed con certed action to do away with those barriers to trade among nations. Secretary Hull offered several prop ositions to the statesmen assembled at Montevideo and Initiated numerous discussions privately along the lines of elimination of trade barriers. But the secretary talked about “multilat eral treaties,” agreements between many nations, and appears to be car rying on that policy. Here in Wash ington, however, we are repeatedly told that multilateral treaties are im possible of, consummation. President Roosevelt thinks that there are few possibilities in that direction, and he is talking about treaties between pairs of countries. For example, a commer cial agreement between the United States and England, or France, or the Argentine, or some other nation with which the United States engages in heavy international trade. It is yet too early to tell which way we are headed. Likewise, none can forecast whether the bilateral agree ments or the multilateral pacts will work to our best advantage. Nothing can be more certain, however, than that there will be a lot of discussion in congress as it gets under way, and I believe it is equally certain that there will be a lot of debate by mem bers of the house and senate who will be wholly uninformed as to the mean ing of their words. • • • But let us examine the two types of treaties. The multilateral agree ment obviously con i'WO Types templates conces- Q f Treaties Bions 011 the P art of every nation that be comes a signatory to it, but in reach ing that accord the nations figure out what they ! can gain before they give up anything. Such a treaty runs smack into the long-time policy of the United States. Our nation has always attempted to protect its wage earners, its agriculture and its other indus tries against the products of other countries where wages are low, where the standard of living Is far upon which we insist. So multilateral treaties are regarded by one school of thought in this country as a challenge to our national life. The bilateral treaty contemplates an arrangement whereby, if the theory is carried to an extreme, each of the two countries paired in the agreement, will seek to balance the trade in com modities. For instance, if the United States and Poland were to agree on certain trade concessions and sign a treaty, purchases by Poland from the United States would be unrestricted so long as the American government al lowed all of the Polish products to come into this country on an unre stricted basis. That is the theory. In practice, I am told it will not work out that way. To use Poland as an example again: it seems to be more than likely that Poland might say to the United States, “we will allow only so much of the American purchases here.” If that at titude were assumed by Poland and the United States were to agree, our exports to Poland would have to be reduced. Normally, we ship to Poland almost five times as much as we buy from Poland. The effect is obvious. It would mean strangulation of trade between nations. On the other band, there is that bal anced trade idea on which some au thorities rely to force open doors that are now partially closed. If Poland could be persuaded to buy more from the United States than has been the - ■ case, of course, the result will be ad vantageous to our side. • • • There can be no doubt that high tariff rates hold out some foreign prod ucts. That is the Barred by purpose. The multl- Tariff lateral treaties, it appears from expla nations given me, will cut down some of those rates, while the bilateral treaties may also strike the rates, but are more naturally directed toward re moval of other obstructions. Bilat eral treaties conceivably can be car ried so far that the United States will be trading only with those countries willing to sign such agreements and limit themselves on the sources of supply. The natural assumption to be drawn from the various aspects of the new trend, it seems to me, is that an at tempt is being made to get away from the high tariff policy which has been an Issue between the Democratic and Republican political parties so many years. My own conviction is that it cannot be accomplished; that world conditions are such as to make it im possible for the United States to let down any barriers now stopping* the potential flood of foreign products, and that adoption of such a course will eliminate some of our own institutions and make further inroads Into what is left of agriculture. If one is willing to concede that our nation, or the majority of Its people, favor the protection policy, then I gather that the job to which most at tention ought to be paid is that of find ing markets in this country for foreign products that do not compete, or do not seriously damage our own econom ic structure. If attention is given to that end, economists who are not po litically minded tell me that outlets will be opened abroad for American made goods. We will have our coffee, our rubber, our bananas, our cork, and a score of other things, and we will pay for them. So it Is with some oth er peoples. They will have our cotton, our tobacco, our canned fruit, and so on, and they are willing to pay for them. It surely is made to appear, therefore, that the government is not attempting to increase trade in one way that it could be done, namely, help the foreigners increase their mar kets here for the things we do not pro duce. If that is done, economists who have studied the problems from all an gles insist there will be a parallel growth in our exports. • * There has been considerable adverse comment aroused in AVashlngton to the action of the admin- Centralized istration in organiz- Information tag what It call “national executive council.” The President, in announcing forma tion of the council, explained that there were so many governmental agencies of nationwide scope that it seemed advisable to formulate a pro gram by which Individuals everywhere could go to a single center In their county and obtain information. He pointed out how wheat farmers or cot ton farmers required advice on acre age reduction problems, how the na tional recovery administration reached into hundreds of cities and towns, how farm owners wanted to know how to proceed with their applications to bor row under the farm credit act, how home owners in small and large towns would always have problems to dis cuss in connection with home loans, and various other phases of normal and emergency governmental activity. The President thought it was a fine move to concentrate in one place all information respecting these matters. But here in Washington, observa tions on the plan direct attention to the fact that there are in excess of three thousand counties in the United States. Each county will have one of the central information agencies, and there will have to be two or more per sons assigned there. In other words, a minimum of two jobs to dispense. Another suggestion heard frequently Is that if there are criticisms of the administration, they can be discovered ; quickly and means adopted to offset ‘ them. I think there can be no doubt that ' the information service can be of great i help to persons residing far away from i the headquarters of things govern- i mental. i • • • The row In the agricultural adjust- i ment administration that preceded the ] transfer of G. N. Peek, administrator, i to new duties in charge of export trade i promotion apparently left an unpleas- i ant taste in the mouth of some farm i leaders. Reactions have come from various sections of the country. Rep- | resentatlves and senators, returning < from their homes for the new session, j brought back many blistering remarks < about the fuss between Mr. Peek and i Secretary Wallace and Assistant Sec- | retary Tugwell, of the Department of ( Agriculture. Mr. Peek always has been 1 interested in agriculture because It was his business to be while he was i head of the great Moline Plow com- t pany and other farm Implement enter- prises. But he apparently was unable j to convince Messrs. Wallace and Tug- i well that he was on the right track in ] the way he administered the adjust- i ment act \ ©.lßll. Western Newspaper Unloa. Catherine Edelman _ ION CARLTON gripped the wheel tightly as the cjir plowed a zlg zag path through the mire of the country road. What a fool he had been to allow him self to be talked Into tak ing the short cut between Webster and Holton! But he had been in such a hurry to get back to Chicago to join with the crowd In welcoming In the New Tear. If only he had made sufficient Inquiry he could hare found out about this awful detour. He hadn’t thought there were any roads left that were quite so bad, and he couldn’t have foreseen the quick and annoying thaw that had set In. Down the steep grade the big car careened —now on one side of the road, now on the other. He couldn’t hold It to the ruts. It got more and more beyond his control every minute —until finally the left rear wheel slid Into the heavy three-foot bank at the side. Don made a sound that was almost a groan. He was beyond speech for the moment. Could anything be worse? Marooned in the dark on a country road, and on New Tear’s Eve I As hungry as a hawk, without even a sandwich to bite on. Ilang it all, any way! Why hadn’t he used a little common sense? Stumbling out of his seat, he stood upon the running board for a moment. There didn't seem to be a thing that he could do. The heavy night waa all around him, and there probably wasn’t a house within miles. But there was! For the friendly light of a Christmas candle was blink ing at him from the window of a small cottage that stood back some distance from the road! Braving the sticky mud that made walking so difficult, Don approached the house and knocked. ‘T —I beg your parden for bother ing you,” he said apologetically, ‘‘but my car got stalled out In front and I "I—l Beg Your Pardon for Bothering You." thought maybe I could use your tele-v phone.” \ There was something likable in the face of the lad standing Inside the door. “I’m sorry, we’ve got no phone, mister, but —but I know mam would be glad to have you come in. Wouldn’t you, mam?" He turned toward a slen der and charming dark-haired woman as he spoke. "Why, of course,” she said, with a smile. “We’re always glad to assist a stranger, and —nnd, we can fix you something to eat, and you can stay here until some one comes along to help you.” Soon the appetizing odors of ham and eggs and coffee filled the room. Don inhaled the fragrance while he talked to the children. He found the other three Just as pleasant as the boy who had opened the door. There was something especially likable about them all. Don did a lot of thinking while be ate the delicious meal. His sharp eyes had taken in the situation at a glance. There was poverty In the little home —not the kind that shows itself to the world unashamed —but the shabby re finement. A few new toys of the cheap est kind were the only things to show that Christmas had come to the little family. He thought with a thrill of the pack age that lay under the back seat of his car. He was glad now that a mis take had been made on the shipment to the Nelson Stores and they had asked him to bring the things Into the factory branch for credit. But Instead of going to the factory branch, he made up hls mind that the contents of the package would remain In the Dalton cottage. And he felt quite sure that he was going to have a lot more fun out of the thing he was going to do than he ever could have celebrating the New Tear with hls bachelor friends In Chicago. An hour later, after help had come along, and while he was being towed to the highway, there echoed in his ears above the plop-plop of the horses’ feet, the hearty thanks and good wishes for a happy New Tear that the Dalton family had repeated with such sincerity. And he felt that such good wishes must come true. _ Bk >(. Western newspaper Union.