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The midland journal. (Rising Sun, Md.) 1885-1947, December 29, 1933, Image 2

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News Review of Current
Events the World Over
(Controversy With Secretary Wallace Forces Peek Into a
New Job —Education Begun In CCC Camps—
Sumner Welles Comes Home From Cuba.
GEORGE PEEK’S controversy with
Secretary of Agriculture Wallace
and bis assistant, Professor Tugwell,
was put up to President Roosevelt
and he speedily found
|H the way to settle It
Bgj Mr. Peek was persuad
||| ed to resign as agri
ill cultural adjustment
I! administrator and a
ffi new position much
|S more to his liking was
devised for him. He
I was called a special
I assistant to the Presl-
I dent and named to
™ head a temporary com-
George Peek mlttee that w m rec
ommend permanent machinery for co
ordination of government efforts to
expand foreign trade.
The committee also will Include the
members of the two departmental
committees, the inter-departmental ad
visory board on reciprocal treaties, In
ter-departmental trade policy commit
tees, and such other Individuals as
Peek may select
In a formal statement the White
House said: "The report of the com
mittee and final action is expected
within two weeks.”
It continued: “George Peek, agri
cultural adjustment administrator,
having completed the organization
period of the AAA, Is designated to
head this committee as a special as
sistant to the President on American
trade policy.”
The new organization “to correlate
the Internal adjustment of production
With such effective foreign purchas
ing power as may be developed by
reciprocal tariffs, barter, and other In
ternational arrangements,” Will be
headed by Mr. Peek when It is com
The administration expects to bring
about modification of some most-fa
vored nation treaties so as to make
possible special treatment of liquor im
ports from countries agreeing to take
_more of this country’s sbrplus farm
products. This is not regarded as a
great difficulty to Mr. Peek, as it Is a
favorite theme with him that trade
• amounts to “swapping my jack-knife
for your marbles.”
Trade, to him, whether on a do
mestic or international basis, is just
what the word signifies, and he says
that In its transaction “we sometimes
have to sleep with people we don’t like
and sometimes with those we like.”
He is quoted as remarking to an
aide of the prospective liquor deals:
“Sure, we’ll take their liquor if we
can pay them with butter and pork
and other stuff.”
Mr. Peek has long felt that agri
culture has been neglected in its pos
sibilities for export, contending that
too much emphasis has been placed
during the last IS years on the ex
portation of industrial products.
/’"'HESTER DAVIS, who was slated to
succeed Mr. Peek as administra
tor of the AAA, has been In charge of
the crop control section. Though long
a close friend of Mr. KjGMKSI
Peek, he sided wltb
Secretary Wallace ilp
and Assistant Secre- ip; '• ]
tary Tugwell In the 11
dispute. However, he
defended Mr. Peek & §
against assertions . $
that the latter’s pres- K; -
ence in the adminis- /’’RL/
tratlon had delayed
prosecution of the ifc, - ,yL
crop control program. _ _ ,
He pointed to the Che#t,r DavU
control plans for wheat, cotton, hogs,
tobacco and other commodities placed
In operation, and said:
“The record of the past six months
would have been Impossible without
the continued co-operation of Mr.
Peek. It is absolutely untrue that he
obstructed progress.”
With Mr. Peek moved to a new
post, officials associated with him
were considering plans for extensive
revision of the methods of handling
marketing agreements in the AAA.
It has been virtually decided to scrap
the two main divisions, crop control
and processing and marketing.
Agricultural leaders from ail
over the land gathered In Chicago
for the annual convention of the Amer
ican Farm Bureau federation, and gave
their full support and approval to the
farm relief policies of the President.
Edward A. O’Neal, president of the
federation, called the federal farm ad
justment act the “Magna Charts of
agriculture,” saying that “at last farm
ers have the machinery and the power
to obtain a fair share of the consum
er’s dollar." For forty years, he said,
the farmer has been getting less and
less of this dollar, but by use of the
full powers of the agricultural ad
justment administration, he declared,
this trend can be turned the other way.
From Mr. Roosevelt came a letter
full of optimism which was read to the
delegates. The President, who Is a
member of the New York state farm
bureau, expressed appreciation for the
federation's support and outlined the
first effects of federal money “getting
Into the hands of people who need it,”
yet he cautioned farmers and others
to “guard against letting a rise In farm
Income tempt us to forget the realities
of supply and demand.”
MOST of his duties having been
transferred to Acting Secretary
of State Morgenthau, Thomas Hewes
resigned his position as assistant sec
retary and followed Dean Acheson and
Professor Sprague out of the adminis
tration. All three of those men had
been selected by Secretary Woodln,
who is never expected to resume his
duties, and Mr. Hewes is a close ally
of Attorney General Cummings.
It was understood in Washington
that Walter J. Cummings, executive
treasury assistant, would retire very
soon to become head of the Continen
tal Illinois Bank and Trust company
of Chicago.
CHEERED and honored by hundreds
of Americans and Cubans, but
snubbed by the Grau government,
Sumner Welles departed from Havana
by plane to Miami on
his way to Washing
ton, where he re
sumes his former post
as head of the Latin E B
American affairs bu- V
reau in the Depart
ment of State. Jeffer- Vr - j
son Caffery, who sue- |aßßgßir 4/
ceeds him in Havana, pSir" 1
will be, for the pres- j
ent, the personal rep- §B' :
resentatlve of Presl
dent Roosevelt rather Jefferson
than ambassador. Caffery
Whether he will be able to do more
than Mr. Welles in the way of restor
ing peace and prosperity in Cuba is
a question.
CoL Carlos Mendieta, leading oppo
sitionist, said that the strife, with no
end in sight, is keeping the Island sunk
In economic bankruptcy and threat
ened by strikes. He said the nation
resents control by a government
backed by army dictatorship and the
student directorate, composed of 11
youths with decidedly Communistic
Augusto Saladrigas, a director of the
ABC opposition, declared that 95 per
cent of the natives are opposed to
President Grau’s revolutionary soci
alistic regime. Saladrigas expressed
the opinion that the only solution is
either a native revolution or United
States intervention. A revolution
seems Impossible as long as the army
remains loyal to Grau, but failure to
meet a pay day might prove the start
of a revolt.
At the Pan-American conference in
Montevideo Angel Giraudy, Cuban min
ister of labor, attacked the Cuban pol
icy of the United States. Failure to
recognize the Grau regime, he assert
ed, was actually Intervention, since It
was upholding a minority group
against the wishes of the people and
propagating revolution.
Robert fechner, director of
emergency conservation work, an
nounced that a great program for edu
cation of the 300,000 men In the civil
ian conservation corps bad been ap
proved by the President and was be
ing put Into effect immediately. Edu
cational advisers to the number of
1,465 are being placed in the forest
work camps and an individual pro
gram of instruction for each camp is
being developed. To a considerable
extent the advisers are drawn from
lists of unemployed teachers that have
been submitted to Dr. George F. Zook,
federal commissioner of education, by
state directors of education.
“It Is the hope of the President,”
Mr. Fechner said, “.that the education
al program, by emphasizing forestry,
agriculture and like subjects, will as
sist the men In readjusting themselves
to a new mode of living—to country
life instead of city life—and to assist
them in improving themselves educa
tionally and vocationally.
“A great number of the young men
in these camps arrived at working age
at a time when there were no Jobs.
Many of them had meager educational
advantages. We propose to give these
men a chance at an education and to
furnish them vocational guidance
which will aid them to earn a living.”
The opportunity for education will
be offered to all members of the corps,
but participation in the courses of in
struction will not be mandatory.
The available working hours on for
estry projects—4o hours per week—
will not be disturbed., The plan Is to
utilize hours other than normal work
ing periods and periods of Inclement
weather for purposes of instruction.
A GE cannot wither James A. Reed.
** who for so many years enlivened
the sessions of the senate with his
dynamic personality. The Missouri
statesman, who is seventy-two years
old, assembled 20 guests for a game
dinner in Kansas City and surprised
them by marrying, there and then, Mrs.
Nell Q. Donnelly, wealthy garment
manufacturer who has long been his
political supporter and friend. Two
years ago Mrs. Donnelly was kidnaped
and held for ransom, and Mr. Reed
helped to run down the kidnapers and
prosecute them. Later Mrs. Donnelly
divorced her husband. Mr. Reeds
first wife died in* October, 1932.
EARNEST T. WEIR' of Pittsburgh,
chairman of the Weirton Steel
company, has defied the federal labor
board and flatly refused to übide by
the rules it announced to guide an
election of employees’ representatives
for collective bargaining. In a letter
to Senator R. D. Wagner, chairman of
the board, Mr. Weir said:
“We must consider any arrange
ments with you terminated and the
election will proceed in accordance
with the rules adopted by the em
ployees’ organization."
Informed later that Chairman Wag
ner had announced the board would
enforce Its agreement to supervise the
election at the Weirton and Clarks
burg, W. Va., and Steubenville, Ohio,
plants, Weir reiterated "my letter
dor to Russia, was received In
Moscow In a manner entirely unpre
cedented since the establishment of
the Soviet regime. ... ■
Other envoys on ar- \
rival at the capital '-fir*
have been accorded K,
little or no attention Ing
until they have pre
sented their creden- [
tlals; but Mr. Bullitt
was greeted with ex
traordinary enthusl
asm by officials and
populace alike. When A
he crossed the Rus- - -
Sian frontier at Ne- Alexander A.
goreloge he was in- Troyanovsky
stalled in a sumptuous private car
provided by the government and in
this he traveled to Moscow. On his
arrival at Alexandrovsky station he
was met by cheering crowds and was
formally presented to Alexander A.
Troyanovsky. who is coming to Wash
ington as Russian ambassador, and to
Alexis Neuman, vice director of the
Soviet press department.
He was installed In the National
hotel, which thus became a temporary
American embassy, and atop the build
ing the Star-Spangled Banner was
raised, flying thus for the first time
in Soviet Russia.
Mr. Bullitt himself and his nine
year-old daughter occupy an elaborate
three-room apartment which last sum
mer was tenanted by Col. nnO Mrs.
Charles A. Lindbergh. The suite re
cently was refurnished with valuable
antique furniture and priceless ob
jects of art
MOW a wife may testify In a fed
' eral court In behalf of her hus
band In criminal cases, for the old
legal rule forbidding this has been re
versed by the Supreme Court of the
United States. The case, which came
on appeal from the United States Cir
cuit Court of Appeals, was that of the
United States versus John S. Funk of
Rockingham, N. C.
noWN In Mpntevideo the Pan-
American conference was talking
about ways of ending the Chaco war
between Bolivia and Paraguay, with
out getting anywhere. Meanwhile
the forces of those countries were ex
ceedingly busy in the jungle, with the
result that the Paraguayans captured
more than 13,000 Bolivian troops, with
most of their officers. In one engage
ment more than 600 Bolivians were
killed, according to the official an
nouncement There was great rejoic
ing In Asuncion, where the Paraguay
• ans marched through decorated
streets; and corresponding despair In
La Paz, the Bolivian capital.
A few days later the Paraguayans
captured Fort Saavedra, the most Im
portant Bolivian stronghold In the Cha
co, and It was generally believed that
these victories meant the final defeat
of Bolivia in the war.
known that the interdepartmental
committee on communications headed
by Secretary of Commerce Roper had
' completed its study of
the matter and laid
/ I its report before him.
i This report will be
submitted to congress,
ani j ma y result In leg
m ■ ik** I islation for rigid gov
? ' ernment regulation of
j telegraph, telephone
and radio companies,
the reorganization of
■ fl the whole communica
_ '' _ tio n s Industry and
Sec y Roper gome huge mergers.
The committee favors a trend toward
monopoly subjected to strict federal
supervision. Outright government
ownership is an alternative.
The consensus of studies within and
without the government has been that
present conditions are unsatisfactory
both from the standpoint of national
defense and regulation of such mat
ters as rates, and that present restric
tions give foreign governments an un
due advantage over the American com
munication agencies.
SPANISH anarchists started a bloody
revolt against the republic in the
northeastern part of the country and
it soon spread to Madrid and further
south. There were sanguinary con
flicts between the rebels and the
troops and police and bombings in the
capital and elsewhere were frequent
Scores were killed in street fighting,
and hundreds of agitators were placed
under arrest. After several days of
Ineffectual efforts to overcome the
civil guards the anarchists resorted
to their strongest weapon and pro
claimed a nation-wide revolutionary
strike. The order was issued through
the National Confederation of Labor,
which Is controlled by the syndicalists.
For four days the fighting contin
ued. and then the government an
/unced that both the revolt and the
neral strike had failed.
O. 191*. WNtrn Nwapapr Unloa.
National Topics Interpreted
by William Bruckart
Washington.—The Roosevelt admin
istration suddenly has taken on re
newed interest in de-
Seek Trade velopment of bases
Outlet* for trade between
the United States
and other nations and thus, for the
first time, it seems to appear that a
very definite trend has been set up
to take care of our surplus farm
crops and our surplus manufactured
products. How far it will extend is
a question that none can answer at
this time, but the situation and the
circumstance certainly constitute a
factor that should be examined in a
larger sense than piece-meal discus
sion because of the far-reaching effect
that conceivably will flow from the
course upon which the government
seems to be traveling.
International trade has been a sub
ject about which too many high-sound
ing phrases have been grouped. Indi
viduals In the Interior, for example,
were too prone to pass it by as having
no effect on them, whatever their call
ing in life may have been. Such is
distinctly not the case. It has a di
rect bearing on the success of a farm
er as it has a direct effect on the suc
cess of a manufacturer. In each in
stance, the benefits or the damages
flow on through the various lines of
commerce and industry and into the
lives of all. That is why, in my opin
ion, the trend that now appears to be
developing is a matter of concern to
the humblest laborer and of great con
sequence to the agricultural areas of
our country.
In a speech at the recent Pan-Ameri
can conference at Montevideo, Cordell
Hull, secretary of state, observed that
“International trade is hopelessly
clogged with prohibitions, embargoes,
quotas and other arbitrary restric
tions.” Thereupon, he proposed con
certed action to do away with those
barriers to trade among nations.
Secretary Hull offered several prop
ositions to the statesmen assembled
at Montevideo and Initiated numerous
discussions privately along the lines
of elimination of trade barriers. But
the secretary talked about “multilat
eral treaties,” agreements between
many nations, and appears to be car
rying on that policy. Here in Wash
ington, however, we are repeatedly
told that multilateral treaties are im
possible of, consummation. President
Roosevelt thinks that there are few
possibilities in that direction, and he
is talking about treaties between pairs
of countries. For example, a commer
cial agreement between the United
States and England, or France, or the
Argentine, or some other nation with
which the United States engages in
heavy international trade.
It is yet too early to tell which way
we are headed. Likewise, none can
forecast whether the bilateral agree
ments or the multilateral pacts will
work to our best advantage. Nothing
can be more certain, however, than
that there will be a lot of discussion
in congress as it gets under way, and
I believe it is equally certain that
there will be a lot of debate by mem
bers of the house and senate who will
be wholly uninformed as to the mean
ing of their words.
• • •
But let us examine the two types
of treaties. The multilateral agree
ment obviously con
i'WO Types templates conces-
Q f Treaties Bions 011 the P art of
every nation that be
comes a signatory to it, but in reach
ing that accord the nations figure out
what they ! can gain before they give
up anything. Such a treaty runs
smack into the long-time policy of the
United States. Our nation has always
attempted to protect its wage earners,
its agriculture and its other indus
tries against the products of other
countries where wages are low, where
the standard of living Is far
upon which we insist. So multilateral
treaties are regarded by one school of
thought in this country as a challenge
to our national life.
The bilateral treaty contemplates an
arrangement whereby, if the theory is
carried to an extreme, each of the
two countries paired in the agreement,
will seek to balance the trade in com
modities. For instance, if the United
States and Poland were to agree on
certain trade concessions and sign a
treaty, purchases by Poland from the
United States would be unrestricted so
long as the American government al
lowed all of the Polish products to
come into this country on an unre
stricted basis. That is the theory. In
practice, I am told it will not work
out that way.
To use Poland as an example again:
it seems to be more than likely that
Poland might say to the United States,
“we will allow only so much of the
American purchases here.” If that at
titude were assumed by Poland and
the United States were to agree, our
exports to Poland would have to be
reduced. Normally, we ship to Poland
almost five times as much as we buy
from Poland.
The effect is obvious. It would
mean strangulation of trade between
On the other band, there is that bal
anced trade idea on which some au
thorities rely to force open doors that
are now partially closed. If Poland
could be persuaded to buy more from
the United States than has been the
- ■
case, of course, the result will be ad
vantageous to our side.
• • •
There can be no doubt that high
tariff rates hold out some foreign prod
ucts. That is the
Barred by purpose. The multl-
Tariff lateral treaties, it
appears from expla
nations given me, will cut down some
of those rates, while the bilateral
treaties may also strike the rates, but
are more naturally directed toward re
moval of other obstructions. Bilat
eral treaties conceivably can be car
ried so far that the United States will
be trading only with those countries
willing to sign such agreements and
limit themselves on the sources of
The natural assumption to be drawn
from the various aspects of the new
trend, it seems to me, is that an at
tempt is being made to get away from
the high tariff policy which has been
an Issue between the Democratic and
Republican political parties so many
years. My own conviction is that it
cannot be accomplished; that world
conditions are such as to make it im
possible for the United States to let
down any barriers now stopping* the
potential flood of foreign products,
and that adoption of such a course will
eliminate some of our own institutions
and make further inroads Into what is
left of agriculture.
If one is willing to concede that our
nation, or the majority of Its people,
favor the protection policy, then I
gather that the job to which most at
tention ought to be paid is that of find
ing markets in this country for foreign
products that do not compete, or do
not seriously damage our own econom
ic structure. If attention is given to
that end, economists who are not po
litically minded tell me that outlets
will be opened abroad for American
made goods. We will have our coffee,
our rubber, our bananas, our cork, and
a score of other things, and we will
pay for them. So it Is with some oth
er peoples. They will have our cotton,
our tobacco, our canned fruit, and so
on, and they are willing to pay for
them. It surely is made to appear,
therefore, that the government is not
attempting to increase trade in one
way that it could be done, namely,
help the foreigners increase their mar
kets here for the things we do not pro
duce. If that is done, economists who
have studied the problems from all an
gles insist there will be a parallel
growth in our exports.
• *
There has been considerable adverse
comment aroused in AVashlngton to the
action of the admin-
Centralized istration in organiz-
Information tag what It call
“national executive
The President, in announcing forma
tion of the council, explained that
there were so many governmental
agencies of nationwide scope that it
seemed advisable to formulate a pro
gram by which Individuals everywhere
could go to a single center In their
county and obtain information. He
pointed out how wheat farmers or cot
ton farmers required advice on acre
age reduction problems, how the na
tional recovery administration reached
into hundreds of cities and towns, how
farm owners wanted to know how to
proceed with their applications to bor
row under the farm credit act, how
home owners in small and large towns
would always have problems to dis
cuss in connection with home loans,
and various other phases of normal
and emergency governmental activity.
The President thought it was a fine
move to concentrate in one place all
information respecting these matters.
But here in Washington, observa
tions on the plan direct attention to
the fact that there are in excess of
three thousand counties in the United
States. Each county will have one of
the central information agencies, and
there will have to be two or more per
sons assigned there. In other words,
a minimum of two jobs to dispense.
Another suggestion heard frequently
Is that if there are criticisms of the
administration, they can be discovered ;
quickly and means adopted to offset ‘
I think there can be no doubt that '
the information service can be of great i
help to persons residing far away from i
the headquarters of things govern- i
mental. i
• • •
The row In the agricultural adjust- i
ment administration that preceded the ]
transfer of G. N. Peek, administrator, i
to new duties in charge of export trade i
promotion apparently left an unpleas- i
ant taste in the mouth of some farm i
leaders. Reactions have come from
various sections of the country. Rep- |
resentatlves and senators, returning <
from their homes for the new session, j
brought back many blistering remarks <
about the fuss between Mr. Peek and i
Secretary Wallace and Assistant Sec- |
retary Tugwell, of the Department of (
Agriculture. Mr. Peek always has been 1
interested in agriculture because It
was his business to be while he was i
head of the great Moline Plow com- t
pany and other farm Implement enter-
prises. But he apparently was unable j
to convince Messrs. Wallace and Tug- i
well that he was on the right track in ]
the way he administered the adjust- i
ment act \
©.lßll. Western Newspaper Unloa.
Catherine Edelman _
ION CARLTON gripped the
wheel tightly as the cjir
plowed a zlg zag path
through the mire of the
country road. What a fool
he had been to allow him
self to be talked Into tak
ing the short cut between
Webster and Holton! But
he had been in such a hurry to get
back to Chicago to join with the crowd
In welcoming In the New Tear. If
only he had made sufficient Inquiry he
could hare found out about this awful
detour. He hadn’t thought there were
any roads left that were quite so bad,
and he couldn’t have foreseen the
quick and annoying thaw that had
set In.
Down the steep grade the big car
careened —now on one side of the
road, now on the other. He couldn’t
hold It to the ruts. It got more and
more beyond his control every minute
—until finally the left rear wheel slid
Into the heavy three-foot bank at the
Don made a sound that was almost
a groan. He was beyond speech for
the moment. Could anything be
worse? Marooned in the dark on a
country road, and on New Tear’s Eve I
As hungry as a hawk, without even a
sandwich to bite on. Ilang it all, any
way! Why hadn’t he used a little
common sense?
Stumbling out of his seat, he stood
upon the running board for a moment.
There didn't seem to be a thing that
he could do. The heavy night waa
all around him, and there probably
wasn’t a house within miles.
But there was! For the friendly
light of a Christmas candle was blink
ing at him from the window of a small
cottage that stood back some distance
from the road!
Braving the sticky mud that made
walking so difficult, Don approached
the house and knocked.
‘T —I beg your parden for bother
ing you,” he said apologetically, ‘‘but
my car got stalled out In front and I
"I—l Beg Your Pardon for Bothering
thought maybe I could use your tele-v
phone.” \
There was something likable in the
face of the lad standing Inside the
door. “I’m sorry, we’ve got no phone,
mister, but —but I know mam would
be glad to have you come in. Wouldn’t
you, mam?" He turned toward a slen
der and charming dark-haired woman
as he spoke.
"Why, of course,” she said, with a
smile. “We’re always glad to assist a
stranger, and —nnd, we can fix you
something to eat, and you can stay
here until some one comes along to
help you.”
Soon the appetizing odors of ham
and eggs and coffee filled the room.
Don inhaled the fragrance while he
talked to the children. He found the
other three Just as pleasant as the boy
who had opened the door. There was
something especially likable about
them all.
Don did a lot of thinking while be
ate the delicious meal. His sharp eyes
had taken in the situation at a glance.
There was poverty In the little home
—not the kind that shows itself to the
world unashamed —but the shabby re
finement. A few new toys of the cheap
est kind were the only things to show
that Christmas had come to the little
He thought with a thrill of the pack
age that lay under the back seat of
his car. He was glad now that a mis
take had been made on the shipment
to the Nelson Stores and they had
asked him to bring the things Into the
factory branch for credit.
But Instead of going to the factory
branch, he made up hls mind that the
contents of the package would remain
In the Dalton cottage. And he felt
quite sure that he was going to have
a lot more fun out of the thing he was
going to do than he ever could have
celebrating the New Tear with hls
bachelor friends In Chicago.
An hour later, after help had come
along, and while he was being towed
to the highway, there echoed in his
ears above the plop-plop of the horses’
feet, the hearty thanks and good
wishes for a happy New Tear that the
Dalton family had repeated with such
sincerity. And he felt that such good
wishes must come true.
_ Bk >(. Western newspaper Union.

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