Newspaper Page Text
- MIDLAND JOURNAL, RISING SUN, MD.
t . News Review of Current Events the World Over Murder of Dollfuss by Nazis Creates Serious Situation in Europe —Bandit Dillinger Slain by Federal Agents in Chicago. By EDWARD W. PICKARD © by Western Newspaper Union. Engelbert dollfuss, intrepid little chancellor of Austria, has fallen a victim of his political enemies. A group of 141 Nazis, disguised in uni m forms, broke Into the chancellory in Vienna §s and made prisoners of Dollfuss and a num -2 ber K>t his ministers. I The chancellor was beaten and shot and I * \ left to bleed to death, his captors refusing to permit a physician or n f>ries t to ,>e called. |il MM Without revealing the c „, lk . . fact that they had rC ii. murdered the dicta- Dollfuss the Nazls then surrendered on promise of safe con duct across the German border, being aided In the negotiations by K. Rieth, the German minister to Austria. When It was learned that Dollfuss had been killed the promise was revoked and the Nazis were locked up. Meanwhile another small bunch of Nazis had seized the radio broadcast ing office and had given out a state ment that Dollfuss had resigned and would be succeeded as chancellor by Dr. Anton Rintelen, the minister to Italy. Rintelen was called to Vienna Immediately, put in a cell and there shot seriously. Officials said he tried to commit suicide. President Miklas called on Dr. Kurt Schuschnigg, minister of education un der Dollfuss, to head the government, and he, together with Former Vice Chancellor Emil Fey and Prince Ernst von Starhemberg, the vice chancellor, took charge of the situation with the heimwehr to back them up. Soon aft erwards it was announced that Von Starhemberg had been made chancel lor. In the province of Styria and some other regions civil war broke out almost at once and the Nazis, strong In numbers especially In Graz, were desperately fighting with the reg ular army and the heimwehr. Italy, France and Great Britain were conferring as to the best meas ures to take to carry out their pledges of last February that the integrity of Austria should be maintained. Italy, especially, was determined that the Austrian Nazis should not gain control of the country and was ready for armed Intervention. Mussolini had 75,000 troops encamped near the Aus trian frontier and personally assured Prince Von Starhemberg that he would defend Austrian independence. The French professed to look on the Nazi revolt as an internal event not war ranting intervention at present, but the question of maintaining Austrian Independence is one of the few in which they agree entirely with the Italians. , Naturally, everyone blamed Ger many for the tragedy in Vienna, for the German Nazis have carried on a long and persistent campaign against Dollfuss, making use of the radio with out restraint. Hitler’s government, however, tried to avoid implication in the Vienna uprising. Minister Reith was recalled to Berlin because of his unauthorized action in helping the Nazi group, and Hitler appointed Franz von Papen to succeed him. The border was closed to all political fugi tives from Austria. The German press, always under control, was careful not to express joy over the killing of Doll fuss. On the side lines, waiting to see what course would prove most advan tageous to themselves, were Czecho slovakia, Jugo-Slavia and Hungary. The situation in central Europe thus was packed with dynamite almost as It was twenty years ago, and in all the world capitals the danger of seri ous international repercussions was recognized. Another general European war may be avoided for the present, but bloody conflict in Austria seemed certain. FOR the first time In history a Presi dent of the United States set foot on Hawaiian soil when Mr. Roosevelt landed at Hilo. He went ashore there especially to visit the great Kilaeuea volcano, and being driven to the edge of the huge fireplt of Halemaumau, he made a sacrifice to Pele, the fire god dess, by tossing a bunch of red ohello berries Into the crater. The city of Hilo gave the President a warm wel come and staged a pageant Then he proceeded to Honolulu for the main events of his visit His activities there Included a review of 15,000 troops and an Inspection of the Pearl Harbor naval base. He was entertained at luncheon by Maj. Gen. B. H. Wells, commandant of the army department attended a picnic given by the Har vard club, ate dinner with Gov. Joseph Poindexter and, after a reception at the governor’s mansion retired to the Boyal Hawaiian hotel at Waikiki beach. MINNEAPOLIS became the labor riot center of the country, the striking truckmen there and the po lice engaging In bloody fights; and, as In San Francisco, much of the violence was attributed to Communist agitators. The striking drivers sought the stop page of all Industry but only the cab drivers joined them. Father Francis J. Haas and E. H. Dunnlgan, federal labor conciliators, offered a plan of settlement which was accepted by the strikers, but the em ployers turned it down, asserting that the Reds were behind the strike and that they would have no dealings with Communists. Gov. Floyd Olson imme diately declared. martial law In the city and Hennepin county and Adju tant General Walsh of the National Guard became dictator. The decree even muzzled the press to a consider able degree. Four thousand guards men were mobilized and motor patrols toured the streets at Intervals. Following a conference of delegates, J. J. Noonan, president of the Licensed Tugmen’s Protective association, an nounced in Detroit that a unanimous vote bound all unions and continued strike action in demand of an eight hour day and a $2,400 yearly wage. Noonan said the next move was up to the shipowners, chiefly represented by John W. Cushing, Chicago, and G. A. Tomlinson, Cleveland. About ninety tugs have been tied up at Great Lakes ports since the men left their Jobs June 1, Noonan said. JOHN DILLINGER, murderer, bank robber, outlaw and most notorious of America’s modern desperadoes, is dead. Traced to Chicago, he ventured §! a visit to a moving picture theater to see a film of the life of a man who ended in the electric chair. As he came out of the thea ter federal agents and a police squad from East Chicago, Indiana, surrounded him. He drew his pistol and was instantly shot to . . death. Melvin H. Pur _ ° n vis, chief of the inves uminger tlgaUng forces of the Department of Justice in Chicago, led his men in this final and successful ef fort to get Dillinger, dead or alive. The outlaw had sought to disguise himself by having his face lifted and his hair dyed and by growing a short mustache. His finger tips, also, had been treated with acid. His identification, however, was immediate and certain. It was credibly reported that a wom an had given the tip that resulted in the killing of Dillinger, but naturally, her name was not made public, for five members of his gang are still at large and might be expected to avenge their leader. The informant is due to re ceive at least a considerable share of the rewards offered by the govern ments of the United States, Indiana and Minnesota for information leading to the capture or death of Dillinger. These rewards total $15,000. Attorney General Cummings in Washington was elated by the news of Dillinger’s death. He warmly praised the work of Mr. Purvis and his men, who had devoted most of their time for four and a half months to the elimination of the desperado. Three of the Dillinger gang besides the leader have been killed in battle with the law. Eight others are in pris on, two of them under sentence of death. WITH the collapse of the general strike In the San Francisco area and the defeat of the radical element among the workers, the longshoremen at all ports of the Pacific coast voted to submit to arbitration their differences with the ship owners. The latter had agreed to arbitrate and at the same time bad promised to bargain collectively with other maritime unions. In the San Francisco bay re gion there were 108 vessels in port and the work of loading and unloading these went on rapidly. In other re spects normal conditions there were restored. The “vigilante” bands con tinued their raids on Communist hang outs and the police arrested a number of radicals. The hope that the alien agitators captured can be deported was rather dashed by the attitude as sumed by Secretary of Labor Perkins in the matter of deportations. She is waiting for the next congress to pass the leniency measure that would give her dictatorial power In these cases. OLE H. OLSON is in the saddle as the acting governor of North Da kota and matters political were quieter in Bismarck. The house of the state legislature called into session by Wil liam Langer, the ousted governor, went home after naming a committee to consider impeachments. The senate couldn’t muster a quorum and so it quit Acting Governor Olson declared a moratorium on every form of debt where the debtor can show inability to pay. It is designed to protect the farmer, small business man and home owner from foreclosure. ONE HUNDRED miles of the Texas Gulf coast was swept by a ter rific tropical storm that cost possibly a score of lives and did vast dam age to crops and other property. An eighty-mile gale drove a tidal wave six miles inland, flooding towns, trap ping the residents, breaking communi cation lines and smashing boats and buildings. ——w———i——w ALL American possessions except the Philippines, Samoa and Guam nre now under the direction of a,single government agency. The division of territories and lslnnd possessions, cre ated by President Itoosevelt under au thority of the government economy act, has taken over control of Hawaii. Alaska, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin islands. Previously Puerto Rico was under the War department and the others under the Interior department. The navy will continue to govern Guam and Samoa, and the War depart ment will have charge of the Philip pines until they accept independence voted them by the last congress. IN AN executive order given out in Washington, the President set in motion his great reforestation pro gram designed to help the plains area of the Middle West. He allocated $15,- 000,000 from the $525,000,000 drouth relief fund for the beginning of work on a $75,000,000 forest shelter belt a hundred miles wide and extending more than 1,000 miles through the heart of the drouth area from the Canadian border to the Texas Pan handle. Announcement of the President’s ac tion and of the gigantic undertaking was made by Secretary Wallace, who authorized the forest service to use up to $10,000,000 of the $15,000,000 al located to begin work on the project immediately. AS PRESIDENT ROOSEVELT aboard the cruiser Houston was nearing Hawaii he took time to an nounce the membership of the na tional mediation board for the settle ment of railroad disputes. The men he appointed are: William M. Lelserson, Yellow Springs, Ohio, for the term ending February, 1936. James W. Carmalt, Washington, D. C., for the term ending February, 1936. John Carmody, now chief engineer of the federal emergency relief adminis tration, for the term ending February, 1936. The President also named Murray Latimer chairman of the railroad retirement board, created by a recent act of congress. MOSCOW has finally realized that it cannot get trade credits in the United States until it in some way squares up the old czarist debts owed in this country. Therefore Ambassa dor Troyanovsky and Secretary of State Hull have begun preliminary conversations on the subject, at the instance of the Soviet government. Russia owes the United States gov ernment $337,000,000 which this coun try lent to the czarist and Kerensky governments during the war. The Reds repudiated these debts when they seized control of Russia. The Roosevelt administration has firmly re fused trade credits to the Soviet gov ernment until some sort of an agree ment Is reached on these debts. Al though the Reconstruction Finance corporation has had an export-import bank set up for months to finance Rus sian trade, not a single loan has been made. Under terms of the Johnson act, which prevents new American loans to foreign debt defaulters, the bank has held that it cannot extend credit to Russia. HAVING given nearly three months to the study of the nation’s air de fense, the board headed by Newton D. Baker has submitted a report which calls for immediate strengthening of the army air corps to wT -'JB meet "the most seri ous war threat against ■flflvVpM our country that can ffpfe 'yvg&j be conceived.” The report says the army air forces are de cidedly inferior to mam American navy and b civil units that lead _ the world in strength Mewton D. an(J efflciency . The Baker budget bureau and appropriations by congress are held to blame. Shortage of modern equipment, re sulting from the reduced appropria tions and stagnation in promotion of army air officers, the board warned, has affected the morale of the entire army. The report scoffed at reports the United States was vulnerable to air Invasion. It also opposed the unifi cation of army and navy air forces under a separate national defense unit. First giving assurance that its recom mendations do not embrace a national policy of aggression, the board pro posed : 1. A national aviation policy to be retained for a “reasonable” length of time. 2. Effectuation of the 1926 act which called for expansion of the army air corps to 2,320 planes with a larger ratio of combat units. 3. Steady program of procurement which would keep alive the nation’s airplane building industry. 4. Drastic changes in the air corps regulations which would Increase fly ing hours per pilot from 150 to 200 hours to 300 yearly; revisions In the promotion system for officers; increased training in flying under dangerous con ditions and with instruments common on commercial planes. 5. Consolidation of the joint agen cies of army and navy, such as the joint munitions board, the Joint aeronautics board, etc., under the au thority of the army and navy board functioning as a superior board for both departments. 6. Purchase of small inexpensive commercial planes for use in training pilots in group night flying. 7. Continuation of experiments with small non-rigid airships as partial sub stitutes for observation balloons. & Increase of the air corps person nel by 403 officers. National Topics Interpreted by William Bruckart Washington.—The end of June state ments of all of the banks of the coun , try are now a mat- Bank of record and Increase surprisingly, nearly all of the individual banks have shown Increases in de posits and resources over a year ago. A couple of the largest banks In New York showed such astounding in creases in deposits as $100,000,000, compared with June, 1933. But Irre spective of the increase In deposits— that is, the money actually in posses sion of the banks—almost none of them disclosed any increase in the total loans now outstanding. Indeed, the rule was a decline from June 30, 1933. Banking authorities in the govern ment and outside tell me these figures on deposits and resources clearly indi cate an Improvement in the general banking situation. The Federal Re serve board in its latest review of con ditions declared the banking structure was on a much firmer foundation. Yet, the fact that the banks have not made loans is being seized upon by a certain segment of politicians and alleged economists as proof that the banks are not doing their part. From very high quarters in the administration we hear intermittent yelps that the banks are not co-operating and are not attempt ing to loan money. This condition, as they construe it, is being used as the excuse for the existence of numerous of the government loaning agencies and for other activities under the New Deal that result in getting money out Into the country. The circumstances In the decline of bank loans, however, is to my mind not such as the critics of the banks claim. It must be remembered first of all that bankers, when they make loans, are putting out money belonging to you and to other depositors. They must be reasonably sure of getting It back, even though we do have now the Fed eral Deposit Insurance corporation that is supposed to prevent losses for the depositors. Bankers, therefore, are willing to make loans of the vast sums of idle cash their banks hold If they can only find someone who will put up security guaranteeing a return of the borrowed funds. While some of the critics of the bankers have been continuing their at tacks, I note statements from the Pub lic Works administration, from the Re construction Finance corporation, from the Home Owners’ Loan corporation, and the Farm Credit administration, among others, which show very clearly that the government or its agencies is unwilling to make loans unless it can foresee a reasonable chance for re payment. Just the other day, the Pub lic Works administration withdrew an allocation of some $6,877,000 for con struction of a bridge In Chicago be cause, according to Public Works Ad ministrator Ickes, the political subdi vision of that city having jurisdiction was unable to provide a guarantee of repayment of that loan. Every day local units of the Home Owners’ Loan corporation are turning down applica tions by home owners who seek gov ernment money through mortgages on their property to aid them in what ever distress they find themselves. The same statement may be made respecting loans by the Reconstruction Fnance corporation in its dealings with In dustry. Lately the various Federal Reserve banks issued a weekly statement of their operations, and only three of the twelve reserve Institutions reported having made loans to Industry. * • * I have inquired in numerous quarters for reasons why borrowers were so few. The consensus Why Borrow* given me by men era Are Few who should know, is that there are two distinct reasons for the small amount of loans being made by banks and, of course, the same reasons apply In the case of government loans, except that the government has been known to put out money in places from which it probably never will be returned. One of the reasons mentioned was that In dividuals and firms who most need money have nothing but their own signed obligations to put up as a guarantee. Obviously, if an Individual or a corporation has no resources, the note of that individual or that corpora tion is of little value, however honest and well Intentioned the borrower may be. The second reason, and one that is quite as important, is the lack of con fidence which business men tell me exists to a large extent In commerce and Industry. Whatever Is the basis for this lack of confidence is not a matter of concern In this discussion, but its existence seem to me to be a matter of the gravest Importance. Whether taxpayers are afraid of the burden in levies which they can fore see, is the reason for their hesitancy, is not now wholly apparent. Many observers are convinced it is an In fluential factor. There is also the question which one hears so often asked: Where and how far does the New Deal intend to go in socialization and reform? It seems to be obvious that each of these, and perhaps others, are factors standing in the way of a sound expansion of business under the recovery plan. In the meantime, the federal govern ment is going ahead with its program to spend our way out of the depres sion. Here is one item to show what is happening. This road building has resulted in the construction of enough miles — more than 22,000 —of new highway al most to encircle the earth. This was voted by congress in the last ses sion as a means of creating work. Pro ponents of the appropriation, and ad ministration authorities, hold that the $400,000,000 earmarked for road build ing would provide thousands of new Jobs. Bureau of public roads figures indicate that this has been the result, but I find many observers who are wondering whether the amount of money that has been paid to labor for highway construction has been a proper proportionate part of the total set aside, when the purpose was solely the making of jobs. Total figures by the public roads office show that 6,360 miles were com pleted and in use on July 1 of this year and that 14,000 miles were under construction, with the probability that they will be in use by the end of 1934. Contracts have been awarded, the bu reau has said, for the construction of about 1,900 miles more, and work on this portion will be under way in the late summer. * • * It used to be assumed that when economic conditions were below par, many owners of au- Still Uae tomobiles would dis- Their Cara pense with their ma chines until they were better situated financially. Such, however, seems not to have been the case in the last year. Automobile reg istrations, while they declined in 1933, continued to remain at an unusually high figure as compared with recent years. Official statistics show that 23,- 872,000 motor vehicles were in use last year. This is only 1 per cent below 1932. The decline from 1931 to 1932 was larger, but the point is, according to officials, that the decline was very small. The authorities insist that the reduction in total motor vehicles in use as compared with 1932 should be considered as hardly noticeable when the whole country and the whole num ber of motor vehicles is considered. Although I have not the official statis tics concerning the sales of new cars last year, responsible sources inform me that this business was very much improved and they add also that the sales for 1934 In the first six months have been exceptionally high. This would Indicate that a great many in dividuals have found money, in some way or another, which they could spare for a new automobile. Washington observers lately have noticed an increasing tendency among conservatives throughout the country, whether Democratic or Republican, to align themselves under one banner. The movement as yet is much in the embryo, but I am told by various ob servers who are acquainted with po litical trends that the alignment is tak ing a rather definite shape. Some months ago I reported in these columns the belief of many political leaders that Mr. Roosevelt, as Presi dent, was definitely engaged in the formation of a Roosevelt party that would adhere strictly $0 liberal stand ards. Assignments which the Presi dent has made, the legislation which he has proposed, and his general atti tude on social matters coupled with an absolute disregard of old-time Demo cratic principles, has laid the ground work for the regrouping of voters un der a liberal and conservative align ment. It Is to be noted In this connec tion that Mr. Roosevelt is continuing to expand his liberal doctrines under the guidance of some of the political leaders heretofore held to be radical members of the two old parties. * * * Another factor and influence that is noted now to be at work is the grad , ual concentration of Conaervative business interests, on Trend the conservative side of political questions under the New Deal. Washington has heard lately of efforts being made which would result in the molding of business Interests, or the spokesmen therefor, into a compact organization as a means of combating policies of the New Deal regarded by business leaders as radical In character. It is too early to attempt a forecast as to the scope o# this move. Never theless, It Is quite apparent that a con centration of this strength is under way. Not only will these men and in terests oppose expansion of such pol icies as NRA and the AAA but they are organizing to fight the ever-increas ing burden of taxation and to oppose extension of government In business. It Is a matter of record, of course, that the tendency of government poli cies in the United States since the World war has been steadily to the left. Conservatives have been unable thus far to check this trend, largely because the conservative element never has stood together. It is im portant and significant, therefore, that for the first time we are observing the development of a conservative organi zation in this country which has the avowed purpose of turning the Ameri can government back somewhat to the right and, as the leaders describe it, back again to the Constitution as it was originally drawn. C br Western Newspaper Union. Watering System Is Simple Matter Possibilities of Irrigation Are Favored by Fanners in Drought Sections. By Tj. A. Somers, Garden Extension Special ist. College of Agriculture, University of Illinois.—WNU Service. Ten years affo the Idea of Irrigating . their gnrdens would have been scoffed | at by Illinois farmers, but the un- * usually dry weather of this season has brought home the possibilities of Irri gation In a convincing way. Not all farms, but a very large number of them might have Irrigated gardens at small expense. During drought seasons a simple, homemade watering system may mean the difference between a productive garden and a total loss. Likewise, having sufficient water at the proper time Is particularly Important to late planted vegetables. In a majority of cases the farm stead Is built in a slight elevation with the garden laid out on a gentle slope a short distance from the source of water. Generally, too, there is a pump powered by a windmill or gaso line engine that Is capable of supply ing far more water than Is needed for household and live stock consumption. All that Is necessary on these farms is a line of pipe running from the live stock or storage tank to the upper edge of the garden, and a piece of hose that can be moved from row to row as needed. If the storage tank Is below the upper level of the garden, the pipe may be attached directly to the pump and the water forced up to the higher level of the garden. By using either a cultivator or hand hoe, rough furrows can then be placed at the upper end of a furrow and the water allowed to make Its way slowly to the lower end. As the furrow be comes soaked, the hose Is moved from row to row across the garden. It will be necessary, of course, to keep the windmill or gasoline engine running to maintain the water supply, but In most cases the method is inexpensive and does not require constant atten tion. , Different farms will, naturally, re quire different adaptations of any type of watering system, for the problem Is more or less an Individual one. How ever, If farmers will look over their own situations, a great many will find It entirely possible and practical to Irri gate the garden with but little expense and labor. Valuable Bud Sports May Be Lost by Not Labeling Fruit growers should always be on on the watch for limbs of their trees that bear unusually desirable fruit or that bear at unusual times, say fruit specialists of the United States De partment of Agriculture. It Is prob able that many desirable variations In some of our fruit crops have been lost through the pruning knife merely be cause they were not marked for pres ervation. These bud sports or vari ants are of scientific interest and may prove of commercial value If pre served. It Is probable, scientists think, that the Washington navel orange was a variant on a Brazilian tree. The marsh seedless grapefruit variety may have originated as a sport. Some of the deciduous fruits have also pro duced variants of value. Recently members of the department on the Pa cific coast Inspected a variant of a standard plum which ripens a superior fruit about six weeks later than the main crop. In this case the owner of the orchard had realized that a fruit ripening after the main crop had been sold might have special market value, and had propagated from the limb va riant so that the variety may be pre served. Grain Fed to Weaning Calf The amount of grain fed to a wean ing calf will depend upon the condi tion of the Individual. Each animal should be kept In medium flesh and a good growing condition. The amount fed before weaning should be In creased to take the place of nutrients formerly supplied by milk. As a gen eral rule three pounds of grain Is fed before weaning and this can be In creased to four or five pounds during the weaning period and Immediately after the animal Is weaned. Little or no grain Is required, however, when the calves are on good pasture. Farm Notes Tomatoes grow reddest If not ex posed to the hottest sun. * * • New York set the pace In 1933 when dairymen of that state proved 109 sires. • • • Mexican beetles are reported doing considerable damage In the bean growing belt of North Carolina. • • • Many cattle now are branded pain lessly with a chemical that removes the hair and leaves the skin white. • • • The click beetle is the parent of the wireworm. • * • France, with somewhat less than one-third our population, has over five million farm proprietors. • • • Beekeeping and honey production In Saskatchewan have been increasing at the rate of 10 per cent a year. • • • Seven central states are combating the effects of erosion on once rich land by planting over 26,000,000 trees this year.