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by William Bruckart mMImSg National Proas Building Washington. D. C. Washington.—Back In 1916 before the United States became Involved in the World war Public Debt our government had I - Mount s a national debt which was regarded as large at that time. It was only sl,- 200,000,000, but that was sufficient In those days to cause concern. t On the first of July, 1935, the trea 'eury started a new set of books. This [represented the beginning of a new financial year for the government. One (of the Items It had to enter on those hooks was a public debt of about $28,- >800,000,000. We of today think that ,'is a huge debt and when It Is com pared with the outstanding obligations [of the federal government a score of (years ago its magnitude seems titanic. | When the treasury closed the fiscal year books on June 30 and counted the cost of the preceding 12 months of (government It was found that there bad been expended roughly $7,300,000,- 1 000. In the same period it had col lected through income and other forms pf taxes, Including duties laid at the customs houses, a total of approxi mately $3,800,000,000. This means that In the last 12 months the government operated with a deficit of something [over $3,500,000,000. In other words, its operating costs were virtually dou ble the amount of revenue It received. This deficit together with the deficit jthat was created during the earlier months of the Roosevelt administra tion added something like $8,000,000,- [OOO to the national debt. President (Hoover while in office added about $4,- 000,000,000 to the national debt through deficits in the last two years of his administration. So there are two out standing phases in the financial affairs jof the federal government as it starts /the fiscal year of 1936, which began 'July 1. ( There Is bred these questions: How Jong can the federal government con tinue to spend money like water and (thus Increase Its public debt, and how Jong will the American people continue to permit expenditures by their gov ernment in excess of the revenues It collects? i They are related questions. Neither can happen without the other. But it 'seems to me that the time has come for taxpayers and voters generally to take note of the condition of the gov ernment’s finances. f Mr. Roosevelt justifies these heavy .Outlays under the necessities of an emergency. He contends that when prosperity returns and business is nor mal, citizens will pay their taxes with out complaint and that these taxes t will be sufficiently large in their total production to whittle down the gigantic [outstanding debt. Hence there Is at [this moment an urgent need for ex amination of the whole tax structure. ,Thls is necessary to maintain the credit of the United States. If people doubt or lose faith in government bonds, the credit of the government can be said to be impaired. No nation of self-respecting people desires that thing to happen. It has long been a recognized truism that if a United States government bond was not worth Its face value, the money we. have and the rights we exercise as citizens like wise become Impaired In value and benefit. * * * Careful analysis of government finances in the last 12 months shows that federal revenues Finances were sufficient to / Analyzed cover what Mr. • Roosevelt charac terizes as ordinary’ government costs. He means by that the expenses of the regular establishments of government and excludes all of the so-called emer gency agencies, of which there are now some sixty-odd. This condition reveals that federal taxes are about the only Item in governmental affairs or in private business that have completely recovered from depression effects. Re covery has been sufficient to make the total revenues virtually the same as those received under the Hoover ad ministration In the fiscal year of 1929- 1930. It shows also that Mr. Roose velt has not reduced the cost of ordi nary running expenses of the govern ment as he had planned when he be came President. I mentioned earlier a comparison of the public debt now and in 1916. Let us take another date, namely, 1919. At that time the outstanding debt was $26,594,000,000. The annual interest charge on that debt was just short of one billion dollars. Today with a much larger outstanding debt, the an nual interest charge" amounts to only $820,000,000 per year. This seems almost paradoxical but the answer lies in the interest rate the government is paying. In 1921 the average rate of interest calculated on all different types of government se curities outstanding was 4.34 per cent At the present time It is less than 3 per cent So credit must be accorded the treasury for Its gradual reduction In interest rates. Ten years ago an effort was made to market securities at gradually lower interest rqtes. It* did nob .succeed fully because private business was demanding capital and private business was paying higher interest rates. In the last five or six years private business has called for very little money. Government securi ties and the law of supply and demand operated to allow the treasury to sell its bonds and notes at much reduced Interest On the one hand, therefore, the Roosevelt administration has run up the public debt by about $8,000,006,000 but has succeeded In actually reducing the carrying charge of this great debt structure by more than $100,000,000 per year. That is the situation as of today. Restoration of business activity and the resultant demand for capital may change the market for treasury bonds almost overnight but the pros pects for such business activity are not immediate. • • * One of the interesting things that often occurs in government affairs is the explosive effect Starts of a single Incident Something or a single remark by an important of ficial. It is a characteristic of chang ing conditions and it is a circumstance which causes Washington observers to be on their toes continuously lie cause they never can tell when such an incident will occur. Thus it wns the other day that Representative Brewster, Republican, of Maine, a for mer governor of that state, arose in his place in the house of representa tives and charged that the Roosevelt administration wns threatening indi vidual members of the house who de clined to support the administration view on a particular piece of legisla tion. Mr. Brewster named one Thomas Corcoran ns the administration emis sary and bearer of the threats. He told of details of the circumstance and in formed the house that the legislation which the administration demanded he should support was the so-called “death sentence” provision in the bill to elimi nate utility holding companies. Suf fice it to say that Mr. Brewster did not yield. The point of ttys incident, however, is that Immediately there came from many quarters in the house a demand for an investigation of lobbying activi ties. There had been many charges theretofore that the public utility cor porations were over-running the house with lobbyists in their effort to defeat the “death sentence” section. The real reason back of this sudden outburst, however, lies in dissatisfaction among many members of congress with tactics employed by the Roosevelt administra tion. They have taken orders con stantly since March 4, 1933, but ap parently they are no longer going to obey. So the investigation of lobbying is to be started by a house committee and it will be broader than just the public utility lobbyist. If the undercurrent of Information proves to be correct, administration representatives who have frequented the house chambers during consideration of the holding company bill will be placed on the witness stand to tell their story. • * • In the meantime and maybe as a re sult of the excitement over the Brew ster charge, Senator Look Into Black, an Alabama Lobbying Democrat, started fireworks in the sen ate. He Is prepared to create investi gating machinery in that end of the Capitol to determine what influence the utility lobbyists have exerted. That investigation also will go beyond the utility lobbyist phase. It is sched uled to dig up dirt on lobbyists for other legislation. Thus far there has been little mention of administration activities around the senate. But, as in the case of the house In vestigation, it appears now that the senate investigation has a double pur pose. It will be recalled that Senator Black fostered a bill requiring all lobbyists in Washington to register at the Capitol, to show their connection, to show what salaries or other com pensation they receive and to make public certain types of correspondence passing between them and the people whom they represent. The gossip is that the senator’s bill, although It passed the senate without difficulty, will have hard sledding in the house. Senator Black appears to be proceed ing on the theory that the investiga tion will create additional atmosphere and public demand for passage of the lobbyist registration measure. Actually, I believe that the investi gation will do no more than ruin repu tations of some few people. Such an inquiry will not stop lobbying. It will not even curb or reduce lobbying. As long as Individuals have property the value of which may be affected ope way or the other by federal legislation, just so long will individuals seek to influence their representatives and sen ators in congress. It seems to me to be a perfectly natural and normal thing, and without defending the slimy type of lobbying and the raw or crook ed deals that may come from lobbying, the voters have a right to express their views to their representatives. The Irony of the present situation is that undoubtedly there will be no reference in either investigation to the tremendous activity carried on by the American Federation of Labor lobby ists or the lobbyists for the American Legion or the lobbyists for certain groups such as the pacifists or the rad ical supporters of Russian types of government. Nor is it likely that the correct picture of administration pres sure upon the last two sessions of con gress will be disclosed. • We*tern Newspaper Union. MIDLAND JOURNAL, RISING SUN, MD. Little Lights on LIVING a By MARIA LEONARD Dean of Women, University of Illinois © Western Newspaper Union. WITHOUT WAX WE WERE talking of nntiques, when the Florentine gentleman of high birth said: “Come, let me show yon my marble table In the gar den.” I followed him through the dark hall, stone paved, out into a beautiful sunlit Florentine inner court garden with great dark cypresses wav ing their tips in the breeze. Around the roots of these dignified old trees, centuries old, were little flower beds of bright posies confined by stone edges between which, in formal fash ion, were Inviting little paths. It was a surprise garden in the rear of an uninviting looking stone resi dence set uncompromisingly on a none too wide side street In the city of Florence. Florence, Italy, is a surprise city anyhow, with its wealth of his tory, its tragedies, its bloody climb to light, its sacrifices in the name of pow er and religion, its wealth, its art and literature. What a panorama of hu man achievements and failures, Flor ence presents to a sympathetic heart, as one recalls the de Medlcis, Savon arola, Fra Angelico, the Brownings and the host of others too numerous to name. When I am in Florence I never really know in what century I am living, for these old memories press persistently into my heart We have wandered far from our sunlit garden Into which I had fol lowed my host to see his marble ta ble. “Is it an antique?” I Inquired as I noticed great cracks across the beautiful marble slab. “No, it is not,” my friend responded. "Listen to this story! “The marble cutters of Florence are wily old fellows,” he continued, “often when their chisels slipped too far they cracked the marble slabs. Into these cracks they poured soft wax. After the wax had hardened the slabs were polished and the tables sold for solid marble.” The Florentines soon realized the deception and began ask ing when buying tables for those “sine cera” —(without wax). Interesting it is to note that our word sincerity comes from the little phrase “sine cera,” without wax, which is precisely what it means—for to be sincere is to be genuine, whether it be a table or an individual. “To be without pretext or show Exactly what men think I am.” If this be a good working rule for Florentine tables, to be genuinely sin cere tables of solid marble, isn’t it also a silver rule for you and nte to follow in daily life, to be found always ‘‘sine cera”? • * THE ABILITY FAMILY THE best neighbors I ever had were the Ability family. . There were eight in the present family, one child died young. The father’s name was Reliability, the mother’s Responsibil ity. They were each well named. The father had the respect and confidence of all he met in business —people, even strangers, felt him to be trustworthy. The mother played her part, too; after visiting her household, one could be assured that she carried her part of the home making for her husband and their six children, adding more duties each day to her already full program. Her name was Responsibility and she lived up to it. One would naturally expect a strong family of children from such parents, and such was the case. Their first child, who grew to be strong and stalwart, they named Re spectability. He was an upright chap. He thought well of himself and Justly so, for he lived persistently at his best. The second child was named Stabil ity, for at an early age he evidenced decided firmness of character. He wns sure footed and steady as a rock. His opinions were always real convictions to him. After a few years passed another child was born to this interesting fam ily, not as strong in health as the first two children, but patient unto long endurance, with never a word of com plaint This child was calm and often silent with an inner reserve and strength that won from his friends great admiration and love. His par ents called him Durability. The fourth child was a joy to its mother. Nothing ever seemed to go wrong when this little fellow wns about. Everyone loved him as he grew up, because he was thinking con stantly of others. He would change his plans to accommodate others if need be. Unselfishness was his watch word. His name was Adaptability. One child died young. Peevish and ill-tempered, he grew quite apart from the family traits. His name was Irri tability. He was too unhappy to live long. After the death of Irritability the Ability family was again augmented by two, when the twins came. Happy, good natured, lovable pair of young sters they were. They brought sun shine and joy wherever they went. Everybody agreed that they should be called Affability and Compatability! So this is the Ability family. How many of them have you met in your circle of friends? Do yon wonder the aa>na this tamllg was ABILITY? OLD DAYS COME BACK TO RIVER Modern Vessel on Missouri Stirs Memories. Wlint long-silent echoes the Frank lin D. Roosevelt must have stirred to life among the blue hills crowding the Missouri river ns its deep-throat ed blasts heralded its arrival at Kansas City recently. Gone are the scores of vessels that contributed to the making of this city on the Missouri’s elbow. Their wooden carcasses slowly are petrify ing below the turbid tide of the stream or they slowly are rotting at wharfs far from the scenes of their original activity. They served their day. They made possible the open ing of n great and fertile area to the later railroads, then bowed to that new form of transportation. They left only memories tinged with romance. Still living in the hills along the Missouri are persons who, in the prosperous river days, could identify by the tone of its whistle, long before it could be seen, any of the regular steamboats plying past Kansas City. There must have been something missing for them as they listened to the Roosevelt. The sound of its whistle does not duplicate that of the old steamboat. It is not a steam boat and no effort has been made to play to the traditions of the steam boat. It represents a new era in river transportation from its whistle to its propellers. It has no bulging and picturesque sidewheels. It is not a stern-wheel er. It does not have steam boilers nor sweating stokers. Its twin screws, propellers in miniature of those which drive ocean liners, are driven by powerful Diesel motors. They are supplied from oil tanks, not coal bunkers. Yet the Roosevelt develops many times the power of the primitive river boats, Is more tractable and requires even less channel depth than most of them did. Yet it is a river boat, inaugurating a new river transportation, and its voice, recalling the more romantic voices of the past, must find a re sponse in the hills themselves as well as among those whose lives have spanned the gap in river navi gation.—Kansas City Times. Don’t Wait Too Long He who laughs last —too far last —gets laughed at. pours one in Y ' WTrjg - V JSSZ ////M'y illllll^ 1 11 ■■ AND I RECKON YOU ALL m/!k WELL, G£APE* NUTS WILL GIVE IT BELONG TO THE DIZZV W’JM|K™ W/M T 0 VOU. |,v/£ PUT CAAPE-NUTS ON Beys! Girls! Get Valuable Prizes Free! Join the Dizzy Dean Winners... %/ear the Member ship Pin... get Dizzy’s Autographed Portrait! Dixzy Doan Winner. Membership top from one 12 -oz. yellow-and-blue Grape-Nuts package, I Pin. Solid bronze, with red enam- with your name and address, to Grape-Nuts, eled lettering. 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T • RELIGIOUS RATIOS If the population of the world, ap proximately 2,000,000,000 people, were reduced proportionately, according to religious faith, to 100 persons, the when you want... good muffins ' ' ntAstsendmefbee> ° ok describing USES of baking soda Also A SET OF COIORED BIRD CARDS itUAit HINT NAM ANO APQI(H) Columbus University Press has esti mated, there would he 38 Christians, 10 Confucianists and Taoists, 12 Hindus, 11 Mohammedans, 10 Anl mists, 8 Buddhists, 1 Shintoist, and 1 Jew.