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The midland journal. (Rising Sun, Md.) 1885-1947, July 19, 1935, Image 7

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Persistent link: https://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/lccn/sn89060136/1935-07-19/ed-1/seq-7/

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National Topics Inteipreted
by William Bruckart mMImSg
National Proas Building Washington. D. C.
Washington.—Back In 1916 before
the United States became Involved
in the World war
Public Debt our government had I
- Mount s a national debt which
was regarded as
large at that time. It was only sl,-
200,000,000, but that was sufficient In
those days to cause concern.
t On the first of July, 1935, the trea
'eury started a new set of books. This
[represented the beginning of a new
financial year for the government. One
(of the Items It had to enter on those
hooks was a public debt of about $28,-
>800,000,000. We of today think that
,'is a huge debt and when It Is com
pared with the outstanding obligations
[of the federal government a score of
(years ago its magnitude seems titanic.
| When the treasury closed the fiscal
year books on June 30 and counted the
cost of the preceding 12 months of
(government It was found that there
bad been expended roughly $7,300,000,-
1 000. In the same period it had col
lected through income and other forms
pf taxes, Including duties laid at the
customs houses, a total of approxi
mately $3,800,000,000. This means that
In the last 12 months the government
operated with a deficit of something
[over $3,500,000,000. In other words,
its operating costs were virtually dou
ble the amount of revenue It received.
This deficit together with the deficit
jthat was created during the earlier
months of the Roosevelt administra
tion added something like $8,000,000,-
[OOO to the national debt. President
(Hoover while in office added about $4,-
000,000,000 to the national debt through
deficits in the last two years of his
administration. So there are two out
standing phases in the financial affairs
jof the federal government as it starts
/the fiscal year of 1936, which began
'July 1.
( There Is bred these questions: How
Jong can the federal government con
tinue to spend money like water and
(thus Increase Its public debt, and how
Jong will the American people continue
to permit expenditures by their gov
ernment in excess of the revenues It
collects?
i They are related questions. Neither
can happen without the other. But it
'seems to me that the time has come
for taxpayers and voters generally to
take note of the condition of the gov
ernment’s finances.
f Mr. Roosevelt justifies these heavy
.Outlays under the necessities of an
emergency. He contends that when
prosperity returns and business is nor
mal, citizens will pay their taxes with
out complaint and that these taxes
t will be sufficiently large in their total
production to whittle down the gigantic
[outstanding debt. Hence there Is at
[this moment an urgent need for ex
amination of the whole tax structure.
,Thls is necessary to maintain the
credit of the United States. If people
doubt or lose faith in government
bonds, the credit of the government
can be said to be impaired. No nation
of self-respecting people desires that
thing to happen. It has long been a
recognized truism that if a United
States government bond was not worth
Its face value, the money we. have and
the rights we exercise as citizens like
wise become Impaired In value and
benefit.
* * *
Careful analysis of government
finances in the last 12 months shows
that federal revenues
Finances were sufficient to
/ Analyzed cover what Mr.
• Roosevelt charac
terizes as ordinary’ government costs.
He means by that the expenses of the
regular establishments of government
and excludes all of the so-called emer
gency agencies, of which there are now
some sixty-odd. This condition reveals
that federal taxes are about the only
Item in governmental affairs or in
private business that have completely
recovered from depression effects. Re
covery has been sufficient to make the
total revenues virtually the same as
those received under the Hoover ad
ministration In the fiscal year of 1929-
1930. It shows also that Mr. Roose
velt has not reduced the cost of ordi
nary running expenses of the govern
ment as he had planned when he be
came President.
I mentioned earlier a comparison of
the public debt now and in 1916. Let
us take another date, namely, 1919.
At that time the outstanding debt was
$26,594,000,000. The annual interest
charge on that debt was just short of
one billion dollars. Today with a
much larger outstanding debt, the an
nual interest charge" amounts to only
$820,000,000 per year.
This seems almost paradoxical but
the answer lies in the interest rate the
government is paying. In 1921 the
average rate of interest calculated on
all different types of government se
curities outstanding was 4.34 per cent
At the present time It is less than 3
per cent So credit must be accorded
the treasury for Its gradual reduction
In interest rates. Ten years ago an
effort was made to market securities
at gradually lower interest rqtes. It*
did nob .succeed fully because private
business was demanding capital and
private business was paying higher
interest rates. In the last five or six
years private business has called for
very little money. Government securi
ties and the law of supply and demand
operated to allow the treasury to sell
its bonds and notes at much reduced
Interest
On the one hand, therefore, the
Roosevelt administration has run up
the public debt by about $8,000,006,000
but has succeeded In actually reducing
the carrying charge of this great debt
structure by more than $100,000,000 per
year. That is the situation as of
today. Restoration of business activity
and the resultant demand for capital
may change the market for treasury
bonds almost overnight but the pros
pects for such business activity are not
immediate.
• • *
One of the interesting things that
often occurs in government affairs is
the explosive effect
Starts of a single Incident
Something or a single remark
by an important of
ficial. It is a characteristic of chang
ing conditions and it is a circumstance
which causes Washington observers to
be on their toes continuously lie
cause they never can tell when such
an incident will occur. Thus it wns
the other day that Representative
Brewster, Republican, of Maine, a for
mer governor of that state, arose in
his place in the house of representa
tives and charged that the Roosevelt
administration wns threatening indi
vidual members of the house who de
clined to support the administration
view on a particular piece of legisla
tion. Mr. Brewster named one Thomas
Corcoran ns the administration emis
sary and bearer of the threats. He told
of details of the circumstance and in
formed the house that the legislation
which the administration demanded he
should support was the so-called “death
sentence” provision in the bill to elimi
nate utility holding companies. Suf
fice it to say that Mr. Brewster did not
yield.
The point of ttys incident, however,
is that Immediately there came from
many quarters in the house a demand
for an investigation of lobbying activi
ties. There had been many charges
theretofore that the public utility cor
porations were over-running the house
with lobbyists in their effort to defeat
the “death sentence” section. The real
reason back of this sudden outburst,
however, lies in dissatisfaction among
many members of congress with tactics
employed by the Roosevelt administra
tion. They have taken orders con
stantly since March 4, 1933, but ap
parently they are no longer going to
obey.
So the investigation of lobbying is to
be started by a house committee and
it will be broader than just the public
utility lobbyist. If the undercurrent
of Information proves to be correct,
administration representatives who
have frequented the house chambers
during consideration of the holding
company bill will be placed on the
witness stand to tell their story.
• * •
In the meantime and maybe as a re
sult of the excitement over the Brew
ster charge, Senator
Look Into Black, an Alabama
Lobbying Democrat, started
fireworks in the sen
ate. He Is prepared to create investi
gating machinery in that end of the
Capitol to determine what influence
the utility lobbyists have exerted.
That investigation also will go beyond
the utility lobbyist phase. It is sched
uled to dig up dirt on lobbyists for
other legislation. Thus far there has
been little mention of administration
activities around the senate.
But, as in the case of the house In
vestigation, it appears now that the
senate investigation has a double pur
pose. It will be recalled that Senator
Black fostered a bill requiring all
lobbyists in Washington to register at
the Capitol, to show their connection,
to show what salaries or other com
pensation they receive and to make
public certain types of correspondence
passing between them and the people
whom they represent. The gossip is
that the senator’s bill, although It
passed the senate without difficulty,
will have hard sledding in the house.
Senator Black appears to be proceed
ing on the theory that the investiga
tion will create additional atmosphere
and public demand for passage of the
lobbyist registration measure.
Actually, I believe that the investi
gation will do no more than ruin repu
tations of some few people. Such an
inquiry will not stop lobbying. It will
not even curb or reduce lobbying. As
long as Individuals have property the
value of which may be affected ope
way or the other by federal legislation,
just so long will individuals seek to
influence their representatives and sen
ators in congress. It seems to me to
be a perfectly natural and normal
thing, and without defending the slimy
type of lobbying and the raw or crook
ed deals that may come from lobbying,
the voters have a right to express their
views to their representatives.
The Irony of the present situation
is that undoubtedly there will be no
reference in either investigation to the
tremendous activity carried on by the
American Federation of Labor lobby
ists or the lobbyists for the American
Legion or the lobbyists for certain
groups such as the pacifists or the rad
ical supporters of Russian types of
government. Nor is it likely that the
correct picture of administration pres
sure upon the last two sessions of con
gress will be disclosed.
• We*tern Newspaper Union.
MIDLAND JOURNAL, RISING SUN, MD.
Little Lights on
LIVING
a
By MARIA LEONARD
Dean of Women, University of Illinois
© Western Newspaper Union.
WITHOUT WAX
WE WERE talking of nntiques,
when the Florentine gentleman
of high birth said: “Come, let me
show yon my marble table In the gar
den.” I followed him through the
dark hall, stone paved, out into a
beautiful sunlit Florentine inner court
garden with great dark cypresses wav
ing their tips in the breeze. Around
the roots of these dignified old trees,
centuries old, were little flower beds
of bright posies confined by stone
edges between which, in formal fash
ion, were Inviting little paths.
It was a surprise garden in the rear
of an uninviting looking stone resi
dence set uncompromisingly on a none
too wide side street In the city of
Florence. Florence, Italy, is a surprise
city anyhow, with its wealth of his
tory, its tragedies, its bloody climb to
light, its sacrifices in the name of pow
er and religion, its wealth, its art and
literature. What a panorama of hu
man achievements and failures, Flor
ence presents to a sympathetic heart,
as one recalls the de Medlcis, Savon
arola, Fra Angelico, the Brownings
and the host of others too numerous
to name. When I am in Florence I
never really know in what century I
am living, for these old memories press
persistently into my heart
We have wandered far from our
sunlit garden Into which I had fol
lowed my host to see his marble ta
ble. “Is it an antique?” I Inquired
as I noticed great cracks across the
beautiful marble slab. “No, it is not,”
my friend responded. "Listen to this
story!
“The marble cutters of Florence are
wily old fellows,” he continued, “often
when their chisels slipped too far
they cracked the marble slabs. Into
these cracks they poured soft wax.
After the wax had hardened the slabs
were polished and the tables sold for
solid marble.” The Florentines soon
realized the deception and began ask
ing when buying tables for those “sine
cera” —(without wax).
Interesting it is to note that our
word sincerity comes from the little
phrase “sine cera,” without wax, which
is precisely what it means—for to be
sincere is to be genuine, whether it
be a table or an individual.
“To be without pretext or show
Exactly what men think I am.”
If this be a good working rule for
Florentine tables, to be genuinely sin
cere tables of solid marble, isn’t it
also a silver rule for you and nte to
follow in daily life, to be found always
‘‘sine cera”?
• *
THE ABILITY FAMILY
THE best neighbors I ever had were
the Ability family. . There were
eight in the present family, one child
died young. The father’s name was
Reliability, the mother’s Responsibil
ity. They were each well named. The
father had the respect and confidence
of all he met in business —people, even
strangers, felt him to be trustworthy.
The mother played her part, too; after
visiting her household, one could be
assured that she carried her part of
the home making for her husband and
their six children, adding more duties
each day to her already full program.
Her name was Responsibility and she
lived up to it. One would naturally
expect a strong family of children from
such parents, and such was the case.
Their first child, who grew to be
strong and stalwart, they named Re
spectability. He was an upright chap.
He thought well of himself and Justly
so, for he lived persistently at his best.
The second child was named Stabil
ity, for at an early age he evidenced
decided firmness of character. He wns
sure footed and steady as a rock. His
opinions were always real convictions
to him.
After a few years passed another
child was born to this interesting fam
ily, not as strong in health as the first
two children, but patient unto long
endurance, with never a word of com
plaint This child was calm and often
silent with an inner reserve and
strength that won from his friends
great admiration and love. His par
ents called him Durability.
The fourth child was a joy to its
mother. Nothing ever seemed to go
wrong when this little fellow wns
about. Everyone loved him as he
grew up, because he was thinking con
stantly of others. He would change
his plans to accommodate others if
need be. Unselfishness was his watch
word. His name was Adaptability.
One child died young. Peevish and
ill-tempered, he grew quite apart from
the family traits. His name was Irri
tability. He was too unhappy to live
long.
After the death of Irritability the
Ability family was again augmented
by two, when the twins came. Happy,
good natured, lovable pair of young
sters they were. They brought sun
shine and joy wherever they went.
Everybody agreed that they should be
called Affability and Compatability!
So this is the Ability family. How
many of them have you met in your
circle of friends? Do yon wonder the
aa>na this tamllg was ABILITY?
OLD DAYS COME
BACK TO RIVER
Modern Vessel on Missouri
Stirs Memories.
Wlint long-silent echoes the Frank
lin D. Roosevelt must have stirred
to life among the blue hills crowding
the Missouri river ns its deep-throat
ed blasts heralded its arrival at
Kansas City recently.
Gone are the scores of vessels that
contributed to the making of this
city on the Missouri’s elbow. Their
wooden carcasses slowly are petrify
ing below the turbid tide of the
stream or they slowly are rotting at
wharfs far from the scenes of their
original activity. They served their
day. They made possible the open
ing of n great and fertile area to the
later railroads, then bowed to that
new form of transportation.
They left only memories tinged
with romance. Still living in the hills
along the Missouri are persons who,
in the prosperous river days, could
identify by the tone of its whistle,
long before it could be seen, any of
the regular steamboats plying past
Kansas City.
There must have been something
missing for them as they listened to
the Roosevelt. The sound of its
whistle does not duplicate that of
the old steamboat. It is not a steam
boat and no effort has been made to
play to the traditions of the steam
boat. It represents a new era in
river transportation from its whistle
to its propellers.
It has no bulging and picturesque
sidewheels. It is not a stern-wheel
er. It does not have steam boilers
nor sweating stokers. Its twin
screws, propellers in miniature of
those which drive ocean liners, are
driven by powerful Diesel motors.
They are supplied from oil tanks,
not coal bunkers. Yet the Roosevelt
develops many times the power of
the primitive river boats, Is more
tractable and requires even less
channel depth than most of them did.
Yet it is a river boat, inaugurating
a new river transportation, and its
voice, recalling the more romantic
voices of the past, must find a re
sponse in the hills themselves as
well as among those whose lives
have spanned the gap in river navi
gation.—Kansas City Times.
Don’t Wait Too Long
He who laughs last —too far last
—gets laughed at.
pours one in Y
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RELIGIOUS RATIOS
If the population of the world, ap
proximately 2,000,000,000 people, were
reduced proportionately, according to
religious faith, to 100 persons, the
when you want...
good muffins
' ' ntAstsendmefbee> ° ok
describing USES of baking soda
Also A SET OF COIORED BIRD CARDS
itUAit HINT NAM ANO APQI(H)
Columbus University Press has esti
mated, there would he 38 Christians,
10 Confucianists and Taoists, 12
Hindus, 11 Mohammedans, 10 Anl
mists, 8 Buddhists, 1 Shintoist, and
1 Jew.

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