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20,000 Americans Without a Country
By WILLIAM C. UTLEY THE time: A few months from now. Giant Clipper No. 7 of the Pan-American Airways splits the salt air with her great wings 130 feet from tip to tip. Her four, 3,200- horse power engines drone smoothly as they bear their burden of 30 or 35 tons out over the broad Pnclflc, while you and I and 48 others aboard turn for a last look at the California shore fading into the distance behind us. It will be 18 hours before we feel our feet on solid ground again, for the next possible landing place Is 2,400 miles away—Honolulu, the "crossroads of the Pacific.” We are bound on one of the regular scheduled trips over the new airway to China —to China in three days! Although there Is no land for hun dreds of miles, a radio beam holds us to our course as surely as though we were making the trip in a subway tube. When we are ready to go to bed —and we will be before we reach Hawaii —our seats are converted into berths as comfortable as those in a transcontinental railroad train. This is literally "sleeping'on clouds." We’re not going to miss much by sleeping, for there is nothing to <ee at this stage of the journey but water. Besides, there is so much ahead of us. Our trip, this time, has a double purpose: To experience the thrill of crossing the Pacific in less time than it took to cross the American conti nent a few years ago—and to visit what is one of the most unusual spots of the United States and its posses sions. It Is the Island of Guam, one of America’s farthest outposts, and a land whose population is "in a fix,’’ as we shall see presently. Our arrival at Hawaii is spectacular in its very uneventfulness. There is a short stopover so we can stretch our legs—possibly limber up in the surf at the glorious beach of Waikiki, and then we are off again, over the pine apple fields and the sugar cane, with Pearl harbor disappearing beyond our stern horizon as California did yes terday. Midway island, ten hours away, is our next atop, but this time the hop is not so lonely. We soon approach the island of Kauai, whose 500 Inches of rainfall make it the wettest spot in the world; we skirt its 4,000-foot green mountain range, topped by the peak of Waialeale. There are more is lands now—Napali, with its cliffs ris ing from the sea 2,000 feet like great white walls; Nlihau, a plateau with volcanic craters at either end; Kaula, which looks like a loaf of bread a lit tle overdone to a dark brown; Nihoa, with the grass-grown remains of what were once garden terraces and home sites for wandering Polynesian adven turers who came here to fish and hunt. An Island Mystery. There are more islands, some of them, like Necker, being merely the tips of volcanoes poking their mouths up out of the sea. On Necker are many peculiar rows of terraces, with upright stones bordering their edges In orderly mystery. Who left them here and why? Nobody knows. Mys teries like this are not unusual to the South seas; there are the grotesque and inexplicable statues of Easter is land, for Instance. More of these volcanic islands, with their bases 18,000 feet down under the sea, pass below us. There is Lay san island, flat and barren, white and empty where former forests and vege tation have given way to the onslaught of guano diggers, poachers and rab bits. We pass Pearl and Hermes reef and soon swoop down upon Midway island. It is only a short while until we hop off for Wake Island. 1,200 miles south west of Midway, and reach it after a trip unbroken by anything out of the ordinary. At Wake our thirsty engines take on a new supply of fuel. And the next stop, after 1,564 miles of flying, is Guam. As we glide down upon Apra har bor on the northwest coast of Guam we are coming to rest within the con fines of the unbelievable —an absolute monarchy within the United States. In the 87 years it has belonged to us Guam has become in many ways like other parts of our country and its pos sessions. There are movie theaters where the dyed-in-the-wool fans rave over the darling dimples of Shirley Temple. Islanders’ Political Plight There are housewives who wrestle with electric refrigerator trays to lib erate ice cubes which will cool the dilnking water at their dinner tables.' Streamlined automobiles speed over smooth paved roads. Telephone and telegraph quicken the business and social world. Yet these citizens of Guam —20,000 of them—have no vote, no voice at all in their government. They may be born in this distant corner of the Unit ed States and live there all their lives; they owe undying "allegiance to the American flag and to the republic for which It stands”; they are not aliens, but neither are they citizens of the United States, and, furthermore, never can they become citizens of the United States. u ' * ||| ; _. PaC,t Ocean Two sailors, stationed at Guam, out for a walk around their barracks (nothing else to do!). Guam, stop-off point on the air route to the Orient, shown on the map above, is governed by the navy. Inset: Pan American Airways new Clipper Ship No. 7, largest plane ever built In America. They are ruled by the iron hand of a United States naval officer appointed by the President; so far this type of rule has been just and wise and un deniably beneflclnl, nevertheless the governor is as much an absolute mon arch as were any of the kings of old. His word is the only law. Queerly enough. Uncle Sam’s gobs under his control perform every governmental and administrative duty from judging criminal cases to blowing traffic whis tles, yet none of them have any real naval duties at all. Arriving at Guam we have covered 6,500 miles since leaving California. Let us see where we are now. Some 1,700 miles from Manila. The nau tical position Is given as 130 degrees 26 minutes north latitude and 144 de grees 40 minutes east longitude. Our island Is larger than Samoa or the Virgin islands. It Is an oasis of 150 square miles in the watery desert of the Pacific. It is 29 miles long and from three to ten miles wide. It is hilly in the south portion, with one peak, Mt. Jumullong Mangloc rising 1,274 feet. The northern part is a coral plateau, 300 feet high in the in terior, but facing the sea with bold, 600-foot cliffs. There are several oth er fairly good harbors besides Apra. It is heavily forested with valuable hard woods and the soil Is fertile. Nature Mingles With Civilization. Despite the presence of the many scientific improvements of our own civilization which have been fostered under the American rule, the charm of nature is everywhere to be found. Water buffaloes pulling native carts are frequently to be seen. There are native villages consisting of one long street of houses with sweeping ver andas, perched upon posts. The native population is diiefly Chamorros; there are a few Tagalos and Malays. Stretching out into the hills beyond the capital city, Agana, where two thirds of the island's people live, are fields of sugar, rice, tobacco and pine apple. In the river valleys are cacao, coffee and Indigo. Water buffalo and Imported horses help with the farm ing, which is the principal industry of Guam. It is somewhat appropriate that the navy should govern Guam, which is a forbidden naval preserve, although it boasts no fortresses, harbors no guns and withholds no secrets of a military nature. For it was the navy that first claimed the island for Uncle Sam. That was on June 20. 1898. The Spanish governor did not know that the war was on. When Capt Henry Glass sailed the cruiser Charleston in to Apra harbor and began throwing dreadfully earnest shells right through the tops of the coconut trees, the gov ernor, probably already acquainted with American sailors, thought the boys were just out for a good time and apologized for not being able to return the salute, since he was all out of powder and had to wait until some of his subordinate senors could dash down to the corner drug store and get some. He soon found out that (he American navy was playing this game “for keeps” and we bave kept the Pacific prize ever since. Pres ident McKinley directed the navy to administer the island government two weeks after it was awarded to the United States in the treaty of Paris. December 10, 1898, and the navy has always retained the ditarge. The island of Guam Is actually a part of the United States, not simply a protectorate. Yet islanders cannot MIDLAND JOURNAL, RISING SUN, MD. earn citizenship by merely staying in their part of the United States, oi eyen by coming to the mainland and residing there for the period of years which would ordinarily be sufficient for naturalization. Denby Was Responsible. The late Edwin Denby attended to that in a proclamation made nearly thirteen years ago, when he was sec retary of the navy. His “court mar tial order,” which has never been re sclnded, was: “While a native of Guam owes per petual allegiance to the United States he Is not a citizen thereof, nor is h an alien, and there are no provisions under which he may become a citizen of the United States by naturalization.’ Ironically enough, the only country to which the Inhabitant of Guam owes allegiance is the one country of whicl he cannot become a citizen. The entire island of Guam, we are told upon landing there in Clipper No 7, is a “closed port." The navy gov ernor’s permission must be given be fore any foreign vessel can tie up al the docks. We had to have special permission to land here, for nobody, foreigner or American, lands here with out the governor’s O. K. No one cat get off the island, either, without the approval of that same august gentle man. Even natives have to have his permission to go. Guam is the largest island of th Marianne archipelago: the rest of th Mariannes are owned by Japan. W* once considered Guam an important naval base In the Pacific front stretch ing from the Philippines to Alaska but after the Versailles treaty the de fenses of Guam proved irritating tc the Japanese and we removed them. The navy had a little more than DOC men at Guam before the treaty, but now there are only about 600. There is a handful of marines on the Island under the command of a colonel; about two dozen of them are used for police but the others have nothing at *aU to do. No Crime Problem Here. There is little enough need for po lice on Guam, we find. There art only two lawyers there, and only ont of the two gets enough business tc make It profitable for him to take ou* a license to practice. Islanders are given a good Ameri can education; in fact, It is compul sory. There are business opportuni ties there, In the industries of burning lime and charcoal, and fishing ant building, although most Inhabitant! are farmers —small farmers: each fam lly has its own little plot of land. With little to do, the navy men sta tioned there have devoted most o' their time to making all of the Indus try of Guam resemble that of the Unit ed States in miniature. How well thej have succeeded Is doubtful, but everj governor has tried IL If we visit G\iam next year, aftei the treaties expire, it is possible tha 1 we may see the island better fortified This Is not likely, however, since grant Ing Philippine Independence has lef us with little in the Far West to pro tect. After a short stay In so Interesting a place we climb back into our Cllppei for the long hop of 1,700 miles to th beautiful airport of Manila, arriving there at the start of the third day on; from California. -One more quick movi and we are in China. The world does change! © Western Npw*pap*r f’nlcn Useful Laundry Bag an Gift By GRANDMOTHER CLARK If you want to make up an inex pensive useful gift, here is a laundry bag that will answer very nicely. This bag, when made up, measures 15 by 20 inches. The embroidery de sign is stamped on muslin materia! ready to be embroidered and sewed up. You will iind a wire clothes hanger about the house somewhere to sew into the bag. This stamped piece No. 1003 will be mailed to you for 15 cents. Hanger and crochet cotton are not. Included. Address—'Home Craft Co., Dept. A—Nineteenth and St. Louis Ave., St. Louis, Mo. Inclose a stamped, ad dressed envelope for reply when writ ing for any Information. Palace House* Thousands Some 3,000 of the 32,000 people of Spilt, one of the seaports of Yugo slavia, live within the walls of the Diocletian palace, which covers near ly nine acres and is one of the larg est private residences ever built. Travelers who visit Split spend most of their time outdoors, so they can enjoy the brilliant sunshine. firestone j ||||_^. p|' ! |By , ” s '' v^pggy : / j§M Blgi mm y, -■ f: ■ " ■ y jj FO r cars these new Firestone 4.40/4.50/4.75-21 $ 7.05 Ground Grip Tires you can now 4.75/5.00-19 8.50 r J 4.50/4.75/5.00-20 8.35 go from one farm to another with 5.25/5.50-17 10.55 ° , . „ . . 5.25/5.50-is 10.05 no trouble at all, or you can dnve heavy duty lnto town no matter how bad the 4.40/4.50/4.75-21 * *.Bo road conditions are. They will 3 25/5 so-n 00 20 lilo gi ye Super-Traction in mud— oo./i< 90 ’ 1 * as snow—or soft ground—and you Other Size* Priced Proportionately Low Save time and UlOney aS yOU do not need chains. FOR TRUCKS 32x6 Truck Type 8x7.05 No farmer can afford to be 32x6 H.D. 30.85 . . f . _. 6.00.20 10.95 without a set or these new Firestone 7:00.20:::::::::::::::: 89*10 Ground Grip Tires this winter for 7.50- 35.80 . . . 7.50- 39.00 his car or truck. 8.25-20 49*30 52m:::::::::::::::: ot?! See y° ur nearby Firestone Other Size* Priced Proportionately Low Auto Supply and Service Store or Firestone Tire Dealer today and FOR TRACTORS , , . . 7 , , 9 00-36...:: 73.95 Grip Tires on the new tractor you chevron type are buying. 5.50- 8 9.40 • • • 7.50- lj*W Listen to tie Voice oj Firestone featuring Richard 11 25-24 j| |q Crooks, Nelson Eddy, Margaret Speaks, Monday ————- - evenings over Nationwide N.B.C—WEAF Network Ofher Sixes Priced Proportionately Low / • - * 1 - e IM. F.T.AB. Co. Farmer Makes Home of Tomb, Fears Only Rats Back in 1880, Linus Smith designed and built a mausoleum near Medina, Ohio, to hold the bodies of Ids entire family. But only the remains of Smith’s father, mother and younger brother ever were placed In (Ids tomb. Soon after the body of the younger Smith was placed In the vault, the door at the entrance was brdken down and the body stolen. An unsigned note offered return of it for ,S2OO. A neighbor youth wns suspected, confessed the ghoulish act and returned the body. This occur rence turned Linus Smith against mausoleums and lie transferred all three bodies to a cemetery. The vault, empty for years, now Is occu pied by Charles Hitter, bachelor farmer, who finds It quite a deslr nble place in whieh to live, cool In summer and warm In winter. A chimney wns built and a stove Installed which Ititter uses for cook ing and what heat he needs In win ter. Ititter says he doesn’t fear ghosts nearly as much ns rats that like to share his strange home with Idm. —Capper's Weekly. Composite City Stockholm has been described as a composite of Scottish lake scenery, of the Bay of Nnples, and of the islands of the Aegean. It is built on peninsulas and Islands, and hun dreds of boats and small steamers ply its waterways, taking its resi dents to and from their island homes. dbove/y c Visa / Reward of constant care sf lW Cntlcnra Soap and Cnticnra Let these gentle emollients b® your beanty aids. At night bathe freely gjf?*' with hot water and Cuticura Soap. If any signs of pimples, blotches, red, rough skin jL, appear, anoint with Cuticura Ointment. Hfflf . " Daily care will help to keep the skin clear and attractive. gtiCUTft Ointment 25c and 50c. Still Coughing? No matter how many medicine* you have tried for your cough, chest cold or bronchial irritation, you can §et relief now with Creomulsion. erlous trouble may be brewing and you cannot afford to take a chance with anything les3 than Creomul slon, which goes right to the seat of the trouble to aid nature to soothe and heal the inflamed mem branes as the germ-laden phlegm Is loosened and expelled. Even if other remedies have failed, don’t be discouraged, your druggist Is authorized to guarantee Creomulsion and to refund your money if you are not satisfied with, results from the very first bottle. Oct Creomulsion right now. (Adv.), How Cardui Helps Women to Build Up Cardui stimulates the appetite and improves digestion, helping women to get more strength from the food they eat. As nourishment is improved, strength is built up, certain functional pains go away and women praise Cardui for helping* them back to good health. . . .Mrs. C. E. Ratliff, of Hinton, W. Va„ writes: “After the birth of my last baby, I did not seem to pet my strength back. I took Cardui apam and was soon sound and well. 1 havq given it to my daughters and recommend ft to other ladies.’* . . . Thousands of women testify Cardui benefited them. If it does not benefit YOU, consult a physician. PARKER’S HAIR BALSAM Removes Dandruff-Stops Hair FaUlng Imparts Color and Beauty to Gray and Faded Hair 60c and SI.OO at Druggist<i . Hiaeox Chcm. Wks.. Patchogoe, N.Y.I FLORESTON SHAMPOO ldeal for obo In connection with Parker's Hair Balsam.Makea the hair soft and fluffy. 60 cents by mail dr at drug gists. Hiseox Chemical Works, Patchogue, N x.