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THE I [MIDLAND JOURNAL niLIMBD ami nUDAf HORNING BT E-WINO BBOS. •hum mi oaon county Maryland Hal! | t j M Baeond Clui lUtttr at Post OBn la Milsi Bun. Maryland Dndar Act of Coasroaa Of March I, 117* INDBPHXDBNT IB POLITICS AND ALL OTHER SUBJECTS TBRMS OP SUBSCRIPTION ONB TBAR. IB ADVABCB - • St.ftO SIX MONTHS ...... *I.OO THRBB MONTHS ..... JM> BINGLB COPY, B OBNTS ADVERTISING ratbs furnishbd on APPLICATION 1 Orel an Advertising Repreeentatlve ! I Fon>inn Advertising R. presentntlve I ' THfc. AMERICAN PRESS ASSOCIATION | | THE AMERICAN TRESS ASSOCIAI ION J FRIDAY, AUGUST 81, 1945 FAT SALVAGE The American Fat Salvage Com mittee has been given an olilial gov ernment mandate to accelerate the collection of used cooking fat to off set the most serious fats and oils shortages in this country's history. In a telegram l to Mr. Roy W. Peet, Chairman of The American Fat Sal vage Committee, Secretary of Agri culture Clinton P. Anerson, says: “V-J Day still leaves us alarming ly short of fats and oils. Because we will continue to be seriously short of these essential commodities for many months to come, it is just as import ant now as during the war to save every bit of used fat. “American women can help us win this post war battle of supply in their own kitchens. I urge you and all members of your committee to help us drive home this vital necessity in every possible way.” RATIONING ON THE WAY OUT The Federal Government freed 210 products of wartime control one day, recently. More than 800, controls were In operation during the peak period of WPB. With the relaxation of the 210 items there were only 125 controls left —and there are doubt less less than that number while you are reading this report from Wash ington. STRIKES AND LOCKOUTS There were 4956 strikes and lock outs in the United States during 1944, involving approximately 2,- 116,000 workers, according to the U. S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Idle ness during these stoppages amount ed to about 8,721,000 man-days, which was equivalent to less than one-tenth of one percent of the avail able working time. MARYLAND WHEAT GOAL 1946 wheat goal for Maryland has been set at 425,000 acres. This means that Maryland farmers will be asked to plant a little more wheat this fall than they did last year. The acreage planted last year was approximately 420,000 acres of wheat. There is a need for soft red winter wheat, the kind grown in Maryland, and there is also a need for more feed. The U. S. Wheat goal calls for a very slight increase over the acreage planted last year in the nation. ... o CROP INSURANCE Farmers desirign wheat crop insur ance must apply for same not later than September 29th. The Insurance program provides up to 76% protec tion against drought, hail, flood, wind, frost, winter-kill, lightning, fire, excess rains and snows, wild-life insect infestations, plant diseases and other unavoidable causes. . -..0- .. COMMISSIONER OF MOTOR VEHICLES ISSUES WARNING “Now that gasoline rationing has been stopped, traffic over Maryland’s highways may be greater than ever,” said W. Lee Elgin, Commissioner of Motor Vehicles. “Unless motorists realize seriously the dangers of speeding and reckless driving, acci dent tolls will begin to climb to an all-time high record. We cannot lose sight of the fact that the depreciated conditions of the greater percentage of our motor vehicles, as well as the tempo of time, can bring about a disturbing highway traffic accident problem,” continued Mr. Elgin. “It is up to the motorist to take all of these things into serious con sideration and determine in his own mind that he is charged with the re sponsibility of not alone protecting his life and property, but that of others.” “Law enforcement officers through out the State will put forth greater effort now to curb violations and bring offenders into court to account for their indifference to abiding by safety regulations.” “Members of our Armed Forces throughout the world are greatly concerned over the welfare of their folks back home,” added Mr. Elgin. “They would be greatly shocked to hear that one of their loved ones met with a traffic accident, that through vigilance couild have been avoided. We here at home must not bring any unnecessary grief to those heroes, who have won Peace and Liberty for us.” ■ o FARM LABOR For the first time since February, 1944, farm employment on the first of the current month did not show a decrease from the same date a year earlier. Increases in family workers were more than sufficient to offset a decrease in the number of hired workers. “MARYLAND, MY MARYLAND” By J. E. Jones Washington, D. C., August 27 — The rich agricultural areas of Maryland welcomed our faithful Chevy when free from gas rations we pointed her into the “Free State." We had not gone 20 miles outside of Washington, D. C., before we found that the number of fine blooded cows and fat, healthy steers were doubled in numbers since the beginning of the wars. Before the day was done we decided there’ll be plenty of meat butter and other dairy products. When Frederick count y was reached we were in the heart of one of the richest agricultural regions in the whole United States. Our wonder ment increased, as we contrasted and compared this day with other days when we toured lowa, and wondered if any other place in the world would ever produce so much corn. Had we been dozing a la ltip Van Winkle these years without realizing, that agriculture had gone through all the stages of pre-reconversion and reconversion, and established itself on high levels as a great business enterprise? We passed rich fields in which tractors and their implements were cultivating the soil; tillers re , placed plows, weeders covered more than 50 acres of land a day, disc har rows performed miracles in coopera tion with the tractors. Sweep rake.: were lowered and put up the hay, o: shocked grain into neat bundles; and the disc plow made the old mold ' board type look like a relic out of Colonial days. These new machines ’ solved the family wood supply; am! soil scoops dug ponds, drained ditch es and arranged other matters. Ilar \ rows, corn pickers, threshers, and the marvelous new “combine" seemed to conquer every kind of job. Here wc were, on the very tail of the war, with a bird’s-eye view, genuinely en i thused over the sights of flexible . farming—faster, easier, more profit , able.” The wonderful thing about this’ “new farming business" is that mos . any one of these machines will do ■ the work of a half dozen or a dozen l men. There is no doubt about it—l ! saw it done time and time again. I This march of progress extends [ across the Nation to the Golden Gate . on the Pacific, to the Sunny South. , to New England and all the States of our Country. * * * Don’t Be Optiniistie About Taxes We taxpayers must continue to pay • and pay and pay. Most of the talk > about tax relief is imagination. The cold fact is that billions will be , called for to take care of commit , ment of the Government abroad, at. ■ home, and to ease up the slack in [ military expenses, and for the big purpose of pulling our partner-na tions out of the mud. Dependable estimates in Washing ton are that war spending for the i fiscal year ending June 30, 1946, will , be 46 billion dollars. The costs ol ■ mustering out the war, and provid ; ing aid to veterans, besides keeping j four or five million men in uniform ; through the current fiscal year will . run into more billions of dollars. i Neighbor, we hate to tell you that , taxes will continue to be way up for I several years. So, prepare to meet , your tax collector, and don’t expect , him to slice anything off the bill — for a long time to come. .** * * He’s Won The Republicans Down in Washington the funny folks are kidding the Republicans, telling them that “they are all for Truman." At the same time most ol : the Democrats are backing theii party leader. And when one of those “Commentators” explains the politi cal situation over a Washington ra dio he short-cuts by saying that the President “hasn’t made any bad mis takes,” to which they add that he has done a good job in handling the war situation, and straightening out af fairs that relate to the peace. In fact Truman is generally spoken of in Washington as “a regular man of the people.” o CASUALTIES OF WAR Combat casualties reported by the U. S. Army and Navy have reached 1,070,138. The Navy casualty report account ed for 1304 of the incerase and the Army for the remainder. The War Department said the Army casualties, as received in Washington through August 14, to taled 922,7 „7. The Navy total is 147,381. Before the fish hook was invented fishermen used a gorge. A gorge is a piece of flint or stone which a fish can swallow but cannot eject. THE MIDLAND JOURNAL, FRIDAY, AVGUST SI, 1040 _____-g 1945 AUGUST 194s| sun wow nit wn> thub mi ~ST 12 3 4 S 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27128 29 30|311 €^\looking\ Mj AHEAD B|#by GEORGE S. BENSON kvMfijh Harding College Competition About 25 years ago people in all walks of life began to notice and talk about competition between indus tries. It was new then and inter esting. Before that, competition was understood to exist between people and firms in the same industry— "merchant vs. merchant, railroad vs. railroad, sawmill vs. sawmill, etc. But after World War I it was a changed business world, plain to see. Among the modest newcomers in that remote era was a product called rayon. It was manufactured in the form of yarn, like wool and cotton yarns. The price to weavers was $2.80 a pound against 50t‘ for cotton yarn. Last year 55(! a pound was the price of both rayon and cotton yarns, and rayon was on the marked as a fibre, very much like cotton fibre, but less expensive. Rayon Has Grown Back in 1919 the American people bought less than 2% as much rayon as cotton. Last year the ratio was 20% and rayon had captured quite a slice of cotton’s export demand. Europeans earn less than Amer icans and they pay more attention to a low price. If it were not for the war using up all both industries can produce rayon would probably be giving cotton some tough com petition. When the war ends these two big industries are faced with a struggle for sales in world markets. It is anybody’s guess now how the strug gle will turn out, but King Cotton is not licked. The cotton industry is still much bigger; still employs more people than any other Amer ican industry. Besides, smart cot ton men understand how rayon made its remarkable gains. Volume and Wages Rayon started out the American way. It had relatively large invest ments in machinery. With good tools it turned out large volumes | of rayo per worker. On a basis of big results from their day’s work • the men who worked drew good wages. At the same time large out puts of rayon per man every day made it possible for prices to go lower and lower each year, sales to become bigger and bigger. Working people in America have a right to live well. When they earn good wages they <to live well. Money they spend is the veny life blood-of national prosperity. But before they can earn good pay they have to turn out lots of merchan dise per worker. And in order to produce goods in volume tjiey must have good tools, ft was a successful plan with rayon and it will work with cotton. It Costs Something People say there is a practical cotton picker ready for introduction after the war. It will cost a lot more than one big sack and a string for each member of a share-crop per’s family; it will likewise pick more cotton in a day than they can pick in a week. Efficient tools call for capital investment. It means laying out money, but efficient tools are worth it. People say we will see many mechanical cotton choppers after the war. It is not impossible. This will increase the number of acres of cotton por worker; make more yield per day for every man. The picker and the chopper will create high wages and good living for a lot of people. But rayon can win its war with cotton if cotton tries to stay in the field armed with hoes and gunny-sacks. o Lake Storage Two hundred tons of apples from the Kelowna, British Columbia, crop of 1944 were put in storage in Okan agan lake. The Canadian National Railways granted permission to the B. C. Tree Fruits Ltd. to use its pier at Okanagan lake for the experiment in an effort to save apples which otherwise would rapidly deteriorate due to shortage of storage space. Herring net, 600 feet of it, was at tached to the pier piles and then weighted with lead. The net sinks down into the water to a depth of l 6 feet and covers the area under the pier. Culls, or low grade apples are being used and if they are saved by water storage, they will be used for dehydration and other byproducts and if the experiment is unsuccess ful the loss will be negligible. Re volving belts will go down into the water corral, pick up apples and bring them into receptacles on the pier when required. o More than $200,000,000 is paid out by American Life Insurance Com panies to insured families of this country each month. Invention of Loom ! Boosted Irish Linens When you look at a piece of beau tiful Irish linen damask, it’s hard to believe that its intricate design was woven, thread by thread, on a ma chine—the Jacquard loom. It was named for its inventor, Joseph Ma rie Jacquard, the son of a French silk weaver, who got the idea when he was called to Paris by Napoleon I to repair a special loom on which a shawl for the Empress Josephine was being woven. The art of weaving figured fab rics had been known for generations before the invention of the Jacquard loom. And figured silks, woven in China, had been shipped to Europe through the city of Damascus, from which we get the word “damask,” for a long, long time. But the work was very slow and tedious. In order to form the de sign, certain warp threads had to be lifted and others lowered by hand before each passage of the shuttle across the loom. Jacquard invent ed away of making this pattern forming movement of warp threads automatic. The first Jacquard loom was brought to Ireland in 1823. Although linen damask had been woven long before that date, the Jacquard loom made it possible to weave the most elaborate patterns in sufficient quan tities for export all over the world. Care cf Feei to Correct Athlete’s Foot Outlined A committee of the American Medical association has just report ed that few individuals are free from athlete’s foot, carried between the toes of otherwise “healthy” peo ple. For those who are prone to treat their own cases of athlete’s foot at home, the following rules are given: 1. Keep the feet clean and dry, j with special attention to places ; between the toes. Dry these care fully but not so hard as to irritate the skin. 2. Air shoes and socks when not in use. 3. Under special conditions, keep the feet elevated when at rest. 4. Shoes should be selected that are as light and well aerated as is compatible with working conditions. 5. A dusting powder consisting of 10 per cent boric acid in powdered talc should be dusted on the feet and between the toes every night and morning. Patriotic Chaplains In pre-Revolution days, chaplains served with companies nearest their churches. In the Continental army during the Revolution they were as signed to regiments, separate units and hospital*. In March, 1791, the Rev. John Hurt of Virginia, a vet eran of the Revolution, served as chaplain for the army, deriving his authority from a congressional act. He is considered the first chaplain of the army. Chaplains were as signed to regiments during the War of 1812. After that war, the only chaplain in the army seems to have been one at West Point, who also was professor of geography, history and ethics. Concurrent with a new interest in education and religion, the Office of Chaplains was restored by congress in 1837 and post chap lains, charged with the responsibil ity for instruction in lay subjects, were assigned to army installa tions. During the war with Mexico, a chaplain was authorized for each regiment of volunteers. In 1861, regimental chaplains were author ized and Jewish rabbis made eligi ble. During the Revolution, three Catholic chaplains had served. Of three Catholic chaplains who went to Mexico with Taylor’s army, one was killed by guerrillas. Butter Vitamin Tests made by experiment sta tions in 14 leading dairy states showed that creamery butter aver ages more than 15,000 international units of vitamin A to the pound. Butter produced in summer has a third more vitamin A than winter butter. Another point brought out in the investigations was that there is little loss of vitamin A and caro tene when butter is stored com mercially over ordinary periods at usual storage temperatures. Caro tene gives butter its natural yellow color. In the human body it is con verted into vitamin A. That vita min A and carotene of milk and butter are dependent upon the quan tity of carotene in the cow’s diet was demonstrated in the studies. The cow’s principal sources of caro tene are the fresh green pasture grasses and other good quality roughages. Size of Okhotsk Sea Uncle Sam’s warships patrolling the Okhotsk sea are operating on a sweep of water more than a fourth greater in area than Hudson bay. The Okhotsk sea is the northern most of the five large seas washing the eastern shores of Asia. About 1,600 miles from northeast to southwest and about 800 miles wide at its widest, the Okhotsk sea is framed by Russian and Japanese territories. This land frame is com posed of the Russian mainland on the west and north; Russia’s spear like Kamchatka peninsula and the curving chain of Japan’s Chishima (Kurile) islands on the east; Ja pan’s big island of Hokkaido on the south; and the fish-shaped Russo- Japanese island of Sakhalin on the southwest. Making Fine Butter From Milk of Dairy Goats While the f:.l globules in goal’s milk are small, cream can be ob tained from goat’s milk and it will make good butter. The cream can be obtained by the use of a cen trifugal separator or by gravity creaming. The best method of gravity cream ing is to place the milk in a deep container held in cold water and re move the cream 24 to 36 hours later. Keep the cream cold until churned and stir when additional cold cream is added. The churning process should require about 30 to 40 minutes when the churn is properly filled and operated. If it comes too slow the temperature should be raised. The churning temperature should usually vary be tween 52 to 60 degrees F. in the summer and 58 to 06 degrees F. in the winter. Satisfactory cottage che< re and American cheese can also l e made from goat’s milk. In some places the flavor of cheese from goats is much preferred above these prod ucts made from cow’s milk. Coal Formed From Planls By Storing of Elements Plants, by their past activities, have made the world’s fuels: peat ard. more important, coal. Briefly the -tory of the source of the lat ter’s energy is this: Long ago the sun shone on the leaves of prehistoric green plants growing probably on swamp ground. Some of the radiant energy was absorbed by the green leaf ,••• d used in the manufacture of carbohydrates. The plant consumed much of carbohydrates in the course of its life, but some, undergoing slight chemical changes, became part of the woody framework of the plant. The tree died and fell into the mud. Before decay of the wood ; v as complete, the plant was em- I aimed and carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, originally united by the sun’s energy and plant’s activity, remained united, and the plant re mair became still further carbon ized The energy derived from the sun m mained thus dormant until in the furnace of the steam engine, the coal unites with oxygen, re-forms carbon dioxide and water, and lib erates the long-stored energy. G.I. Chapels When soldiers go overseas to com bat areas or occupied territory, they still go to church. Sometimes their chapel is a permanent one. Other times there is a temporary or semi-permanent one built of sal vage materials by the loving volun teer labor of the men themselves They remember the comfort and simple dignity of the small, slant roofed chapels they attended in the United States. Many of these over seas chapels are memorials. One was built in a Bougainville jungle in honor of a 19-year-o!J Texas sol dier, first of the infantry battalion to lose his life on the island. In the Solomons stands a chapel which v/as built by 4,000 natives. Of thatch and native woods, in the shape of a huge heart with a cross in the center and with a hand-carvcd mother-of-pearl inlaid altar, it has been presented to the American peo ple in honor of the 1,600 war dead who gave their lives on Guadal canal. Fashions in Spectacles Spectacles first came into use in Europe late in the 13th century. At first the lenses were set in hinge shaped frames of horn, leather and even wood, says the Better Vision institute. In time spectacle frames began to be made of gold and sil ver, often elaborately engraved. The first spectacles had to be held in the hand before the eyes when being used. Queen Elizabeth is said to have been the fir3t person in Eng land to have a pair cf spectacles with a nose-piece. Nearly two cen turies elapsed after the invention of spectacles before they could be hooked on the ears, thus enabling a person to use spectacles for daily ac tivities, as well as reading. New Screen After protracted interference pro ceedings in the patent office to de termine priority of invention—pro ceedings in which there were sev eral contenders—patents have been issued to Harry W. Thomas and Wil liam Dubilier for a nylon window screen which may well displace screens of metal wire after the war. If a hole is made in such a sceeen with a pencil or any other sharp in strument it will disappear merely by working the material with the fingers. The government is now us ing about 50,000,000 yards of this •elf-healing screen material. Each thread has a series of regularly recurring obtuse crimps in alternately opposite directions so as to form a succession of oppositely directed troughs. After a hole is made in the screen and the fingers do their work, the displaced threads slip back into their proper troughs and stay there, so that the screen looks just as it did before. Without the crimps there would be no troughs, and the displaced threads could not find their original places. Fashion: Something that goes out of style as soon as everybody has one. The weak sex is often the stronger sex because of the weakness of the stronger sex for the weaker sex. Burbank's Contributions To Agricultural Progress Luther Burbank, born in Massa chusetts in 1849, died in Santa Rosa in 1926. During his working lifetime he contributed or introduced more plants than any other single Amer ican in our history. Many of his productions have been of great im portance to agriculture, past and present. He was not connected with a learned institution and had little scientific training. While engaged as a market gardener in Massachusetts about 1870, he attempted to improve his vegetables by crossing varieties, but because he did not then know the importance of continuing his crosses the second and third gen erations, his early efforts failed. He is perhaps best known for the development of the Burbank potato, which with further improvements is now the famous Idaho potato. The developments of plums were, how ever, his most valuable contribution. Like Thomas Edison, Burbank was a self-made man. He had about 11 years of school before the death, of his father. When he sold his Bur bank potato, he took the money and, braving family disapproval, migrated to California in 1875. He introduced over 200 varieties of fruits alone, consisting of apples, blackberries, raspberries, strawber ries, fruiting cacti, cherries, figs, grapes, nectarines, peaches, pears and plums. Fuel Saved by Proper Upkeep and Stoker Care Following are some important suggestions made by stoker authori ties for the proper care of stokers: (1) a. Take out unburned coal and' ash from retort (fire pot), b. Take from hopper unused coal and re place with oiled sawdust, c. Oper ate stoker and remove coal re maining in worm. d. Replace with oiled sawdust that you put in hop per. e. Run stoker until retort is full. f. Let sawdust remain until stoker is used again in fall. g. Oiled sawdust prevents rust. (2) Examine firebox; look for burned-out tuyeres. (3) Clean fly-ash from windbox. (4) Check draft control operation and setting. (5) Paint inside of hopper. (6) a. Finish the job by cleaning heating plant and chimney, b. Take down smoke pipe for summer, to avoid rust holes, c. Paint pipe to prevent rust-corrosion. Sun Aids Vitamins Tomatoes grown in the sun on healthy plants are considerably richer in vitamin C than those grown in the shade. Tomatoes pro duced outdoors have more C than those from greenhouses. Tomatoes gathered from the garden after a sunny spell will offer more vitamin C to family meals than those rip ened during dark weather. Tests by scientists at state experiment sta tions show that the intensity of light on the plant during growth is of more importance in increasing this vitamin than any other factor yet discovered. Sunshine alone, how ever, is not enough. Undernour ished, thirsty plants, suffering from loss of foliage, are likely to produce poor - quality, sun - burned fruit. Plants that are unevenly watered or have too much moisture at one time and drouth at another are also poor in quality, even in sunny locations. Sunshine can add C value only if other conditions are favorable for the plant, nutritionists say. Colombian Fossils In paleontological excavations in the Magdalena valley region in Co lombia, Dr. R. A. Stirton of the Uni versity of California brought back specimens of 26 different kinds of mammals, and numerous birds, snakes and reptiles. Among the im portant finds were a giant crocodile, one of the largest ever found; an ancient giant armadillo-like animal known as a glyptoden, which has a shell like a turtle; and a rare fos sil monkey of the Tertiary period. The Upper Magdalena valley region, now a semi-desert, was once com posed of lush savannas along the margin of the river which occasion ally overflowed and left huge mud banks. Some of the fossils uncov ered by Dr. Stirton plainly tell the story of how the animals crawled from solid ground onto the mud flats, probably trying to reach the water, and were caught in the soft silt. Rids Silverfish Arsenic will destroy silverfish but you have to serve it in an at tractive way. Mix 1% cups of oat meal with % teaspoonful white ar senic, '/2 teaspoonful granulated sugar and V* tablespoonful table salt. Add enough water to moisten, mix thoroughly, then dry. Pulver ize by grinding or beating into small particles and scatter in hiding places of the silverfish—in book cases, linen closets, back corners of clothes closets, under large floor rugs and behind stacks of books, papers and magazines. Caution: Do not put this mixture where pets or chil dren can get to it—it is poisonous. Never tell a woman you' are un worthy of her. Let her find it out herself. Commercial production of petro leum was first recorded in Rumania in 1857'. It was first produced in the United States in 185!).