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VOL, 1 I J* *$ The TOMAHAWK, QV$. ff, BBAUL1EU Ptfblisfwr. White Earth Agency, Minn, 1WA WEEKLY NEWSPAPER Dan'l B. Henderson, Att'y. de voted to the interests of the White Earth Reservation and gen eral Northwestern News, Publish ed and managed by members of the Reservation, Subscription rates: $1,50 per annum. -For the convenience of those who may feel unable to pay for the paper yearly or who wish to take it on trial, subscription may be sent us for six and three months at the yearly rates. AH sums sent to us should be forward ed by registered letter to insure safety. Address all communica tions to. THK TOMAHAWK WHITE EARTH, MINN. RESERVATION LANDS. TO LEASE 100,000 acres of first class farm lands on White Earth Reservation, in tracts of 80 acres and more. For full particulars address THE TOMAHAWK. INDIAN PROTECTIVE Association 200 Bond Building Washington D. C. Indian claims against the Unit- ed StatevS a-speciality.' Gus H. Beaulieu Local Representative White Earth, Minn. K. S. MURCHISON. ATTORNEY AT LAW. LATE LAW CLERK, LAND DIVISION, INDIAN OFFICE. DEPARTMENT PRACTICE A SPECIALTY. LOAN AND TRUST BLD'G. WASHINGTON D. C. Hotel Leecy. White Earth, Minn. The Largest and Host Commodious Hotel on the Reservation. Table always bountifully supplied with everything that the market affords, including game and fish in season. A large and comfortable, Feed and Livery stable in connection with Hotel. JOHN LEECY Prop. Selam Fairbanks, Dealer in DRY GOODS, GROCERIES, HARDWARE and Lumbermen Supplies. Market price paid for Ginsing Snake Root and Furs. Orders for pure Maple-Syrup, and wild rice promptly attended to. BEAULIEU MINN. Page /e Cas^SfisKaT[/*1** tanr jCJftys -J&. tw^^r., ?5,"|*7 LfKv THE INDIAN BOARDING SCHOOLS. N0HESERVATJON SCHDOl THE NEED OF TJJE HOUB. In our wsue of M&rteh Ktk, we had occasion to make sonae ob-, servations anent the rumor that1 Mr. J. F. House, Supemor of' Indian Schools, had recommended the abolition of the Wild Rice and Pine Point boarding schools. This era seems to be one of change, there seems to be that on the air which seeks transition from the old to the new, for now rumor hath it, that a sentiment is rasing looking to the abolition of non reservation Indian schools. As we said regarding Mr. House's position, so we say now regarding the rumor concerning the abolish ment of non-reservation schools, "we hope it is incorrect." The betterment of the Indian peo ple it seemsto us demands education on broad lines,and methods should proceed on varient lines. We still hold to the opinion that schools at various points within a reservation are necessary, but it also goes without saying that institutions devoted exclusively to thorough industrial training, and higher ed ucation in letters and culture are necessary outside of reserva tions. The younger children need the schools that are near their homes, for many reasons, mainly however that the transition from home life should not be sudden and violent. It should in its course represent tfce primary grades in the common school system, and yet be of insti tutional character and under sur roundings not entirely unfamiliar. There the child though severed from home influences obtains the foretaste of civilizing influences and is lead along by steps into a wider knowledge of arts industrial, and into regions intellectual and moral but there comes a time when the best interest of the young can most highly be subserved by a complete severance from reserva tion environment. Here is the need of the non-reservation schools. The young Indian is of an age to appreciate a higher education and training. He needs a wider sphere of action, a large intercourse with others than of his own tribe and tongue. If he is to be fitted for the serious duties of citizenship he must be given the opportunity to observe social movements in their best. Social life in all that it im plies anywhere, needs influences from without, and much more can this be said of the social life of re servations. The young man and the young woman, these need to be sent out where they may have the opportunity not only to acquire higher knowledge, but to observe in other words, to obtain that practicality which can come only from wider spheres. This ob tained, they may return to the re servation with high ideals, and create demands for the products of those industries of which they have been students. Supply and demand being equal, prosperity begins, and little by little the monotany and squalor of the old life disappears. But there is an other side to this question. All who know anything of existing things know that just at present, the young Indian entirely trained on the reservation does not find employment suited to his taste and special training. He has no am bition^ as a general rule to seek it elsewhere, and so he remains for the most part an idle factor in the social fabric of humanity. But if he has been given the op portunity to begin the world's 7 ^%^i?^^p j uM.", KMJ i yju .1 I.JJ Hill* .LiJ I wynuiM, 'milBl struggles under competent in structors and away from demora lizing influences, he has an equip ment, equal to society's demand: he hasjacquired an aplomb and self reliance which can gained only by many years of association with white people. With this, an# a complete mastery of some trade or' profession, and possessing that sentiment which has come gradu ally, that, "a man's a man for a' that," he feels that the world ow ing him a living should proceed to pay its debt, and, the reservation failing to provide ^m/n the oppor-i tunity at plying his craft or prac ticinghis profession,there are other localities that can. By all means give the Indiana the cosmopolitan ism if he1 wishes it. He is deserving of it past years of oppression and ostracism demand it as a just re* compense. The non-reservation school, and a school at that of the highest class is the need of the hour, there fore we .say to the department which has charge of the Indian, hold fast to the non-reservation school, do not abandon it, but rather, seek toejevate it. 600D THING. Sue* is the Home for the Aged One of the institutions on this reservation, which seems to have become a permanent thing, is the home for the aged Indians of this reservation. The large building on the hill, formerly used as a school house and afterwards as the agents office, but which has been idled for a number of years, has been through ly remodeled and converted into a home, and has ,Jpeen used for this purpose for over two months past. During the severe cold weather of the past winter many very old Indian men and women were com fortably housed there, they thus escaped the hardships which would have been their inevitable lot had they remained in their homes. The home is under the very ef ficient management of Miss Blanche Lyons, who is the matron, and she is ably assisted by Mrs. Mary McMartin. WANT MAJOR SCOTT. He Was Their Agent Before and They KnowHim. In a recent communication from Charles D. Armstrong, an influen tial and progressive member of the Wisconsin bands of Chippewa Indians,tothe publisher of the TO- MAHAWK, in referance to the fight now being made against Maj. Scott, he states that the Indians under Un charge of the Ashland Indian Agency, in Wisconsin, have been contemplating petitioning to the government for the return of the Major to that agency, where he formerly acted as agent, if those who are trying to secure his re moval from Leech Lake are suc cessful. This speaks well for the confi dence and esteem in which Major Scott is held by the Indians where ever he has been as Indian agent, and whatever may be the the out come of the fight against him now he will still retain their confidence and friendship. If he is removed, however, from Leech Lake, the Indians there will undoubtedly feel that the administration has no use for any Indian agent who tries to do his duty in the protection of the interests of the helpless people under his charge, and these senti ments will be shared by all the Indiaas on the several reservations in this state. ^^^trw^^^^M' 1? WHITE EARTH, BECKER COUNTY, MINNESOTA, THURSDAY, APRIL 30, 1903, NO. 4, m*r*mm OUR WASHIGNTON COR RESPONDENT, Washington, D. April, 14, 1908. To the Editor of the TOMAHAWK: I was pleased this morning by the receipt of the initial number of "THE TOMAHAWK." In mechanical executiom "THK TOMAHAWK" is -excellent and at tractive, while its announcements are expressions of truth, patriot ism, and of commendable devotion to the rights and interests of all American Indians, especially to those public and private policies, which ever tend to encourage in dustrial success and to promote conditions of the broadest liberty, peace andBiappiness. I have given the situation and treatment of the Indians, much thought and study, and am not un familiar with the many greivous wrongs they have been compelled to endure. Under the administra tion of the affairs of tin* Govern ment, the political status of thoj Indians has been anomalous, in^ definable, samd peculiar, possessing the power and disposition to hold! them, in subjection and subserv-i ancy yet, in a limited sense, rec ognizing them as independent. In other words, treating with them us sovereigns while reserving and exercising the right to alter^amend and even disregard the obligations, of such solemn Agreements. Com-! polled to live under such a system of 'independent dependency,'' with no forum tx* which they could apiea at will, with an,y assurance of reliefs or protection in many in stances, they soon became the easy prey of designing evil and greed of evarice: which for years, through superior intelligence have deprived them of their holdings, and encouraged a political policy, which has, so long oppressed and wronged them. In view of these facts of which history is so replete, I have long been puzzled to account for the fact, of why the various Indian Nations have not sooner awakened to the power, importance, and necessity of well conducted newspapers to keep them posted and advised as to their true interests and rights and to boldly defend them. Many grave questions as to property rights of the Indians are still undetermined, which imper atively demand the intelligent watchfulness of the press to sound the alarm of the approach of dan ger, and no sentinels are worthier of performing such an important service than newspapers ably and faithfully edited and published by members of the respective tribes. Entertaining most earnestly the foregoing views as to the many flagrant wrongs and injuries to which the Indians have long been subjected, I heartily commend the spirit you exhibit in entering the field of public journalism as the publisher of "TUB TOMAHAWK" devoted to the interest of the Chip pewa Indians of Minnesota, and bespeaks for it a career of splendid success. J. L. BULLOCK, The writer of the foregoing is a prominent attorney of Washing ton, D.C., and who, until recently, was for a number of years the at torney for the Osage Indians. He is throughly informed regarding the status of the Indians and for this reason we are pleased with his communication, and we hope that he will in the future be one of our regular contributors. HITS THE BULL'S EYE. The Pioneer Press, which has always been onev of the fairest newspapers in the state respecting the interests the Indians^in re fering to the 'opposition of the TOMAHAWK to .the Clapp amend ments in the Indian appropriation act of this year, sums up the situa in this wise.: The "ToMAnAWK" is the name of a new tpaper just established at White Earth Minn., as "the organ of the Chippewa Indians." It is published by Gus. H. Beaulieu, well known as an influential character among hist ribs men. Its foremost present ambition would appear to be to "tomahawk" the Clapp amendmentsftthe Indian appropriation act, winch provide for the opening to settlement of the west ern portion of the Red Lake reservation The main'objection seems to lie, first, to the deferred payments for land, al lowed under the act, and second, to the requirement that the I ndians shall grant to 1 he State of Minnesota, for school purposes, sections IB and'MShv each township. It is claimed that a similar provision for deterred pay ments, in the Nelson law, has resulted in a failure on the part of the Indians to receive payment for lands sold eight years ago,so tluit they are losing annu ally at least *30,000 on a fund which should now be yielding tlieinJipcr cent per annum. As to the donation of two sec-toons in each township to the stato. the Indians who oppose ac ceptance of the amendments cannot see why they should give to Minnesota lands valued at between sixty and seventy-fix thousand dollars, for no] other apparent consideration than the' privilege of selling the remainder of theiandsto the highest bidder. Al though the provisions of the Clapp act have seemed to the Pioneer Press the most liberal of any terms ever yet offered for the acqusition of Indian lands in Minnesota, it seems that the memory of thedeceitsand wrongs prac ticed undf previous actsparticular ly in extending the time of deferred payments regardless of the original agreement under the Nelson lawis operating stongfJy to prevent lie ac ceptance of the Clapp act by the In dians. Without such acceptance the lands cannot be opened to settlement* So may the would-be settlers oi to day be made to suffer for the misdeeds ot the whites in other yeco*. Clean, straightforward justice to the Indi an from the beginning would liaxe been a paying poMcy* Means, how exer, mav be found of so assuring the Indians that no icpctetion ol previous wrongs will occur that a majority of them will ''touch the pen" and ratify the act.. The Indian Right and Wrong. &jT"We hold hesc truths to be self1 evident that ALL !N ie created equal that they are endowed by hoii Cleator with certain unalienable rights that among these, aie LIFK, LIUBUTY, AND TIII I'VIIUVIT OF IIAI'- 1'INKSS"- Declaration of Independence July 4th, 1TTO. FOREST RESERVATION CHIPPEWA TRACT. MINNESOTA** HISTORICAL SOCIETY. ON Secretary Hitchcock Approves Setting Aside 200,000 Minnesota Acres. Washington, IX C, April 23,The secretary of the interior today ap proved the plans made by the forester of the agricultural department under the Morris act providing for the crea tion of a forest reservation of 200,000 acres in the Chippewa Indian reserva tion in Minnesota. The plans presented set aside cer tain area in the vicinity of Lake Win nebegoshish and open to settlement all the reservation outside the limits of that area. The timber on the for est reserve land is to be sold for the benefit of the Indians.- St, PaUl Globe. Yes! And for this land which, under the law of 1889, and the agreement between the United States and the Chippewas of Min nesota, the government agreed to sell for one dollar and twenty five cents per acre for the benefit of the Chippewas, not one cent will be received, and the Indians will tttttmmm^mmtm have to bear the burden of the forestry ^experiments of the gover nment to the extent of being com pelled to give up their' lands for that purpose. In addition to this, five per cent of all the pine timber thereon will be allowed to remain standing, which will also be a total loss to the Indians, and aaother compul sory donation to the government. Although the Indians are ac customed to this kind of treatment at the hands of the government they are growing uneasy under a repetition of it, and tltey feel that it should at least complete giving them their allotments ibefore open ing any more of the lands to settle ment. UNNECESSARY ALARM. It is reported that Mr. Gus Nor by, representative the right of way agentlof the Sow HaiJroad Com pany, has informed certain mem bers of this reservation that the company has obtained a right of way through this^reservation from the government without regard to the rights of the tribe, or the al lottees of the lands over which the railroads will pass, and that they will receive no compensation for the same. This is such an absurd proposi tion that xxx' very much doubt its authenticity. The company will not and cannot ignore the rights of the allottees any more than it could the right of -a homesteader outside of this reservation. If it should attempt to follow the prevailing custom of ignoring the rights of the Indians the latter have their remedy the *att.e as any other, citiaem The Secretary of the Interior has no more right to grant a right of way over the allotment of an Indian without the latter\s consent than he would have to grant a similar right over the homestead of a citizen outside of a reserva tion in fact his authority is limit ed to the approval of any conces sion that allotees may make to the railroad companies* It is only in the event that an allottee and a rail road company c-annot agree upon a settlement that the secretary call appoint referees to make awards* If the allottee is dissatisfied with an award he can appeal by peti tion to the United States district court in which the land is situated, and the judgement for damages rendered by that court shall be final. In view of the Act of Congress of March 2, 1SH0, providing for rights of way by railroad com panies through Indian reserva tions, xve need have no fear that any railroad company is going to ignore the rights of the Indians, for their rights are amply pro tected by the Act. The notices which are now being served on the allottees on this reservation, over whose allotments the roads are go ing to be built, are simply in com pliance with the act referred to, which provides that this must be done as a preliminary step towards securing the right of way over allotments. Notice JUNE 14 JUNE 14. In order to make the necessary arrangements for the next annual fourteenth of June celebration here, everybody is requested to attend a meeting which will be held at the White Earth Hall at 2 P. M. and 8 P. M. on the 30th of this month for that purpose. Conditions are such that an effort should be made to make the com ing anniversary celebration one of the largest that has ever been held.