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W I a 1 I I -'A WO UTON1 AR1TAL ^as an age-old defensive outwork of western civilization. Vienna was a vil lage before the Christian era, an out post of Roman civilization, and within its walls one of the noblest of the Ro man emperors diedMarcus Aurelius, in the year 180, and the password which he gave from his deathbed was "Aequanimitas." When Europe, re adjusted to renewed efforts of civiliza tion after an infusion of Germanic blood, started again with freshened strength upon its destiny, Vienna be came the guaranty of its security to ward the East, says the National Ge ographic Society. Vienna has its charms of age, of beautiful situation and of a delightful tolk-character. If lies some two miles distant from the "Blue Danube," upon the river Wien, which gives the city its name. It is builded in two con centric circles within, the old town, with its public buildings and private residences, still the aristocratic heart of the empire and without, the resi dential and manufacturing suburbs. Where the old fortifications once stood now runs one of the most impressive boulevards to be found the world aroundthe Ringstrasse. Splendor of the Ringstrasse. In massive lengths, there stretches around this street such an array of structures as have probably never been equaled upon a single thorough fare before. There are vistas of un surpassed architectural -plendor along this demarcation of old and new Vi enna, and the solid stone and masonry piles are brought into a friendly re lief by the broad avenue, handsome parks and large, airy squares. A city with such avenues as the Ringstrasse must perforce react upon its people, accustomed to daily associations with its chaste beauty, to inspire in them the elegance which is its own. Among the war capitals of Europe, Vienna, Franz Josefs Kaiserstadt, the home of pleasure and of the most sor rowing of emperors product of the East and the West, with the one lis some and dreamy, with the other hope ful and sentimental gray-wise, gra cious, light-hearted, brilliant Vienna according to the wondering reports of the correspondentsis the least in clined to break with gayety, to sink into the heavy lethargy and depression of the stern business of war. The Vi ennese have spent centuries in prac ticing under all conditions the arts of happiness. They have learned to mock at overearnestness, at fearfulness, at the serious courting of dreariness in the guise of duty. Friendliness, sentiment, beauty, jgrace and music on every hand con ypire to make Vienna the "Lotus-flow er City" of the earth. "There is only one imperial city," the Viennese say, "and that city is Vienna." i Like Washington, more an accom- THE. SCHWPVRZENBtRGPLATi, VIENNA HEN Petrograd was a swamp and Berlin was a straggling procession of huts in the midst of a hopelessly mel ancholy sand waste, Vienna plishment of careful planning than the outcome of unconscious growth, Ber lin, third greatest among the war capitals and sixth among the cities of the world, is a solid city of splendid spacing, where everything is of plas ter, asphalt, steel and cement, and where everything is new. Prior to the war it was the first city in Europe for revelry. Life never ceased upon its central streets. When the hurrying crowds of workers sought their places of employment in the morning, they regularly met a throng, heavy-lidded and leisurely, going home. There is a saying that the genuine Berliner never sleeps. However this may be, there are always places for him to go in this city where theaters, concert halls, cabarets, dance halls, cafes and simi lar places are of luxurious growth. Seat of the imperial court and par liament, a focal point of German sci ence, art and general culture, home of German military art, financial center of the empire, rich in manufactures, and one of Europe's greatest marts for international exchange, Berlin is a place of international significance ranking with London. BIRD'S-EYE.VIEW or BERLIN Enjoyment Under Protection. In this city there is pleasure on every hand, and all ill chance is elimi nated by the government. A man may not be robbed by cab drivers, hotels, shopkeepers, or by his servants. He may not walk over railway tracks, and it .is illegal for him to block the path of street traffic to his and its detr! ment in other words, he is without the law when successfully exposing himself to the dangers of vehicular collision. A jealous system of laws and of police regulations are met at every turn for his protection. Berlin has a Luna park, brought to the capital on the Spree by an Ameri- can. The same lavish use of bright paints and brighter lights are found in it that characterize our original Luna parks, but the shoot-the-chutes, the scenic railways and so on have been modified by the police until not even a thrill remains, much less an element of danger. TJnter den Linden (Under the Lin dens) is the heart of Berlin. It is one of the most impressive avenues in the world and, only about five-eighths of a mile in length, it is one of the very widest streets to be found in any city (198 feet), and on its sides are massed two double lines of massive architecture. It is a thoroughly cos mopolitan street, upon which every tongue is spoken and where each hu man variation may be seen. Berlin lies upon the languid little Spee, a dull stream in the midst of a flat, melancholy sand waste. Though very new in both its imperial and metropolitan dignities, the city is yet a place of wonderful libraries, museums, art collections and statuary. Its streets, squares, granite buildings and parks are filled with some of the sculptor's and modeler's noblest work. For the most part, these plastic works breathe martial spirit. fl fl THE TBMAHAWK, WHITE EARTH. MINN. Most Difficult of All Studies By Hepry Sherman Knox, Evantton, III. least two years of college work in a reputable college. The study of medi- cine itself covers four years of nine months each, and some medical schools now require an additional year as an interne in a hospital. This makes seven years of study for one who already has a high-school education. After graduation from a medical school, every graduate must take a state board examination. The study itself is very difficult, and the hours of study in a medical, school are usually from nine in the morning to 5:30 in the evening, six days a week. A great deal of home study is required. The cost of tuition and books is usually about $200 a year. The student must have a tendency toward philosophy and psychology and the study of human nature, in order to be able to go into the details of modern medicine. Especially if he has to work his way through, ho must possess determination and perseverance. He must tend strictly to his studies and must sacrifice a great many pleasures. He should realize that the medical profession is a noble one, and that there are higher things in life than the mere pursuit of money. From a financial standpoint the medical profession is a poor one, considering th money and time that must be invested in the study. The average physi- cian, contrary to the prevailing idea, does not make more than a lair living, and a great many well-educated physicians have a hard time tu make even that. The prospective medical student must also have in mind that he must remain a scholar and student through his whole life, and that when he graduates he has only a very limited, more or less theoretical knowledge of the practice of medicine. If anyone thinks he can fulfill these requirements, it is well for him to take up the study of medicine, otlierwise I would not advise him to do it, as statistics show that only about two-thirds of all the students who take up the study of medicine ever graduate and enter practice. Old Newspapers are Made Useful By O. Barrington. Poplar Bluff. Mo. dislike. It's the ink used in printing the type that makes the moths stay away. That is why, in the absence of moth-proof bags and cedar chests, some housewives pack their furs and woolens away wrapped in newspapers at the end of the winter season and find that is a satisfactory way of pre- serving them against the ravages of moths. There is nothing better than old newspapers for use under the carpets for the same reason. Old newspapers have many other uses as well. Wet in water, they serve to clean out the stove splendidly. Crushed newspapers are excellent to clean lamp chimneys- They can even be used for an iron holder for an emergency. Newspapers dipped in lamp oil are usei'ul for cleaning windows. Irons not much soiled can be rubbed on old newspapers and thus mada lit for use. Dipped in lamp oil, they are splendid to rub the outside of the dishpan. They keep it bright and shining. To^ in shreds, slightly damp- ened and scattered over the carpet, they keep down dust when sweeping. They clean the sink of its grease and sediment nothing is better, for the greasy paper can be at once burned after use. Many times folded newspapers will serve as a mat to stand hot and blackened pots or kettles on and save soiling the kitchen table. The kitchen stove is kept bright after the cooking of each meal with old papers, and this saves many polishings. Manly Qualities AdmiredbyWomen By ANNE RUSH, Baltimore, Md. That's the reason foreigners make such headway with American women. They never forget to be deferential and courteous, to say the little things and to do the little things that warm the cockles of the feminine heart. This may be all wrong. Perhaps she ought to appreciate the character more than the veneer. But she doesn't. The average woman isn't prac- tical. She's romantic. She likes roses and bonbons. Many men give her cabbage and beefsteak. Cabbage and beefsteak are all right, but as a steady diet they are tiresome. She'll take less cabbage and beefsteak if thereby she may have some roses and bonbons. A woman likes a man to look healthy and to be well groomed. She likes a vigorous body, a healthy skin and a look that betokens a daily acquaintance with the fbath Reading of Poetry Is very Desirable By F. B. Endicott, Portland, Ore. from barbarism to such culture as is afforded by letters, that the reading of poetry is so much needed. In the first place, we are apt today to-place too much stress upon the merely material things of life we need something to counteract this tendency. Poetry does this to a greater degree than iny other kind of reading poetry strives to express the ideal. Again, because of the use of the telephone, typewriter, phonograph and other mechanical devices,, we of this age are falling into easy and therefore slovenly methods of expression. Poetry, because of its limita- tions^ to rule and form, necessarily cultivates the art of correct and epi- grammatic expression. As our mental habits are largely formed by our reading, we evidently need poetry more than ever. Besides, poetry makes for a better rhythmic sense, a Crier perception of beauty and a higher culture generally nPFFPTIX/F PAGF Unquestionably the mot difficult of all studies is that of medicine. The re quirements for admission to the first-class medical schools is a complete high school education and at The mere fact that motha cannot read is no reason why they should detest newspapers, but they dc nevertheless. It isn't ex actly the newspaper or it! editorial policy that motha A woman likes pleasing manners in a man. She likes deference and courtesy and attentiveness in small things. Manners often make more of an appeal to her than sterling worth. tub, not merely because she likes beauty, though she does, but because these things betoken good habits. A woman, if she is a wife or a sweetheart, likes expressions of love. She gets tired of taking a man's love for granted. It grows faint and far- away, and life is cold and commonplace, when he does not tell her in actual words he loves her, and show her by actual caresses how much. To some men this seems all foolishness. They think that paying bills is the best proof of theiT love. But again, most women are not practical, and bills are uninteresting things, not half so enjoyable or warm and vital a3 a kiss or a caress. I wonder how many people read poetry! 1 fear not nearly so great a num ber, proportionately, as for merly, and yet there is no age in the history of the world, since men emerged OFgreatereEimportancseowillnOthsT 3eems certain that most fertile tract of the earth's surtace is destined to re gain its ancient position as the gran ary of the world. This legendary cradle of the race It contains the supposed site of the 3arden of Edenbears a name strict ly descriptive of the country, set as It is "in the midst of rivers," the four streams of EdenPison (now a flood ed swamp west of Babylon), Gihon (now the Hindia branch of the Eu phrates), Euphrates proper and Tigris. For thousands of years one majes tic civilization after another flowered hi this region, but for many cen turies past the beauty of life has been fading, until now not oifly Eden but almost the whole of Mesopotamia has become an arid waste crying aloud for the renewal of youth. If Mesopotamia comes under British control it' is probable that its regen eration will be brought about by some such scheme as the magnificent plan of irrigation and flood control proposed by Sir William Willcocks, who de clared he could re-create the Garden of Eden and make the hanging gar dens of Babylon blossom again like the rose. Hopes for Its Future. Writing in the Missionary Review of the World, Dr. Arthur K. Bennett of Busrah, Arabia, says: Mesopotamia is a country north of Arabia proper, which though peopled by Arabs today dates back to the civi lization which was in its glory three thousand years before Christ. Here is the seat of ancient Babylon, the Queen City of the Earth, the metropo lis of literature and art for all the nations of the then known world. To day excavations have revealed a sys tem of canals which told of its won derful fertility and researches in its ruins during the last half-century have brought forth the prose and poetry of that marvelous civilization. Inhabited by such glorious peoples, it stands to day a desolate place in comparison, surrounded by wide wilderness and waste, and only peopled along the river by a few straggling Arab cities here and there. There are many reasons which lead me to hope that Mesopotamia has a NO ZRA 'S TOMB E BANK OF THE: TIGR IS all th problems territorial distribution that follow the war, perhap none i of tha fu ture of Mesopotamia, for it CORACLE: WITH GRA IN CAR GO luture of marvelo-is development be fore it when they shall adopt western methods and progress. Indeed, it is fascinating employment as Hermith Freeman says, to watch the immemo rial culture of the East, slow moving with the weight of years, dreamy with centuries of deep meditation, accept and assimilate as in a moment of time, the science, the machinery, the rest less energy and practical activity of the West. Geographically there is no doubt but that within the last five thousand years the great delta caused by the confluence of the three great rivers, the Euphrates, Tigris and Karoon, has gradually .pushed its way into the Per sian gulf, until over two hundred miles of the t,-'alias been replaced by land. Frazer, in ulz iecent Duck, "The Short Cut to India," says that these rivers at the jmeseftt time advance the land frm the silt they deposit to not less than eighty feet per annum. Sir Wil liam Willcocks says that undoubtedly many of the ancient cities of Babylon were very close to if not directly' on the Persian gulf, while the ruins of these cities are at the present time from two to three hundred xiiles back from the coast Busrah Once a Seaport. Busrah, the city where oar Arabian mission is established, must have fceen at one time a port on the sea, but is now W miles from the mouth of the -mm la CANARY VVNNV.A' river and is the terminal port for all lines of steamers plying in the Per sian gulf, and commerce with it is bound to increase. I have counted over twenty large ocean steamships in the Busrah river at one time, wait ing for the shipment of dates. Here the English and Turkish river steam ers ply to and from Bagdad on the Ti gris, and to and from Mohammerah and Ahwaz in Persia on the Karoon river. If you will look up Busrah on the map you will see that it is in a direct line with Kurachee and Bom bay from Constantinople and is on the track of the shortest possible mail route to India, and the railroad which, the future is bound to bring. Seventy five miles of date gardens extend from above Busrah down to the sea on either side of this wonderfully beauti ful river, and twiee daily the gardens are watered by the tidal wave. Sail boats coming down the river for hun dreds of miles are laden with grain, licorice and provisions for sale or ex change at Busrah. In order that the situation may be more real, consider the political as pects which confront us on every hand. Busrah is at present in the maelstrom of political strife many statesmen be lieve that the future battle of diplo macy will not take place in the far East but in the Persian gulf. Natu rally the favored valley of the Euphra tes will be the chief bone of conten tion. Prominent engineers say that there are here sixteen million acres of the finest land in the world, capable of yielding cotton and wheat, or the luxu rious date palm. This land only needs proper care, and does not suffer from a dearth of water, but from the abun dance of it. Floods are of yearly oc currence, ruining crops and discourag ing canals inland. Sir William Will cocks would bridle this immense power in the mountains of Mosul, and by great dams high upon the two rivers. He would then irrigate the country from the Euphrates to the Tigris, and as this former river is about eighteen feet higher than the latter, the situa tion is ideal to use all the Euphrates water for irrigation and the Tigris fo navigation. Apple, the Beautifier. "An apple a day keeps the doctor away," is an old adage, and the same may be said of the orange, as it has (7* i vww/ -.,.ir. an equally fine effect on the entire system. If one is inclined to acidity of the stomach, the juice of an orange is a counter-ir*ftant. If the stomach is weak the juice of an orange oefore breakfast is an excellent tonic for the entire day. If one is dieting to reduce, one or two oranges eaten at noon will nourish, fill the aching void in the stomach and reduce rather than add to the weight. Aa orange always quenches the thirst, and in traveling it is much, safer to eat an orange than to drink Btale water. A hot orangeade before going to bed on a cold night warms the entire body and soothes the nerv ous system. The peel of an orange turown into a hot tub softens the water to the ex tent that the whole body benefits by it For cleansing the face soak a bit of orange peel in a basin of wcrm water, then go carefully over the face with, the peel afterward rinse in thd water in which the peel was soaked. It is far more cleansing than cold cream and never promotes the prowth of hair. In the Abstract. "They contemplate a trip to the Frisco exposition." "That's cheap enough." "What? Why the fare--' "I was speaking of the cor.templa* tion."Philadelphia Public Lsdger.