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Saving Foodstuffs Mrs. Burbank. ]4 Activity of Psychologists One of the Youngest.of Sciences Is of Especial Aid to the Government Psychology, one of the youngest of the sciences, but nevertheless one equipped with standardized methods of experimental procedure, is steadily answering the call to the colors. Eminent scientists from almost every field of knowledge have been summoned to give expert advice or to render continu- ous service as commissioned officers in the army. So heavy has been the levy that several of the Eastern universities have been compelled to cancel all their courses in psychology other institutions are offering only a bare minimum ot courses.' The University of Illinois has been more fortunate in this respect. While several of its psychologists have been called away, the work of the de- partment is pursuing a nearly normal course. Capt. Madison Bentley of the department of psychology has for some time been president of the Cleveland aviation board. His work consists mainly in selecting aviators and examining them for color blindness, certain spatial per- ceptions, dizziness and general mental capacity. Prof. G. M. Whipple has also been asked to assist in formulating suitable mental tests for the selection of drafted men and for men in special lines of training. In addition to the recognition of necessary abilities for the service, prob- lems concerned with the localization of sounds in the air, discrimination of pro- jectiles by sound, and the effects of high altitudes upon the memory are being worked out. Prof. Christian liuckmick, also of the University of Illinois, is serving upon the committee for localization of sounds coming from anx point in the air, under water or in the ground. Since few people .have a sensitive ear to determine the position of an enemy gun by noting the sound of the pro- jectile in its course, apparatus is being worked out for such detection. Work in the cantonments consists in the apprehending of mental defectives and in noting special aptitudes of the men. In this way much waste of time and money for special training can be eliminated. Psychological problems of Incapacity, shell-shock and re-education occupy the attention of another com- mittee, and collaborating with them is a group of psychologists who are study- ing problems of vocational guidance and advice. Still another group has al- ready done important work in determining and devising means to arouse emo-. tions which result in maximum service from the men. By MRS. LUTHER BURBANK Wife of Noted Plant Scientist Did it ever occur to you that eat ing, sleeping and the large consump- i on of certain foods is more of a habit than a ne cessity to sustain life? The man or woman who has been used each morning to his or her ham or ba con, with eggs, will undoubtedly consider it prac tical starvation If asked to forego these habits, yet there are today millions of people on the earth who eat less in two days than you and I consume in one meal, but who are among the health- iest on earth. Study history, look into the life and habits of the an cient Greeks, and you will find that the notions which used the plainest, sim plest and most meager fare were emong the strongest, while those who descended to table habits bordering upon gluttony rapidly retrograded. Why? Because the mind of the glut ton Is a dead mind. He cannot think, his whole body Is sluggish, the organs arc so clogged that they are unable to function properly and the result is physical and mental decay. Eating is matter of habit. We In America, the great land of plenty, have been accustomed to eat what we wished. For generations it has been the same until, from simplicity of eat ing, we have bordered closely onto ex cess. This Is not true of everyone. America Is not nation of gluttons, but I do maintain that, on an average, we Americans consume perhaps twice ns much as Is necessary to sustain life, and that this very ovorconsurap tlon has been the cause of more illness, more doctors* bills and more suffering than any other one cause. In all life we are creatures of her edity. When Mr. Burbank wishes to produce new flower he looks back Into the past ages and finds all about the ancestors of that flower. He dis covers that a flower which had once been fairly hardy and able to with stand rigorous winters, has become a delicate plant which must be tenderly nourished, or It will die. This con dition is brought about through cen turies of pampering. It has been ar tificially cared for, well watered, and thoroughly fertilized with the result that nature has not been called upon to give it protection. And so 1( Is with us. We have been reared in a land of plenty a land of vast crops and rich food and, we have become soft. The savage who depends on his acute sense of smell, keen vision, and fleetness of foot for his daily food Is a wonderful animal. Nature provides him with all these essentials to sustain life. Take that same savage from his wild en vironments and daily struggle with life, place him In surroundings of plenty, and in two or three genera tions his descendants will have lost all of those wondrous senses their an cestor had developed. The American Indian is the most striking example of this we have today. With these few facts before us let ns now look into those little prac tices of saving which we all believe In trying to put into effect, but which many of us deem Impossible, because habit has made us believe that we can not live without certain things to eat ar.d a certain quantity of each. -fflftfTr d*. Kite Balloons Form Very Important Part of Naval and Military War Forces "The observation balloon has been one of the important discoveries of the year," observes a writer in Aviation, who continues: "Its value is Indicated by the rapid growth of both personnel and craft. It is found today on every front, and almost every mile of that front, for the excellent reason that It has proved in dispensable to the modern army in the field. "The observation kite balloon, as at present used, was the Invention of Captain von SIgsfeld and Major von Parseval of the German army, and the craft was constructed by the Par seval Airship company. The British army got Its first idea of the kite bal loon from the Belgians. Early In 1915 Squadron (now Wing) Commander Maitland was so much impressed by the excellent service it was giving the Belgian artillery that he laid a pro posal for similar equipment before the board of admiralty. This was adopt ed, orders for the construction of the craft were placed and the British K-B made its first appearance in the war area in the early spring of 1915. "As then constructed by the British, the balloon was found to be consider ably more reliable than the spherical, being steadier and more airworthy, and therefore more accurate in obser vation. "The great success of the first craft led to a demand for more, and the Bsitish naval authorities made experi ments with them on ships at sea. More and more urgent grew the de mand from both branches of the serv ice, until today kite balloons form an important part of both naval and mil itary forces. "The work of these craft is too wide ly recognized to need repetition, fur ther than to mention the danger to which a captive balloon is exposed from hostile airplanes. There is often not time enough to draw the balloon to the ground when an enemy machine appears, and the only protection is a friendly airplane, or tho ever-ready parachute." Short and Snappy. Misery may love company, but that's the last reason in the world for wanting to be wel comed. The easiest thing in the world to do is to make another man be lieve that he is the victim of the world's injustice. The man who pays as he goes is always asked to make return visits. Some people make themselves as vague as possible and then wall that they arc misunder stood. If liberty is worth dying for it is also worth chipping in for. When the Sun Seems Big. We all know an optical illusion makes the setting sun seem larger and often of an oval shape, but a recent explanation by W. F. Badgley in Popu lar Astronomy of some of the causes which bring this about is Interesting. The atmosphere near the earth's sur face, when hot and dusty, acts as a magnifying glass, so distant objects on the horizon are seen through a thick layer of air, which increases Its size many times. Looking upward, we see through more rarified air, which does not possess the magnifying power. Insect Language. Insects, like birds and animal*, have their calls, naturalists say. But the sounds they produce include the rub bing together of their limbs or wing covers and the vibration of their wings, so they cannot always be spoken of as voices. Flies and bees uuudoubt edly moan something when they bum louder and .louder.Exchange. *****a*****a*aa*'*aa*ana* 1 THE NATIONAL ARMY MAN I'm a National array man My name and number in the van Was call of fate to serve the state As a National army man. Tako notice, Regular and Guard, We pledge that nothing: shall retard Our effort great to emulate Your just fame, sung by every bard. For what Is the great U. S. A.. /Whose call to colors we obey, But hearthflre ray, and old church gray. And the friends we meet every day? And what Is the flag of our choice. At whose flutterlngs we rejoice. But mantel fair, fit for the wear Of the lass with gentle voice? Sans the fire of the volunteer. We pay with all good will and cheer, One duty more, to meet the score We owe to those whom we hold dear,, As a National army man I'm sure that aU my people can Say, when I die. In pride, that I Was a National army man. Courier-JournaL O'Connor Cites History in Connection With Troubles of the People of Ireland If the Irish rebellion had not been followed by Its sequel it would have been by this time forgotten and core demned by the vast majority of tb Irish people but, as a matter of fact, writes T. P. O'Connor in Cartoon? Magazine, when the rebellion was put down by one of those extraordinary blunders so often committed in the management of Ireland by England, dictatorial powers were given into the hands of a soldier of not particularly marked intelligence. He declared he was going to put down sedition an* re bellion In Ireland forever. Well, If he had read any Irish history he would have known that that had been said for six centuries. He then pro ceeded, In secrecy, in the darkness of cells, convicting on evidence not yet published, these unfortunate young men, and then taking them out in batches in the cold, bleak morning and executing them in the back yard of a jail. One of them whs so severely wounded that he had to have planks put on each side of the chair on which he had to sit while he was being shot. All these executions produced a pro found revulsion of feeling In Ireland and in America. Now, that is the beginning of the trouble In Ireland. If you read history you will find that there has never been anything so incalculable in its effects upon the human soul as an execution for an ideal. Talked Too Much. First Club MemberWhat happened to Hallowerby, the expressman? I don't see him around any. more. Second Club MemberOh, we had to put him out he expressed himself too much. X^ THE TDMHHAWIKTWITE IWlW MINN. Another Definition. "What's an ego- tlst?" asked e-Fingered Sam. "An egotist," re plied Broncho Bob, "is a man that 'ml stop a regular card game and ask hands admireall H%* the way i *^SL-~^Hr he plays solitaire." No Royal Cracks. "I wonder why they call golf the 'royal and ancient game?' "I don't know. I never heard of a king who could drive worth a cent." L'Enfant Terrible. 'Tour sister's a long time about mak ing her appearance," ventured the young man who was calling. "Well," answered the kid brother who was temporarily entertaining, "she'd certainly be a sight if she came down without making it!" Looking Into It Mr. Stonlbroke Yes, we've lost all our money, bat it was an act of providence. His WifeDon't pass the buck. It was your acts of Improvidence. Hie Part "My former maid has not been mar ried a year yet, and already she It taking In washing." "What is her husband doing?" "Oh, he's taking in the proceeds." Hist! "I guess we're on the trail," do* dared the great detective. "Yonder l a shepherdess." "Eh?" "Now for the crook.'* Cost of Locomotives. According to a calculation msd^ by an officlnl of the Southern Pacific, the increase In the cost of a Mallet lo comotive over what ^t was two years ago would buy a 160-acre farm at $125 an acre, build a $5,000 residence on It, provide for $2,500 worth of im plements and farm machinery. 25 dairy cows at $75 each, $700 for teams and* wagons, a $1,500 automobile, and still leave $150 for incidentalsand this represents the increase in the cost of only one locomotive.San Francis co Argonaut. Alive with the War Spirit Girl Students of Farmingdale Agricultural School, Long .sland. Felling Trees Female students are laboring industriously at their work, agriculture, to aid the country in carrying out an effective prosecution of the war. Young women are doing a good share of the work while the opposite sex is lend- ing all energy in patriotic endeavor. WAR POULTRY PROGRAM Early hatching, so as to produce fall and winter layers. Careful selection of breeding stock to reproduce a greater percentage of good types and profitable producers. To confine mother hens to brood coops for at least two weeks after the chicks are hatched. To provide free range for both grow ing stock and layers in so far as pos sible to stimulate the growth and pro duction and conserve food consump tion. To preserve eggs when cheap for winter use. Production of infertile eggs as soon as the breeding season Is over. Disposing of surplus cockerels as broilers to conserve grain. To discourage the marketing of all profitable hens of the general-purpose class until the end of their second year and of the Mediterranean class until the end of their third laying year. To discourage the marketing of all thrifty pullets as broilers. To encourage backyard poultry keep ing, especially among city and subur ban dwellers, thereby utilizing table scraps for the production of fowls and eggs for home use. To encourage when conditions per mit the feeding of a wheatless ration. The assistance and co-operation of all poultrymen Is earnestly desired in order to make this campaign effective. Those interested are requested to cor respond with their county advisor or with the poultry represeatatlves in the state for definite information as to how they can assist. Cigarettes as Anesthetic For the Wounded Soldiers There is much difference of opinion as to the effect of cigarettes upon the soldiers who smoke them. A scientific Investigation is said to show that cig arette smoking has direct effect on the heart, decreasing the smoker's ability to do hard work and to resist fatigue. On the other hand there is evidence that cigarettes keep the men up to their tasks. Mrs. Charles H. Farnam, a Long Is land woman, who has Just returned from Serbia, where she spent several years in hospital work and where she earned the rank of sergeant, deliver ed a lecture one night recently In Brooklyn, In the course of which she said: "The soul of life In the Serbian army Is a cigarette. The men go through the greatest agonies If they have cig arettes In their mouths and never think of the pain. In most of the hos pitals there is a shortage of anesthet ics. When a soldier is brought in to be operated on they simply give him a cigarette to smoke during the or deal and he goes through It happily." It Is probable that both views as to the effect arc correct the excessive smoking being bad for the heart, arid the use of the cigarette being sooth ing and strengthening In time of ex citement, trial and pain. The wound ed soldier is always given a cigarette, and seems to be helped thereby to bear his trouble with patience.Mobile Register. Oyster Farm in Salt Lake. Plans have been made to begin the propagation of oysters 1n Bear River bay. Salt lake. Utah, this spring, says Popular Mechanics Magazine. Analy sis has shown that the percentage of salt in the water is practically the same as in ocean oyster beds. ITOESpsg Government Reserves Coal Fields in Alaska to Have a Certain Supply of Fuel Through the work of the genera, land office and the bureau of mines, government reservations have been designated in certain coal fields In Alaska. These reservations are In tended to cover such ground as will provide coal for government use, pro tect the public from Individuals at tempting to monopolize coal lands or extort exorbitant prices for coal, and still offer equally good areas in the best-known parts of the% fields for ex ploration by private enterprise. Experts of the bureau of mines, hav ing to do with this work, state that the leasing units were laid out in com paratively small blocks, which can be worked Individually or combined into larger tracts up to the maximum acre age permitted by law. Attention was given to the amount of probable coal of workable thickness In each of these areas, the relationship of the area to possible transportation lines, the qual ity of the coal and the general condi tions affecting mining. The future of the Alaska coal fields, It is asserted, is still somewhat prob lematical. Along the entire coast the output .will come in direct competition with California oil, the coal fields of Oregon, Washington and British Co lumbia, and with hydroelectric power. Both the Bering river and the Manta nuska fields contain high-grade bitu minous coal suitable for coking and for use in the navy, and the Nenana field contains an excellent lignite, suitable for power or domestic uses, or as a powdered fuel In furnaces. Experiments have proved that coals from other states on the coast have not proved satisfactory for use by the navy. Some^of Many Notable Things That Have Occurred on Friday Washington's birthday anniversary fell on Friday this year, the day of the week on which he was born. A few other notable things occurred on Fri day, among them the following: Shakespeare was born. America was discovered. The Bastille was destroyed. Queen Victoria was married. Napoleon Bonaparte was born. Julius Caesar was assassinated. The battle of Marengo was fought. The battle of Waterloo was fought. The Mayflower Pilgrims were landed. The battle of Bunker Hill was fought. The battle of New Orleans was fought. The Declaration of Independence was signed. Letters by Air Next Summer. An airplane mail service is to be es tablished between Washington, Phila delphia and New York next summer. The post office department already Is calling for bids for five planes. Trips are to be made daily. First-class mail only will be carried in the beginning, and this is only a beginning. The end of the war will,see a tremendous appli cation of the airplane to commercial and other uses, and this will provide employment for the large number of aviators that peace will release from service. Light-Heat Cure. An officer In the Medical Reserve corps states 'that he has found that light and heat, combined alleviate pain better than heat alone. Hence he pre fers an incandescent bulb and reflector to a hot water bottle ns a means of temporarily relieving sufTering. America Buying Feathers From China, Proving t Be As Good Customer as Huns Although the export of feathers (duck, fowl, etc.) from China as a whole has decreased somewhat during^ the past few years owing to the elimi nation of the German buyers, says a Shanghai newspaper, the export of feathers from China to America has shown a great increase since the out break of the war, America having stepped in to take almost the Identical quantity that Germany had previous ly taken. About a million dollars* worth of feathers are exported from Chinese ports yearly, America last year taking about one-third of this quantity, whereas two years previously the American purchases were inconsequen tial. The customs figures show that Kowloon (opposite Hongkong) is the principal port of export for feathers from China, but as the feathers from Kowloon are merely transferred to the British possession of Hongkong, a few miles distant, there is no means of knowing what the ultimate destination was of the very considerable quantity of more than $200,000 worth exported fr*om the City of the Nine Dragons (which is what the Chinese name means). Shanghai itself produces over $100.- 000 worth of feathers for export, whilo the Yangtse port of Wuhu furnishes not far short of $200,000 worth. The buyer of feathers in China must use extreme care or else he will find what has been sold him ostensibly as duck feathers will contain, feathers froin' chickens or other fowls whose feathers are of an inferior quality. Mother's Cook Book The bravest battle that ever was fought Shall I tell you where and when? On thte maps ot the world 1 i not yo'u will find It was fought by the mothers of men. Seasonable Dishes. When ideas seem to be scarce as to food combinations and ode does not know what to serve try some of these: Corn California Style. Mix a can of corn with a chopped green pepper and a half cupful of thick white sauce, well seasoned with salt. Turn Into a buttered casserole and cover with strips of bacon. Bake In the oven until the bacon is brown* Cornbread. Take one pint of white cornmeal, one pint of buttermilk or sour milk, four eggs, one teaspoonful of soda, and one-half teaspoonful of salt. Mix well and bake in muffin pans. The yellow cornmeal may be used as well, and the food content is equally good In yellow and white. Mexican Rice. Put one-half cupful of rice into a hot frying pan with a tablespoonful of olive oil. Cook until the rice IS brown, then add four sliced tomatoes chopped or equal quantity of canned ones with two teaspoonfuls of chilli pepper pulp. Pour in a cupful of veg etable water or tomato juice and sim mer until the, rice is soft. Spaghetti, Meat and Apple Casserole. Cover the bottom of a buttered bak ing dish with well-cooked spaghetti over this put a layer of sausage meat well seasoned, then a thick layer of chopped apple slightly sweetened. Cover with buttered crumbs and bnke until the apple and sausage are cooked. A bit of onion added improves the sea soning. Beef Witn^Vegetables. A*piece of meat from the coarser cuts Jf cooked slowly with a table spoonful of vinegar In the water used to baste It while roasting wfll result in a tender piece of meat. Tdke a few pounds, brown in a little fat, then add the vinegar and water with a clove of garlic, a clove or two, a small chopped onion and salt and pepper to season. Potatoes parboiled may bo added long enough to cook well before, serving time. Baste the potatoes wij the gravy in the pan so that they be brown. First U. S. Soldiers Killed. The first three American soldiers killed In action in France after the arrival of the United States expedi tionary force were Corporal James B. Gresham of Evansvllle, Ind. Private Thomas P. Bnright of Pittsburgh, and Private Merle D. Hale of Glidden, la. In the official report of their funeral services, sent by General Pershing, De cember 28, Corporal Gresham heads the list, therefore history will record that this Indiana corporal was the first soldier to lose his life in action hi the war with Germany. The persons named were killed in a night raid on the trenches and the French paid mil itary honors at their funeral services. Wisconsin's Oldest House. Green Bay, Wis., has the oldest frame house In the state. Renowned as the landing place of the first white man to visit Wisconsin, and prominent in state history for the number, of in fluential men who have lived there. Green Bay is preserving a home of one of Its most distinguished citizens. Tn famous old house was built In 1795 by Jacques Porlier, Frenchman. Later it became the property of Nils Otto Tank, but recently It has been re moved to Union park and is used a a branch library..