Our Army and What it Costs
Most People Figure Expansion Much Less and
Cost Much Greater Than Facts Warrant
Most people understand that the United States army has been tremen-
dously expanded in the year America has been at war. All have seen the
army grow, in one sensethey have watched the men go away, have written
.letters and sent packages to the boys.
Pew realize, however, that the army has increased 700 per cent, in round
numbers, in that one year. Official figures from Washington show that it has.
When America entered the war on April 6, 1917, the total strength of all
branches of the service (Regular army, National Guard and reserves) was
212,0349,524 officers and 202,510 men.
On April 6, 1918, the grand total strength of the American army (all
branches) was 1,652,725123,801 officers and 1,528,924 men.
The detailed figures of the old and the new armies, which are worth pre-
serving, are as follows:
Regular army 5,971 121,797
National Guard 3,733 6,71
Reserve corps (in service) 0 4,000
Civil establishment .JJES'lS'^o
Military establishment ?413,83o.463.4
Rivers and harbors d*,7ai,iw.w
Withdrawals from the treasury have been made under these 'appropria-
tions during the period from June 15,1917, to March 9,1918, as follows:
Civil establishment $ 6,517,918.70
Military establishment 2,891,606,885.85
Rivers and harbors 18.637,102.60
Manager George Stallings
Is in the Game Heart and
Soul on the Ball Diamond
Fred Mitchell, manager of the Chi
cago Cubs, delights to tell stories of
his former boss. Miracle Man Stallings
of the Braves." When Mitch was Stall
ing's assistant in Boston he had many
a run-in with the manager, nnd he ad
mits now that Stallings thinks more of
a man who will answer him back on
Stallings is a firebrand In baseball
never laughs, rarely smiles, doesn't
jest, and roasts the daylight out of a
George T. Stallings.
man who makes a slip. He Is nlso a
nervous person, nnd becomes enrap
tured on the bench while he Is watch
ing a game, and plays the whole con
test over, solo, as he sits on the play
Stallings is mercilpss in culling down
a player and criticizing his work.
"A fellow made a bobble once while
Shillings was watching from the
bench," said Mitchell. 'Look at that
boob,' said Stallings. 'What a bone
head No, he Isn't a bonohead his
head is made of Knipp steel.'"
Another German Atrocity.
Weird and wonderful are the mix
tures that pass as tobarco In Germany
now that the government has decreed
that Anything is tobacco that contains
not less than 5 per rent of that weed.
The rest may be dried leaves of beech,
cherry, chicory, hops, beetroot, sorrel,
potato, rhubarb or coltsfoot. One Ger
man writer says that the result is "a
rank offense, it smells to heaven."
Cigars made from this "tobacco" go by
the appropriate popular name of "In-
England to Grow Sunflowers.
The production of sunflowers ts
being encouraged in England. The
ministry of food and production de
portment has issued Instructions on
how to grow sunflowers and advises
nil persons to grow them, explaining
that the seed Is rich in oil and makes
an excellent chicken food.
9,524 202,510 123,801 1.528.924
The cost of the army during the first year of the war is a thing that is
generally overestimated. People are prone to think of the billions that have
been appropriated instead of the actual amounts that have been expended.
Official figures from Washington show that the total expenditures on the
array for the year America has been in the warincluding everything from new
cantonments Jlo shoe laces and a good many things not properly chargeable to
the warwere $3,006,761,907.15.
That sum does not include, of course, the obligations of the war depart-
mentcontracts made for the billions of dollars' worth of supplies that will
be furnished this year it is the sum actually paid out for materials already de-
livered and pay of the men for the time they have already served. There are
included river and harbor and civil establishment expenditures that would have
been made had there been no war. The detailed official figures of war depart-
ment appropriations and expenditures for the year are as follows:
Since the declaration of war congress has made the following appropria-
tions for the war department: 1'
PLAN AHEAD FOR
One must plan ahead in order to be
successful in any line of endeavor.
Poultry keeping is no exception, writes
an authority. If you do not have the
breeding birds you need for the seas
on of 1918, now is a good time to get
them. There is a country-wide scarc
ity of good birds for breeding purposes,
must expect to pay somewhat
higher prices than in past years. It
will not pay to get inferior birds in or
der to save a little of the purchase
If you are just starting, or if you
want new blood, you can buy either
stock or eggs for hatching. Men are
more likely to buy stock because they
do not usually handle eggs so care*
fully as women and also because usu
ally they have more money to spend.
To btiy stock Is the safer plan, of
course, and on the whole Is better, but
It costs more money. For both stock
and eggs prices are high and will con
tinue so. One cannot expect to buy
eggs for hatching in 1918 in quantities,
at $5 per hundred. Such low prlce
are now absurd for eggs from stock of
any decent quality at all.
Most poultry breeders, except those
who have a large number of birds of
superior quality, are compelled to re
plenish their flock with new blood al
most every year. Our flocks either
go up or go down. Just because prices
are higher than normal we must be
careful to get good quality in what
we buy. This Is a time when poor
stuff will not pay. There never was
a time when It was so true that "the
best Is none too good." It does not
pay to keep Inferior fowls now.
Why They Are Called Tumblers.
About 1,500 years ago the Saxons In
England used drinking vessels that
were made of horns of cattle or oxen.
They were shaped like cones. As their
bottoms were pointed they would not
stand erect. When a man had his drink
ing horn filled he disposed of Its con
tents at a single draught nnd did not
lay It down until he had drained it.
These horns were tumblers in the sense
that they would not stand upright. Al
though our modern glasses do not have
this objectionable quality, the name
that originated in early Saxon times
Twenty Years Ago.
Bicycles were as common as
Automobiles and millionaires
Table board was $3 a week,
or $5 a week with the "best
room in the house."
Hotels had a "bill of fare,"
and the "menu" with prices
marked opposite was almost
Appendicitis had just been
Nobody wore white shoes, and
palm beach suits were in the
Jules Verne had a monopoly
on the submarine.Washington
No Established Wheatless
Days, but Pound and Half
Should Be the Very Limit
The United States food administra
tion lias made wheatless days, and
wheatless meals optional in private
homes. But that does not mean the
lid has been taken off. It only means
that the question of which day or meal
shall be wheatless is left to the indi
In other words, the food administra
tion has made the reduction of wheat
consumption a test of good citizen
ship. Each citizen in the land is
asked, as a good American, to cut his
Individual wheat consumption to a
pound and a half a week. That means
to cut the ordinary, peace-time con
sumption in two. It doesn't matter on
what day or what meals that is done,
just so it is done. In that regard the
food administration says:
"In making optional the observance
of wheatless days in private homes
the food administration lifted no re
strictions upon the consumption of
wheat products. It is merely asking
the American people to reduce their
per capita consumption to not more
than 1% pounds per week,
"This is an absolute military neces
sity. The method of saving is being
left entirely to the individual. If it
can be done without foregoing the use
of wheat at any specified meal or on
any day, the food administration's ur
gent plea for further conservation will
be carried out to the letter."
HAVE A LAUGH
"I hope my husband won't get in
veigled into any games with those card
"Oh, he'll know when they are try
ing to cheat him."
"I'm not afraid of that, but yon
know, he's a sharpshooter."
A Victim of Fate.
I "When I began
I I business," said
HU ^X plutocrat wearily.
"I made a solemn
vow that when I
had made an even
million I would
made that many
times over," said
the other man,
"and still you are
curse of it. When-
ever I think I've
made an even mil
lion I find on figuring it up it's either
a little more or a little less, and I've
got to renew the heart-breaking strug-
gle." And the unfortunate man sighed
Of Course Not.
"Why am I rejected?" asked the
applicant for military service.
"Weak heart," replied the exam
"Weak heart?" retorted the youth.
"If I had a weak heart do you think
I'd want to go into this kind of a
"So yon own a good many suburban
houses and small farms. Live on any
"No." "Then you don't raise anything your-
"Oh, yes every spring I raise rents."
"It's wrong to
say I don't work,
"What work do
"Brain work. I
have to think up
a terrible lot of
excuses for not
"He's a real patriot, anyhow."
"What makes you thing so?"
"He's taken a big government con
tract for the Same profit he'd charge,
a private corporation.".
An Excusing Spirit.
"Didn't I see the grocer's boy kiss
you this morning, Susan?"
"Yes'm. But he ain't to blame,
ma'am. Twas the Iceman set him
the bad example."
"Has your cook anything deleteri
ous in your daily diet, Mrs. Comeup?"
"Sure, she has. We have everything
now that's the style."
How President Kruger Decided
Problem for Two Brothers
That very canny person, President
Kruger, was once called upon, as King
Solomon before him. to pass judgment
in a matter of ownership. The case
was that of two brothers, who had
been left a farm and. could not agree
as to the division which had to be
made. They agreed that, rather than
take the matter to the courts, they
would let President Kruger decide.
President Kruger appears to have hes*
Itated about as little as King Solomon
did. He Instructed the elder brother
to make what he considered a fair di
vision, and then he gave first choice
to the younger brother. A solution,
like Solomon's, both masterly nnd sta
ple.Christian Science Monitor.
THE TOMAHAWK, WHITE EARTH. MINN.
The tremendous clerical burden of the war has multiplied the number of
labor-saving devices employed by the United States government. The check-
signing machine, operated in this picture by J. L. Summers, disbursing clerk
of the treasury, is used extensively in bureaus where the writing of five signa-
tures by one operation is saving time and money.
EatMoreRice Nutritious Food That is a
Good Substitute for Wheat
(Prepared by the United States Depart
ment of Agriculture.)
Here In the United States it Is diffi
cult to realize that there is no other
edible product, except perhaps meat,
upon which more people In the world
are dependent for food than rice, and
that we might advantageously con
sume much greater quantities of this
nutritious food and grow the increase
in our own rice fields. An increased
production and consumption not only
would expand a profitable industry,
but the eating of more rice in the
place of wheat would release a great
er quantity of the bread grain for
shipment to the allies.
The average per capita consumption
of rice for food in this country is
scarcely 6 pounds a year, and most
of this is consumed in the Southern
states. The high esteem in which rice
Is held in other countries is indicated
by their per capita consumption. Nor
way and Sweden consume over 0
pounds per capita Russia over 11
pounds England, 27 pounds France,
34 pounds Italy, over 101 pounds, and
Germany more than 93 pounds. But
even these European countries do not
begin to eat as much rice as Japan
and China. There, rice Is the most
important article of diet. Each man,
woman and child in Japan, on the
average, consumes 147 pounds of rice
each year, and those in China, 153
The placing of such dependence
upon rice as a staple food certainly
proves beyond a doubt that it is high
ly nutritious analysis of rice supports
this proof. Pound for pound rice is
about as nutritious as wheat. Every
100 pounds of cleaned rice contains
87.7 pounds of nutriment, of which 8
pounds are protein, 0.3 pound fat, 79
pounds carbohydrates, and 0.4 pound
ash. The analysis of wheat flour
shows that it contains 87.1 pounds of
nutriment in each 100 pounds, of
which 10.8 pounds are protein, 1.1
pounds fat, 74.8 pounds carbohydrates,
.and 0.4 pound ash. Thus the total
nutriment In rice is a trifle greater
than in wheat. Wheat has the advan
tage In protein and rice in carbo
Although rice is the great foodstuff
of the Orient, it is not used there in
making a raised bread. In this coun
try dieticians have made excellent
bread by substituting as high as 25
per cent of rice for wheat flour, and
have obtained a white yeast bread of
With the Inventors.
A glass bottle blowing ma
chine with a capacity of 2,000
bottles an hour has been invent
ed In Europe.
Electrical apparatus for top
ping trees, which can be left
without attention for months,
has been invented.
Spring pads to be strapped to
the knees have been invented
for the comfort of persons
obliged to kneel at their work.
To prevent rubber fire hose
cracking while dry an inventor
has natented a reel that keeps
It filled with compressed air.
The Concrete Ship.
Faith, the new concrete ship, has the
appearance of a concrete cellar founda
tion. This may be the very thing some
unseen and unknown barnacle has been
waiting to ding to. Our bold experi
ment wlK bring oat some surprising
discoveries, no doubt. If It shows a
new way to use cement there will be a
boom in cement stocks. We have no
end of raw material for cement mak
ing and no conservationist can tell ns
when we shall be shy of the stuff that
makes ships If the Faith, la a winner.
Mushroom Growth of Some
German Cities Formerly of
Very Little Importance
The predominance of war industries
in the German empire has given a
mushroom growth to a large number
of German cities which formerly
boasted of little commercial impor
tance, according to a London corre
Munich, instead of occupying third
position in population and importance,
now ranks seventh. One of the most
remarkable examples of war-boom
towns is Boch'um, situated in the rich
iron ore district of Westphalia. Be
fore the war it had a population of
65,000 now the official census gives
The newest list of important Ger
man cities and their population fol
Berlin, 3,386,624 Hamburg, 1,014,-
654 Bochum, 764,774 Leipzig, 763,-
689 Cologne, 671,220 Luisborg, 619,-
800 Munich, 608,124 Dortmund, 568,-
055 Essen, 562,507 Dresden, 531,-
697 Breslau, 519,947 Dussellorf,
449,643 Becklinghausen, 444,160
Frankfort, 414,578 Konlgshutte, 413,-
786 Hanover, 407,800 Kiel, 370,353
Chemnitz, 358,786 Unremburg, 357,-
141 Stuttgart, 340,354 Slberfeld,
339,400 Bremen, 299,526.
j: Mother's Cook Book.
The kitchen should be a frank and
friendly part of the house.Thoreau.
Almost every one who has an unlimited
quantity of food at his disposal overeats.
Foods in Season.
Asparagus, beet greens, spinach
and all the other tender garden
things which are so wholesome are
now found in our markets.
Molded Beet Greens.
Wash the greens through many wa
ters to be sure they are well-cleansed,
add boiling water to cover and cook
until tender. It will take about three
hours. Drain and press out all the
water possible, remove a few of the
beets that are as large as walnuts and
slip off the skins in cold water. Slice
the beets and press against the side
of an earthen mold. Chop the greens
fine, season with salt and pepper and
butter ftnd fill the prepared mold. Set
a plate with a weight above the vege
tables and let them become chilled.
Serve sliced with mayonnaise dress
Any stalks of asparagus left over
from a previous meal may be used for
a most delectable salad using the fol
Chop fine the white of a hard-cooked
egg, add the- yolk pressed through a
sieve, a tablespoonful each of chopped
chives, parsley, capers and cooked
beet, half a tablespoonful of scraped
onion, half a teaspoonful each of salt
and paprika, half a cupful of oil and
three tablespoonfuls of vinegar. Mix
and beat until thoroughly blended.
Down South Cornbread.
Sift together one cupful of yellow
cornmeal, half a teaspoonful of salt,
two teaspoonfuls of baking powder,
beat one egg and stir into the dry in
gredients, with one quart of sweet
milk. Turn the mixture Into a well
buttered baking dish. Add two table
spoonfuls of butter cut Into bits.
Bake in a hot oven twenty-five min
utes. Stir^ often until the bread be
gins to thicken. Serve with a spoon
and front the baking dish. This may
be served as a dessert with grated
maple sugar or with sugar and cream.
Remove the crust from carefully
toasted bread and spread with butter
mixed with a teaspoonful of lemon
Juice and minced parsley. On each
place three sardines and put the toast
Into the oven to heat. Serve at once.
THE BEST POLICY
Would you win eternal fame
And immortalize your name?
Do you covet praise and peir and self
Then give your utmost best
And do it -With a zest
To the job that's your's, however small
And when you've set your mark on high,
For it's not the thing you do, but how
you do it.
Would you find the pot of gold
With its blessings manifold.
But with it have your conscience free
Then cut your wants In half.
Make thrift your daily staff.
And keep your credit and your honor
And when the tempter offers graft, for
For it's not how much you make, but
how you make It.
Would you build your monument
Ere your busy life be spent
Or would you the applause of men com
Then purge your soul of greed.
Hear every call of need
And scatter blessings with an open
If money easy comes, do not abuse it.
For it's not how much you save, but how*
you use it.
William Davenport in Forbes Magazine.
Consumption of Sugar Goes
Up to 84 Pounds Per Capita
Since Revolutionary Period
The American who during the
world's greatest war must get along
with one lump of sugar instead of two
In his coffee will be interested in the
fact that the Revolutionary patriots
had much less or none at all of the
sweetening food material.
A century ago, says the United States
department of agriculture, the people
of this country consumed less than
one-tenth as much sugar as they do
now. In 1791-1795, just after the Revo
lution, the estimated annual consump
tion was 7.5 pounds per capita. In
1821-1825 the average per capita con
sumption was 8.3 pounds and was prac
tically the same 20 years earlier. But
in the five years ending with 1915 the
total consumption in the United States
was approximately 8,000,000,000
pounds, a yearly average of about 84
pounds for each person, or 378 pounds
for an average family (4.5 persons).
Reasons for the increase can bo
found not only in many new and eft*
tended uses for sugar but also in nu
merous sources of the product. Do
mestic cane and beet fields supplied 23
per cent of the sugar we used in 1811-
1915 the planters of Hawaii, Porto
Rico and the Philippines furnished 26%
per cent while Cuba, supplemented by
small amounts from other foreign
countries, furnished 51 per cent. Dur
ing these five years the sugar consump
tion of the United States averaged al
most 160,000,000 pounds per week. The
supply for 27 weeks came from foreign
countries, our island possessions ftu
nished supplies for 13 weeks' consump
tion, while the product of the United.
States proper was equivalent to 12
weeks' average consumption.
Old Age Cannot Wear Out
Its Shoes as Recklessly
As Does the Gay Youth
Preparing for easy old age Is one of
the spurs that has transformed a
wholesome ambition into a "vaulting
ambition that o'erleaps itself." Many
a man has shortened his life overwork
ing to take care of the old age that ho
thus snuffed out, observes a writer in
the Minneapolis Journal. Any man is
remiss who does not prepare against
old age, bht nature has also, taken a
hand in this preparation.
Old age cannot wear out its shoes ns
recklessly as does youth. The normal
old man finds better entertainment in
meditation than he could in expensive
amusement. Memory is his "movie."
Society does not ask old people to burn
expensive midnight oil nor to appear
on dress parade. Thus normal and
gratifying reduction of outgo is equiva
lent to an addition to the income.
Feverish preparation for old age im
plies the belief not only that the appe
tite will not decrease with old age, but
that old age will be wholly helpless to
sustain itself. As a matter of fact,
but a small proportion of the old are
totally disabled for gainful labor. And
few, if any, old people are as happy
when Idle as when occupied with such,
work as they are fitted to do.
The wise old man has learned what
as a foolish young man he failed to
see, that "enough Is as good as a
,'feast," and that after all "man wants
but little here below." Sensible com
fort in old age does not come very
high. Government Appeals to
Patriotism of Sportsmen.
The United States department of
agriculture appeals to the patriotism
and true sportsmanship of all persons
to co-operate with It in the enforce
ment of the federal law for the pro
tection ef migratory birds, especially
at this tune when the problem of. con
serving the food supply Is taxing the
ingenuity of the world. It Is gratify
ing to know that the majority, of
sportsmen have observed the federal
regulations and this fact has con
tributed largely to the successful re
sults accomplished. A sense of pa
triotic duty should Impel every one te
conserve this natural food asset, thus
perpetuating the species and Increasing
the supply for the benefit of all the
The department has planned to In
crease greatly Its force* ef waidena,
who will be actively engaged daring
the spring migration securing evi
dence upon which to base piusecutlona
against those who amy violate the lav.
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