I Right Use of the Flag
It Should Never Be Permitted to Touch the Ground, Nor
Draped as a Decoration
In these days when every household should have a flag, and should fly it
upon every occasion offered, its correct use should be known to all. The
following, from the National Geographic Magazine, tells the proper usage
"While there is no federal law in force pertaining to the manner of dis-
playing, hanging, or saluting the United States flag, or prescribing any cere-
monies that should be observed, there are mauy regulations and usages of
national force bearing on the subject.
"In raising the flag it should never be rolled up and hoisted to the top of
the staff before unfurling. Instead, the fly should be free during the act of
hoisting, which should be done quickly. It should be taken in slowly and
with dignity. It should not be allowed to touch the ground on shore, nor.
should it be permitted to trail in the dust. It should not be hung where it
can be contaminated or soiled easily, or draped over chairs or benches for
seating purposes, and no object or emblem of any kind should be placed upon
it or above it.
"A common but regrettable practice at public meetings is to drape the
flag like a tablecloth over the speaker's table and then place on the flag a
pitcher of ice water, flowers, books, etc.
"The flag should not be festooned over doorways or arches. Always
let the flag hang straight. Do not tie it in a bow knot. Where colors are
desired for decorative purposes, use red, white and blue bunting.
"The flag should not be hoisted upside down, other than as a signal of
distress at sea.
"International usage forbids the display of the flag of one nation above
that of any other with which it is at peace. When the flags of two or more
nations are displayed, they should be on separate staffs, or on separate hal-
yards of equal size and on the same level.
"The flag should never be raised or lowered by any mechanical appliance.
"When the national colors are passing on parade, or in review, the spec-
tator should, if walking, halt, and if sitting arise and stand at attention and
"When flags are used in unveiling a statue or monument they should
not be allowed to fall to the ground, but should be carried aloft to wave out,
forming a distinctive feature during the remainder of the ceremony.
"Where the national flag is displayed with state or other flags, it should
be given the place of honor on the right. Its use should be confined as much
as possible to its display upon the staff. Where used as a banner, the union
should fly to the north in streets running east and west, and to the east in
streets running north and south.
"Old, faded, or wornout flags should not be used for banners or other
"When no longer fit for display, the flag should be destroyed privately,
preferably by burning or other methods lacking the suggestion of Irreverence
"A flag or an ensign at half-mast is the universal sign of mourning.
Before being placed at half-mast the flag must always be raised to the stop of
the staff, and before it is lowered from half-mast it must likewise be hoisted
to the top."
Good Irish Name Helped
Mike Hogan Get a Tryout
With John McGraw's Team
The bird who said there Is nothing
in a name had his siguals gummed
There is quite a bit in some names,
and the case of Mike Hogan of Co
hoes, N. Y., proves it beyond a doubt.
Just before the Giants started for
Martin and spring training, Mike Ho
gan bounced into the Giants' offices
and announced that he was ready to go
John McGraw gave him the up and
down, scratched his noggan in deep
Pitcher M. B. Hogan.
thought, and utterly failed to remem
ber of ever having heard of him.
"Why, the paper up in Cohoes said
you wanted to give me a trial and
so here I am," explained Hogan. "I've
been pitching semipro ball up home,
and I guess you've heard about me.
I'm a machinist by trade."
McGraw had never dreamed of Ho
gan, but he liked the youngster's
looks, and, most of all. he took a
fancy to the name of Hogan. Mc
Graw would like to surround himself
with Doyles, McCarthys and Hogons,
so he decided to give Mike a chance,
and Mike went 0 Marlin.
So there is something in a name
after all, for Hogan, who had never
played professional ball,fcsgetting his
first tryout In the strongest minor
league in the country, and all because
his name is Hogan.
The Butter Tree.
A-tree, known as the shea, or butter
-tree, is beginning to attract commer
cial attention. It supplies not only
nuts, bht also butter that may become
-an article of commercial importance,
says the San Francisco Argonaut. It
is already exported to Europe, where
ma&ers of artificial butter find use for
it. Almost two-thirds of the nut is
vegetable butter. The tree begins to
bear when it is fifteen years old, and
reaches its privne in twenty-five years.
Chocolate manufacturers could easily
utilise the product. It might also be
la making candies aad soap.
Wait till the laurel bursts Ita buds,
And creeping Ivy flings its graces
About the lichen's rocks, and floods
Of sunshine All the shady places.
Take one cupful of mashed potato,
packing the cup firmly, add a cup
ful of warm milk, a half a yeast cake,
two eggs, a tablespoonful of lard, a
tablespoonful of sugar, a teaspoonful of
salt, and flour to make a stiff dough.
Let rise, shape into biscuits. Let rise
again, and buke 15 minutes. Set the
muffins at eleven and bake at six.
Mix two cupfuls of mashed potato
one' cupful of soft bread crumbs, one
third of a cupful of melted shortening,
half a teaspoonful each of salt and
poultry dressing, a few dashes of cay
enne pepper, mix thoroughly and use
as stuffing for fish or poultry.
Swiss Potato Soup.
Take four large potatoes, one large
white turnip, three quarts of boiling wa
ter, a quart of scalded milk, one-half
an onion, four tablespoonfuls of fat,
one-third of a cupful of harley flour,
and a half teaspoonful of salt, and
one-eighth of a teaspoonful of pep
per. Wash the potatoes and turnip,
cut In small pieces and cook ten min
utes, drain and add the onion cut In
slices, add three cupfuls of water, cook
until the vegetables are soft, press
them through a sieve, return to the wa
ter add milk, reheat nnd thicken
with theflournnd fat cooked together
Pour boiling water over a fourth of
a pound of salt pork, scrape and rinse
in cold wnter. To the pork add three
potatoes, pared and cut In quarters,
one onion, peeled and sliced, four
branches" of parsley, half a cupful of
chopped celery, all cooked until ten
der In just enough water to cover. Re
move the pork, press the vegetables
through the sieve, adding the water.
Add a quart of hot milk, a teaspoonful
and a half of salt, a half teaspoonful of
pepper, and when boiling stir in an
egg beaten with a little cold milk.
Serve at once without further cooking
or the egg will curdle the mixture.
Potatoes, to be palatable boiled,
ihould be drained as soon as they are
tender, then shaken over the heat to
remove all steam and make them
Jealousy at best Is but a
chronic case of self-love.
A shady character doesn't al*
ways keep a man cool.
During the courtship love
shows up In the dark.
Men of genius often make a
fortune for a man of talent.
Singers who pursue the even
tenor-of their way never get off
Sometimes the man who is
afraid to take a chance is beat
en at his own game.
Fifteen Cities in 1920
May Reach a Population
In Excess of 500,000
There will certainly be t^en Amer
ican cities, when the 1920 census count
is made, that will have a population
in excess of 500,000, and there may
be as many us fifteen tltat will puss
the half-million population score,
state's a writer in the-- Baltimore
American. Baltimore is going to be
in the big ten, but where along in
the big ten? New York, Chicago and
Philadelphia will be the three largest
cities in the order uamerl. But what
eity will occupy fourth place? And
just what place in the first ten col
umn will Baltimore occupy? The
question may seem trivial, but it is
a question in which the people of at
least five cities, Baltimore being in
cluded in the five, are even now tak
ing a lively interest.
The five cities that will be in com
petition for fourth place are Balti
more, Boston, St. Louis, Detroit and
Cleveland. The city that is most
likely to Deat Baltimore in the race
for fourth place Is Detroit, which now
has an estimated population of 825,-
000., Estimated populations some
times shrink tremendously when the
government count is made, and it may
be so with the spurty metropolis of
Michigan. St. Louis is claiming a
1918 population of 850,000, but this
also is subject to possible shrinkage,
as it is 163,000 greater than the 1910
score. Boston has not extended her
boundary lines and is not making any
claim to extraordinary population
growth. The New England city does
claim an increase of 100,000 over the
1910 count, however, or a present
population of 767,000.
It seems to be a warranted conclu
sion that Baltimore must score above
800,000 to get fourth place in the col
umn. If the Baltimore score should
be around, say, 750,000, the Greater
Baltimore may not be located above
seventh place and may be in eighth
position, or only two places from bot
tom. But the Baltimore count may
be in a way of surprise. We don't
know Just how many people there are
In the annex.
A FEW SMILES
A Wise Silence.
"What excuse did you give the wife
"I gave none."
"Didn't even tell her it was business
"Heavens, man, if I'd uttered the
word 'bishness' I'd have givan myself
"You have always considered your
self a servant of the people."
"Yes," said Senator Sorghum. "But
understand this. I'm not one of those
servants who get independent and
want to run the whole works."
If She's Mercenary.
"What is the best way to lead up to
"You might make some casual ref
erence to the size of your Income tax."
"In a majority of cases that will put
the young woman in a receptive frame
Interviewing a Lion Tamer.
"What are your
methods in lion
taming. I would
pay you well for a
"I don't mind
giving you lessons,
there's nothing in
the business, I
"I don't wish to
embark In the
business. Thought try 'em on my
A Bright Idea.
FriendHow perfectly devoted you
are to your husband.
WifeYes. I'm trying to spoil him
so that if I die and he marries again
no other woman could live with him.
Speak of 100,000 Array as
Sort of'Corporal's Guard
The war has blunted the old mean
ing of figures and we speak glibly.of
an army of 100,000 men or more, Gen
eral Pershing's offer to General Foch,
as though it were only a sort of cor
poral's guard. Late reports hint at a
larger figure than that equaling Kitch
ener's first army. Never before in our
history have 100,000 men fought under
the Stars and Stripes in any one bat
tle. The Army of the Potomac, with
which Grant and Meade fought the
campaign of 1864, had an aggregate
strength of less than 120,000, and only
a part of them were used in any single
engagement. Earlier there had been
rather more than 70,000 federal troops
at Gettysburg, about 65.000 at Chatta
noojja. Sherman started from Atlanta
with some 66,000. Napoleon had 72,-
000 men at Waterloo and the Brltlaft
THE TOMAHAWK, WHITE EARTH, MINN.
O or You
have stolen my
nice thing to say
after you've been
begging me for six
months to accept
Farmerettes Answer Uncle Sam Call
Girl Volunteers Raise Pigs, Care for Cattle, and Till
Soil Better Than Many Men
In the opinion of Uncle Sam the raising of pigs is an important war task
so important, in fact, that he has called upon 200,000 girls and boys to raiso
porkers for the market. The appeal has been heeded by the farmerettes who
are joyfully tackling the job of providing more than their share of the pork
products which we must ship to our fighters'and the allies in Europe.
This farmerette is having a jolly good time taking care of a litter of eight
cute little black pigs. Caring for the pigs is only one part of the work of these
girls down at their Huntington, Long Island, farm. They are showing that
girls can be capable farm hands at all sorts of chores.
By the U: S. Department
Scraps of leftover meat or fish can
be combined with cereal or other mild
flavored food, both to give flavor and
to add nourishment to the total dish.
Stale bread can be utilized in a va
riety of ways in combination with
vegetables and meats, In preparing
cakes, breads and puddings, and in
Much food is thrown away because
%so many people do not know how to
'utilize leftovers or will not take the
trouble to keep and prepare them.
Leftover cereals can be reheated or
combined with fruits, meats, or vege
tables into appetizing side dishes.
Even a spoonful of cereal is worth
saving to thicken soup, gravy, or
Many persons regard the saving of
small amounts of leftover food as un
important. If they kept accurate ac
count, however, for any period, many
families would be astounded by the
amount of good food they, are throw
ing out and by the sums that they
are paying to the grocer, the butcher,
and milkman merely to replace good
food being absolutely wasted.
Every bit. of fat trimmed from meat
before cooking or tried out in boiling,
roasting, or broiling can be made use
of in cooking. In buying meat it is
often the case that after the meat has
been weighed and the price for the
cut named valuable fat is trimmed
off. This fat. which the housewife
pays for. If taken home and used,
would reduce expenditures for cooking
Skim milk, too widely looked down
upon as a food although it contains
practically nil the nourishing ele
ments of whole milk with the excep
tion of the cream or fat, can be used
as a beverage, in cooking cereals, or
as a basis for milk soups or sauces.
Sour milk, also, so often thrown away,
can be used in making hot breads*
or in the home manufacture of cot
The efforts which American house
keepers are making to avoid kitchen
and table waste are of great impor
tance. No one can tell just how much
has been saved, but that the amount
is large is indicated by the work of
garbage and fertilizer plants showing
that there has been a great falling
off in the amount of fat and nitrog
enous material received from garbage.
Let the good work go on. Every
pound of food saved is a pound added
to our food supply.
Probably the largest and best ap
pointed animal cemetery in the world
is that which still remains attached to
the ruined summer palace in Pekin.
Here repose in cofiins of polished orris
wood elaborately carved, more than a
thousand dogs that were the pets of
former emperors and empresses of
Invar, New Metal, Believed
By Various Investigators
To Have Least. Expansion
The fact that all metals expand and
contract more or less with every va
riation of temperature introduces great
complications into the making of in
struments concerned with absolute
standards of time or space, and much
research has been devoted to the find
ing of a metal having the lowest pos
sible coefficient of thermal expansion.
In due course the investigators arrived
at a nickel steel alloy containing about
36 per cent nickel and about 5 per
cent each of carbon and manganese,
which was found to have a remark
ably small thermal expansion at or
dinary temperatures, and to which
the name "Invar" has been given.
A summary of the results obtained
during the last 25 years by various In
vestigators of this property of invar
and related nickel steels show, ac
cording to the Scientific American, that
a bar of ordinary invar expands or con
tracts by about one-millionth of its
length for one degree centigrade alter
ation in the temperature anywhere
within the range of zero to 40 de
grees. A much higher degree of con
stancy than* this Is, however, some
times obtained much depends on the
amounts of carbons and manganese
Small Quantities of invar have been
manufactured which showed a change
in length of less than half a millionth
per degree between zero and 20 de
grees. This alloy contained .06 per
cent, carbon and 9.39 per cent man
ganese. Samples have even been pre
pared which showed a negative co
efficient of expansion, 1. e., which con
tracted slightly instead of expanding,
as the temperature rose.
Invar possesses this peculiar prop
erty only within a moderate tempera
ture range from 40 degrees upward
the coefficient of expansion steadily
increases as the temperature rises, un
til at 200 degrees it Is the same as
that of Bessemer steel.
Wise and Otherwise.
There's some excuse for a
man being almost anything, but
what excuse can any man offer
for being pro-German?
It's vain4o try to tell a wom
an how much you think of her
if you forget to phone her that
you're going to be late for din
Misery may love company, but
what it needs most Is help.
If you were in the other fel
low's place you might be making
a worse mess of things than
Cards for the Blind.
Cards that have recently been de
vised for the blipd have raised let
ters in the top and bottom corners
that reveal their identity. By plac
ing his thumb over the letters the
blind man can tell what cards he holds
nearly as quickly as the ordinary per
son. Dots form the letters. "Two D."
means that the card is the Two of
Diamonds "J. H." means the Jack of
Hearts, and so on. At first the blind
experience a little difficulty in reading
the cards readily, but they soon be
I come proficient. Popular Science
THE SOLDIER'S MOTHER
He was so beautifulmy baby son!
His sun-kissed curls clung close around
His deep blue eyes looked trustingly in
I did my best to keep his beauty (air
And fresh and clean and dainty, for I
I never could be satisfied with less.
He was so strong and well, my little son!
I gave my days and nights to keep him
Called in fresh air and sunlight to my
Good food and play, all healthful things
I wanted physical perfection, for
I never could be satisfied with less.
He wa% so bright and clever, my big son!
I sent him to the very best of schools.
Denying self that he might know no lack
Of opportunity to do his best.
Or feel no door of progress closed to him.
I never could be satisfied with less.
And yetbut nowmy well-beloved son.
For your perfection can I pay the price?
Or would I have you play the cowaid'a
With selfish, shriveled soul too small to
Within so fair a frame? Is that my
I sought the best! Shall I be satisfied
Nay, I would have you honorable, my
Just, loyal, brave, and truthful, scorning
And lies and meannessready to defend
Tour home, your mother, and your coun
He's gone! Dear God! With bleeding
heart I know
I still could no be satisfied with less!
Sarah Benton Dunn, in New York
Poultry and eggs have never been
cheap food for the city dweller, and
there Is no hope that they can be, dur
ing the continuance of the war and
its necessarily attendant high prices,
even as relatively cheap as they have
ordinarily been. The only possibility
of cheap eggs for the city family, ac
cording to the United States depart
ment of agriculture, lies in keeping
enough hens in the back yard, where
they can be supported principally on
kitchen waste, to supply the family ta
ble. The keeping of hens in back
yards is* at once an economic oppor
tunity, for city families and an essen
tial part of the campaign for increas
ing poultry production.
Wfiat may be done with fowls In a
back yard depends upon the size of
the yard, the character of the soil, the
conditions of sunlight, shade and ven
tilation, and the interest and skill of
the poultry keeper. The smallest and
least favorably situated back yard af
fords an opportunity to keep at .least
enough hens to supply eggs for the
household. The number of hens need
ed for that purpose Is twice the num
ber of persons to be supplied. Hence
the smallest flock to be considered con
sists of four hens. Where hens ore
kept only to furnish eggs for the table
no male bird Is needed.
A coop for a flock of four hens
should have an area of about 20 square
feet, or about five feet per hen. For
larger flocks the space allowance per
bird may be a little less, because the
space is used in common and each bird
has the use of all the coop except
what her companions actually occupy.
For the ordinary flock of 10 to 15 hens
the space allowance should be about
four square feet per hen.
With proper care the back-yard poul
try keeper can keep hens, for laying
only, .confining them continuously to
their coops, and have them lay well
nearly as long as they would be prof
itable layers under natural conditions.
While hens like freedom, good feed
and care reconcile them to confine
ment, and mature, rugged birds often
lay more eggs in close confinement
than when at liberty.
If the space admits of giving th*
little back-yard flock more room than
a coop of the minimum size required,
the condition of the land will deter
mine the form in which the additional
space should be given. If the soil is
well drained and free from such filth
tts often contaminates the soil of small
back yards, a yard for the fowls maj
be fenced In, allowing 20 to 30 square
feet of yard room per bird. The op
portunity for exercise on the land nnd
in the open air which this gives the
hens will benefit them and make life
for them more Interesting.
If the soil Is poorly drained and fouL
the hens will thrive and lay better If
not allowed on it at all. In that case,
the best way to give them some benefit
of the extra space available is to build
adjoining the coop a shed covering
about th* same amount of ground and
having tte front inclosed only with
wire netting. The foul earth under
this shd should be removed and the
floor filled in a few inches higher than
the old surface with fresh earth or
Where Conservation Fails.
The great manufacturing plants of
today waste nothing. In the lumber
mills even the sawdust Is burned and
the scraps become fibre for furniture
and rugs and process silk for neck
wear and hosiery. The scraps from
our clothing enter into shoddy or par
per. It is a standard joke that the
packing plants lose only the squeal.
The by-products of munition making
are fabrics and fertilizers. Leather
scraps make fiber board, Only th#
loose ends of our lives are lost. Indus
try is a science, but living ts more or
less of a hit or miss propositto*.
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